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gradations ; burghers, with various privileges; and peasants, who are generally free, but in some states are still in bondage. In some states also the clergy form a distinct class, and as such are represented in the state diets.

Religion.] In respect to religion the inhabitants are divided into 1. Catholics, more than 15,000,000. 2. Lutherans, more than 12,000,000. 3. Calvinists, 2,200,000. 4. Jews, 182,000. 5. Hernbutters, 25,000. 6. Greeks 14,000. Liberty of conscience has been for some time enjoyed in most of the states, but the Jews are in general under considerable restrictions. The Catholics are found principally in the south of Germany and the Protestants in the north.

Education. There are at present 21 universities in Germany, of which 13 are Protestant, 6 Catholic and 2 partly Catholic and partly Protestant. The most celebrated are those of Gottingen in Hanover, Leipsic in Saxony, Halle in Prussia, and Jena in Saxe Weimar. The total pomber of students at all the universities is between 8,000 and 9,000. Gottinger is the most numerously attended, having above a tenth of the whole. Saxony is more distinguished for literature than any other part of Germany. The Catholic countries in the south, on the other hand, are remarkably deficient.

Literature.] Germany is the only country in the world where studying with a view to publish is the settled business of a life, and where authorship is considered a source of regular income. The number of new books annually published is far beyond that of any other country in Europe. The character of German literature bas of late been much discussed. It seems to be generally admitted, however, that in every thing which requires indefatigable re. search, and scrupulous accuracy, the Germans excel all other nations. No nation has produced such a number of good statistical works. They can also boast of a greater number of useful discoveries and inventions in the arts and sciences than any other people. We are indebted to them for the art of printing, and the invention of gunpowder and time-pieces.

Government. Germany was formerly an empire, and contained above 300 secular and ecclesiastical princes, each independent in the administration of his own territory, but subject to the emperor as head of the empire. During the late convulsion in Europe, the empire was dissolved, and most of the lesser princes were deprived of their power, so that the number of independent states is now only 39 including the free cities. In 1815 a new confederation was formed, called the confederation of the sovereigns. and free towns of Germany. It includes the emperor of Austria, and the king of Prussia for their German dominions, the king of Deomark for Holstein and Lauenburg, and the king of the Netherlands for the grand dutchy of Luxemburg.

The object of the confederacy is the maintenance of the external and internal security of Germany, and the independence and inviolability of the separate stales. The regulation of its concerns is committed to a diet, which holds its sessions at Franklost on the Maine. In the decision of all ordinary questions the number of votes is 17, the eleven larger states being each entitled to one vote, while the smaller states are divided into six classes, and each class has onė yote. But when fundamental laws are to be enacted, and in some other questions of prime importance, the diet resolyes itself into the general assembly, in wbich Austria has 4 votes, Prusia 4, Saxony 4, Bayarią 4, Hanover 4, Wirtemberg 4, Baden 3, Hesse-Cassel 3, Hesse-Darmstadt 3, Holstein and Lauenburg 3, Luxemburg 3, Brunswick 2, MecklenburgSchwerin 2, Nassan 2, and each of the other states and free cities 1, making 70 in all. In ordinary cases, a simple majority of votes decides the question, but in the general assembly, twothirds of the votes are necessary. Austria always presides. In the regulation of its local concerns each state is independent.

Army and Revenue.] The army of the confederation in time of peace is 120,000 men, of whom 96,000 arę infantry, 18,000 cav. alry, and 6000 artillery. In war the number is greatly increased, the contingent of each state being the one for every 100 of its population, making a total of 300,000 men, with a reserve of 1 in 200, making the whole reserve force 150,000 men. The revenue of the confederation is derived from the individual states, each paying a fixed sum in proportion to its population.

Manufactures.] The most important manufacture is linen, which is made in large quantities in Silesia, Saxony and the western division of Prussia, and has long been famous for its durability. Next to linen are woollep and cotton goods. Porcelain, iron, steel, gold and silver wares and glass are also manufactured in considerable quantities.

Commerce.) Germany is in many respects well situated for trade, lying in the centre of Europe, bordering upon three seas, and intersected by oumerous navigable rivers. On the other hand the-want of foreign colonies, the small number of good ports, and especially the division of the country among so many indepeodeni princes, each of whom heretofore exacted a toll on the merchandize which passed through his territory, have prevented the attainment of a very high rank among commercial states. The principal exports are linen, grain, wood, cattle, salt, mineral productions, woollen and cotton goods and other manufactured articles. The principal imports are East and West India produce, silk, cotton, tobacco, &c.

The particular states remain to be described. An account has already been given of Holstein, Lauenburg and Luxemburg under Denmark and the the Netherlands. Prussia and Austria, as they embrace extensive territories not included in Germany, will be reserved for a separate description of the remaining states Bavaria is the first in extent and population.

1. BAVARIA.

Situation and Extent.) Bavaria is bounded N. by HesseDarmstadt, Hesse-Cassel, Saxe-Meinungen, Saxe-Coburg, Reuss, and the kingdom of Saxony; E. and S. by the Austrian dominions ; W. by Wirtemberg, Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt. It lies between 47° 10' and 50° 40' N. lat. and between 9° and 13° 50' E. lon. Besides the country included within these boundaries there is a detached territory on the west side of the Rhine, lying between France, Prussia, Hesse-Darmstadt and Baden. The area is estimated at 31,966 square miles, of which about 1,800 belong to the territory on the Rhine.

Divisions.] Bavaria is divided into 8 circles, which derive their names, like the departments of France, from the rivers on wbich they are situated.

Circles.

Population acc. to Hassel. The Iser,

520,000 The Lower Danube, 355,000 The Regen,

387,000 The Upper Danube, 438,000 The Rezat,

446,000 The Upper Maine, 498,000 The Lower Maine, 440.000 The Rhine,

257,000

Chief Towns. Munich, Passau. Regensburg Augsburg. Anspach. Bayreuth. Wurtzburg Speyer.

Face of the Country, &c.) The surface along the southern, eastern, northern and northwestern frontier is mountainvus; in the interior it is undulating and in some parts level. The principal rivers are, 1. The Danube, which flows ibrough the heart of iħe kingdom froin west to east, and receives in its progress the Lech, the Par, the Iser, the Vils and the Inn from the south, and the Altmıhl and Regen from the north ; 2. The Maine, which rises in the N E. part of the kingdom, and flowing west receives the Regnitz from the south. The soil of Bavaria is various, some parts being very fertile and others quite barren. The principal productions are corn, of which large quantities are exported to all parts of Germany, and the vine, which is cultivated' to a great extent in the circle of the Rhine, and along the banks of the Maine. Salt is found in abundance near Salzburg in the S. E. and iron and quicksilver in the circle of the Rhine.

Chief Towns.) Munich, the capital of Bavaria, is in the southern part of the kingdom, on the west bank of the Iser. It is the place of meeting of the Bavarian parliament, the seat of the higher courts of justice, of the government offices, and of several literary and scientific institutions, and it is to these establishments that the inhabitants chiefly owe their support, ihe irade and manufactures of the town being very limited. The Iser is

pot navigable and the roads both to the east and west are very indifferent. The population is 47,000.

Augsburg, celebrated for the confession of faith presented here by Luther and Melancthon to the emperor Charles V. in 1530, is on the Lech, 40 miles N. W. of Munich. It has considerable commerce and manufactures, and 30,000 inhabitants.

Nurnberg or Nuremberg, on a branch of the Regnitz, is celebrated for its manufactures, which consist of musical and mathematical instruments, copper plates, pins, needles, spectacles, and toys of all kinds. Printing, and bookselling are also carried on to a considerable extent. Population 27,000.

Passuu is a strongly fortified town at the confluence of the lon and the Danube, which divide it into three parts, one on the peninsula, one on the N. side of the Danube and one on the E. side of the lon. The three are connected by long wooden bridges and contain 10,000 inhabitants.

Ratisbon or Regensburg, on the S. bank of the Danube opposite the mouth of ihe Regen, was the place of meeting for the diet of the German empire from 1662 to 1805. It formerly had the exclusive navigation of the Danube, downwards to Vienna, and upwards to Ulm, and still possesses a considerable share of that traffic. Population 22,000.

Landau is a strong town in the circle of the Rhine, on the Queich, garrisoned by the troops of the German confederation. Pop. 4,000. Gerinersheim, also in the circle of the Rhine, at the conflux of the Queich with the Rhine, is at present a strong town, and its fortifications are about to be greatly increased, the diet of Frankfort baving fixed on it as one of the bulwarks of Germany, and appropriated no less than £600,000 sterling for additonal works. Population 1,500.

Wurzburg is a well fortified town on both sides of the Maine in the midst of extensive vineyards. Population 16,000. Bamberg, situated on the Regnitz, which enters the Maine a little below the town, contains 20,000 inhabitants. Anspach, on the Rezat, 30 miles S. W. of Nuremberg, has 14,000 inhabitants. Ingolstadt is a strong town on the Danube 43 miles N. of Munich, with 5,000 inhabitants.

Population, Religion, &c.] The population, according to the official returns in 1818, was 3,560,000; of this number about fourfifths are Roman Catholics, and the remainder Protestants, with the exception of 12,000 Jews. The Bavarians were formerly reckoned among the most intolerant Catholics in Europe, but since the commencement of the present century more liberal sentiments have prevailed, and the Protestants are now not only unrestrained in their worship but are eligible to civil and military offices. Education has also of late been widely diffused through the kingdom, and though formerly scarcely one man in ten could either read or write, at present the majority of the youth are instructed in all the common branches. There are universities at Wurzburg and Aschaffenburg on the Main, at Landshut on the Iser, and at Erlangen on the Rednitz.

Government and Army.) The government is a monarchy lim. ited by a diet, which consists of two chambers ; 1. The chamber of counsellors, to which belong the princes of the royal family, the mediatised princes and counts, the two archbishops, the president of the Protestant General consistory, the officers of the crown and any persons appointed by the king. 2. The chamber of deputies, which includes deputies from each of the universities, from the clergy both Protestant and Catholic, from the cities and market towns, and from the landholders. The army consists of between 40,000 and 50,000 men.

Manufactures and Commerce.) There are very few large manufacturing establishments in Bavaria. The principal exports consist of natural productions, particularly corn, wine, wood and salt.

2. WIRTEMBERG.

Situation and Extent.) Wirtemberg is bounded on the east by Bavaria, and on the southwest, west and north by Baden. For a little distance on the south it is washed by the Boden See or lake of Constance. It lies between 47° 36' and 49° 45' N. lat. and between 8° 23' and 10° 26' E. lon. The area is estimated at 8,118 square miles.

Divisions.] The kingdom has been recently divided into four eircles. Circles.

Population.

Chief towns. 1. The Neckar,

355,000

Ludwigsburg 2. The Schwarzwald, 361,000

Reutlingen. 3. The Jaxt,

319,000

Elwangen. 4. The Danube,

361,000

Ulm. The cities of Stuttgard and Cannstadt are not included in either of the circles.

Face of the Country. The surface of the country is more mountainous than level. Two considerable chains of mountains, the Schwarzwald and a branch of the Alps, run through the kingdom, in many ridges, and give birth to a great number of small rivers and brooks. The principal rivers are, 1. The Danube, which runs from S. W. to N. E. completely across the kingdom, and receives the Iller near the eastern boundary 2. The Neckar, which rises in the Schwarzwald and running north receives the Kocher and the Jaxt, besides many smaller streams. The soil is fertile, except in the most elevated parts of the mountains, The principal productions are, corn in sufficient quantities for the supply of the kingdom; wine, particularly in the valley of the Neckar; wood, in abundance; fruit of various kinds; horned catile and sheep

Chief Towns.) Stuttgard, the capital of the kingdom, is situated in a delightful country on the Nasenbach, about two miles from its entrance into the Neckar. It contains 23,000 inbabitants. Ulm, situated at the confluence of the Iller with the Danube, contains 15,000 inhabitants. The diet of Frankfort have determined to

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