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of a splendid white; in others of a beautiful azure, and everywhere transparent and dazzling.
Chief Towns.) Geneva, the largest town in Switzerland, is sityated at the western extremity of the lake of Geneva, on the con, fines of France and Saroy, and is divided by the Rhone into three parts connected together by beautiful bridges. Nothing can be more agreeable than the environs of Geneva. There are beautiful and interesting walks around the city in every direction, and the lake, the bills, the distant Alps covered with eternal snow, and above all, Mont Blanc, rearing its lofty head to the clouds, give a wonderful beauty and sublimity to the prospect. The number of inhabitants is 22,800. This population would naturally place it among European towns of the third or fourth rank, but it has acquired a celebrity equal to that of the first capitals. It owes this degree of reputation principally to its industry, and the civil and religious habits and institutions of its people. The great occupation of the inhabitants is watch-making, which em ploy nearly 7,000 individuals; and a great part of the continent is supplied with watches from this place. Education has always been conducted here with the greatest care ; and for this purpose there is a university with 22 professors and usually about 1,000 students.
Bâle or Basil is in the N. W. corner of Switzerland, on the Rhine, which divides it into two unequal parts, connected together by a bridge 600 feet long. It has 15,000 inhabitants, and a flourishing commerce maintained chiefly by the manufacture of silk ribbons. Berne is situated in a beautiful and fertile country on the Aar, which forms part of the town into a peninsula. It has 13,000 inhabitants. Zurich is a walled town on the Limmat, which here issues from the lake of Zurich and divides the city into two parts. It has 11,000 inhabitants, and a flourishing commerce maintained by the manufacture of silk and cotton goods. Lausanne, the capital of the Pays de Vaud, is delightfully situated on three eminences a mile from the north shore of the lake of Geneva. It has long heen the resort of strangers, who are attracted hither by the
picturesque scenery presented by the lake and the surrounding mountains, by the institutions for education, and by the polished character of the society. It contains 8,000 inhabitants. Schaffhausen is 50 miles E. of Bâle, on the N. bank of the Rhine, over which there is a wooden bridge of very ingenious construction. The transit trade of this place has been for many ages considerable, owing to its situation about a league above the celebrated cataract of the Rhine, which requires that all the articles brought down the river should be landed here and conveyed round the falls. The population is 6,000. Lucerne is situated in a romantic country, on the Reuss, where it issues from the lake of Lucerne. It is on both sides of the river, and its two parts are connected by four bridges. The population is nearly 7,000. Neufchatel is pleasantly situated on the west bank of the lake of Neuichatel and contains 5,000 inhabitants. St. Gall, the capital of the canton of the same name, is the centre of the com:
merce and manufactures of all the surrounding cantons. Cotton and linen stuffs are made here of an extreme fineness, and the inhabitants have carried spinning and other machines to almost as great perfection as the English. The population is 9,000.
Mountain Passes. There are several roads or passes across the Alps from Switzerland to Italy, the principal of which are, 1. The road over the Great St. Bernard between its two main summits. On the most elevated point of this passage (which is 8,038 feet above the sea,) is a Bernardine monastery and hospital, founded in the 10th ceniory. The monks entertain all strangers gratis for three days, and in foggy or tempestuous weather, they send their servants to all parts of the mountain, in order 10 be at hand to give succor to travellers who may have lost their way. The French army under Bonaparte crossed this mountain, with its artillery and baggage, in the year 1800. 2. The road over Mount Simpion. which was finished in 1805 at the joint expence of France and the kingdom of Italy, in the reign of Bonaparte. It was a work of great labor and occnpied several vears. It is 36 miles long, 25 feet broad, and passes over 264 bp dges, and through no less than six galleries, or passages cut through the superimpending rocks. The highest point of the road is nearly 6,000 feet above the level of the sea. 3. The road over Mount St. Gothard, which is froin 10 to 12 feet broad, and well paved with granite. In one place it passes over the Devil's bridge which consists of a single arch over the Reuss, resting on each side on peaks of rock at so great an elevation above the torrent as to appear a work almost superhuman. In another part there is a gallery or subterraneous passage cut througb the rock, 200 feet long, 12 feet high and 12 feet broad.
Population, Language, Religion, &c.] The population is 1,750,000. A majority of the inhabitants speak the German language, the French prevails in the southwestern provinces, the Italian in the canton of Tesino, while in the country of the Grisons more than half the population speak the Romansh or ancient Rhaetian language. The religion is partly Catholic and partly Protestant. The Protestants on the whole are the most numerous and consist principally of Calvinists, although there are many
Lutherans. Common schools are universally established, and there are voiversities at Geneva and Bâle, and colleges at Berne and Zurich.
Government.) Switzerland is a federal republic, the 22 cantong being united under one government for the protection of their libertv, independence and security against the attacks of foreign powers, and for the preservation of internal tranquillity. The affairs of the consederacy are entrusted to a diet composed of ambassadors from the respective cantons. The diet is empower. ed to declare war, to make treaties with foreign powers, to adopt the necessary measures for the internal security of the confed eracy, and to regulate the organization of the military contingent. When the diet is not in session the direction of affairs is entrusted to a substitute. The substitutes are the cantons of Zurich, Berne and
Lucern, each alternately, for two years at a time. The diet assembles in the capital of the canton, which for the time being, is the substitute. In the decision of all questions each canton has one vote. There is no standing army, but when an army is wanted, each canton furnishes a certain number of soldiers according to its population, the contingent being two men for every 100 souls. Each canton also contributes to the public treasury a fixed proportion of the revenue. All powers pot expressely delegated to the diet are reserved to the cantons respectively, each of which is an independent state, having its own coostitution. Some of the cantons are aristocratical and others democratical republics. Neufchalel lielongs to the king of Prussia, but has a republican constitution.
Manufactures and Commerce.) The Swiss are a very industrious people, particularly in the northern and western cantons. The principal manufactures are cotton and silk goods, which are of a very fine quality and employ many laborers; and next to these in importance are paper, lace, linen, and watches. With these manufactures and with cheese, butter, and black cattle the inhabitants carry on an active trade with Germany, Italy and France. The principal places of trade are Geneva, Zurich, Schaffhausen, Basil, Berne and St. Galle.
Situation, and Extent.] Germany is bounded N. by the North sea, the kingdom of Denmark (from which it is separated by the river Eyder) and the Baltic; E. by the Prussian provinces of West Prussia and Posen, the kingdom of Poland, the free city of Cracow, and the kingdoms of Galicia and Hungary ; S. by the gulf of Venice and Italy ; S.W. by Switzerland, and W. by France and the kingdom of the Netherlands. It extends from 45° to 55° N. lat. and from 5° 40' to 19° 20' E. lon. The area is computed at 256,000 square miles.
Divisions.] Germany, or the country united under the Germanic confederation, embraces the greater part of the dominions of the king of Prussia, about one third of the dominions of the emperor of Austria, the dutchies of Holstein and Lauenburg, belonging to the king of Denmark; the grand dutchy of Luxemburg belonging to the king of the Netherlands; tbe kingdom of Hanover, of which his Britanic majesty takes the title of king ; together with 30 independent states, governed by native German princes, and four free cities. The extent, population and revenue of each are given in the following table.
Sq. miles. Population Pop. on a Revenue
in 1818. sq. mile. in pounds sterling. 1. Austria,
80,894 9,482,227 117 £6,370,000 2. Prussia,
71,324 7,923,439 111 4,300,000 3. Bavaria, 31,966 3,560,000 111
1,800,000 4. Wirtemberg, 8,118 1,395,463
172 1,000,000 5. Hanover, 15,004 1,305,351
900,000 6. Saxony, 7,436 1.200,000
850,000 7. Baden, 5,984 1,000,000 167
550,000 8. Hesse-Darmstadt, 4,246 619,500 146
370,000 9. Hesse-Cassel, 4,422 540,000 122
380,000 10. Holstein and
200,000 11Mecklenburg4,923 358,000 73
150,000 Schwerin, 12. Mecklenburg
50,000 Strelitz, 13. Nassau, 2,225 302,767 136
176,000 14. Oldenburg, 2.640 217,769 82
150,000 15. Luxemburg,
120,000 16. Brunswick, 1,562 209,600 134
180,000 17. Saxe-Weimar,
150,000 18. Saxe-Gotha,
150,000 19. Saxe-Coburg, 594 80,012
55,000 20. Saxe-Meinungen, 400 54,400 136
35,000 21. Saxe-Hildburg240 27,706 115
20,000 bausen, 22. Schwartzburg484 53,937 111
22,000 Rudolstadt, 23. Schwartzburg
45,117 89 Sonderhausen,
25,000 24. Lippe-Detmold, 440 69,062 157
50,000 25. Schauenburg-Lippe 220 24,000 109
18,000 26. Anhalt-Dessau, 374 52,947 141
60,000 27. Anhalt-Bernburg, 352 37,046 105
30,000 28. Anhalt-Cothen, 330 32,454 98
23,000 29. Reuss-Lobenstein, 475 52,205 109
29,000 30. Reuss-Greitz, 154 22,255 144
13,000 31. Waldeck, 477 51,877 109
40,000 32. Hohenzollern440 35,360 80
30,000 Sigmaringen, 33. Hohenzollern110 14,500 131
8,000 Hechingen, 34. Hesse-Homburg, 132 20,000 151
17,000 35. Lichtenstein, 55 5,546 100
3,000 Free cities. Hamburg, 140 129,800 927
40,000 Frankfort, 110 47,850 435
60,000 Lubeck, 120 40,650 338
Situation of the States.) The Austrian part of Germany, which includes Bohemia, Moravia, the Tyrol, &c. is in the S. E. and covers nearly one third of the whole territory. The Prussian dominions are in two detached portions ; the eastern, and much the largest division, occupies the N. E. part of Germany, the western division lies on both sides of the Rhine and borders upon the kingdom of the Netherlands. Havaria, Wirtemberg, and Baden occupy the S. W. quarter of the country. Hanover, Holstein and Mecklenburg are in the N.W. Saxony is in the east, between the Prussian and Austrian dominions. Anhalt is surrounded by the Prussian territories, and Oldenburg by the kingdom of Hanover. Almost all the other states lie between the two divisions of the Prussian dominions.
Mountains.] The most mountainous section of Germany is in the S. E.; the part of Austria which lies south of the Danube being almost entirely covered with numerous branches of the Alps, which traverse the country under various names from Switzerland to the borders of Hungary.
The Sudetic chain is a branch of the Carpathian mountains. It commences on the borders of Hungary, and proceeding at first in a N. W. direction separates Silesia from Moravia and Bohemia, and then turning to the S. W. separates Saxony from Bohemia. The part which separates Silesia from Bobemia is called also the Riesengebirge or Giant Mountains, and the part which separates Saxony from Bohemia the Erzgebirge or Metallic mountains. The Fichtelgebirge, a continuation of the Sudetic mountains, proceeds for a short distance in a westerly direction along the northern frontier of Bavaria, but soon turning to the N. N. passes through the territories of the house of Saxe and a part of the Prussian dominions under the name of the Thuringerwald. The Hartz mountains, which occupy the southern part of the kingdom of Hanover and the adjacent portion of the Prussian dominions, are the most northerly mountains in Germany, and may be rea garded as a continuation of the Thuringerwald. From the Hartz a chain proceeds in a westerly direction, under various names, across the western division of the Prussian dominiops to the Rhine.
From the western termination of the Sudetic chain a branch proceeds in a S, E, direction and separates Bohemia from Bavaria, under the name of the Bohmerwald, after which it turns to the S. W. separating Bavaria from Austria and connects itself with a branch of the Alps at Salzburg.
From the Thuringerwald a branch proceeds in a S.W. direction under various names along the eastern frontiers of Hesse Cassel and Hesse Darmstadt, and through Wirtemberg and Baden to the S. W. corner of Germany. The part which lies in Baden and Wirtemberg is called the Schwarzwald or Black Forest. A branch of the Schwarzwald proceeds along the southern frontiers of Wirtemberg and Bavaria, and is connected with the Alps at Salzburg