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tation, but as a depot for objects of taste and art. The gallery of the Louvre is a very long range, detached from the main building, and extending parallel to the bank of the river, all the way to the Tuileries. The most striking public monument is the Column of the Place Vendome, erected by Bonaparte to commemorate his successes in Germany in 1805. It is a great brazen piliar, 12 feet in diameter and 133 feet high, and every where covered with bas reliefs. The catacombs are subterraneous quarries, excavated in the course of ages for the building of Paris, and converted in the latter part of the 18th century into a great burying repository. They are of great extent and being easily traversed with the aid of a guide, form a prominent ebject of'attention to travellers.
The Jardin des Plantes is a garden of an oblong form, nearly half a mile in length, laid out with great taste, and exhibiting groupes of plants of almost every country in the world. Amidst the collections of interest to artists, those of the Louvre hold the first rank. Of the ground floor of that spacious building a great part is appropriated to statues, and other specimens of sculpture, ancient and modern, distributed in spacious halls, and arranged with much taste. From these a magnificent staircase leads to the gallery of paintings, which is of such length, that the extremity is almost lost in the distance, and is lined on both sides with the finest productions of modern painters
Paris is the centre of elegant amusements for France, even more than London for England, being the residence during the autumn and winter of all who can afford the gratifications of a town life. Of the public gardens and walks the finest and most frequented are those of the Tuileries, which extend in a beautiful oblong to the westward of the palace. They are laid out most elegantly with gravelled walks, terraces, plots of flowers and shrubs, groves of lofty trees, basins of water, and fountains, interspersed with beautiful statues of bronze and marble This delightful spot forms the favorite walk of the Parisians, and is crowded on Sundays during the day, and in the rest of the week in the evenings with well dressed persons.
Paris is rich in libraries, which are accessible to all persons without introduction. The library of the king, the largest in Europe, contains opwards of 360,000 printed volumes, and 72,000 manuscripts. The manufactures of Paris as of London, consist chiefly of articles of taste, and such as require nice workmanship. The population of the city in 1817 was 715,000.
Lyons, the next town to Paris in population, and superior to it in commerce and manufactures, is situated on the tongue of land formed at the confluence of the Saone and the Rhone. The streets cross each other regularly at right angles, but they are in general extremely narrow and many of them dark and gloomy. The houses are usually of storie, and 5 or 6 stories high. There are 4 public squares, one of which is entitled to rank among the finest in Europe Lyons is the first manufacturing nown in France, and is particularly noted for its silks. It formerly sup
plied a great part of Europe with silk goods, but its manufactures were grea ly injured during the troubles of the French revolution. The number of looms for velvet, silk, gauze, crape and thread, was at the commencement of the revolution 9,335, and the persons employed 58,600; in 1803 there were 7,000 looms, but only 1,553 at work. The large manufactory of felt hats, which formerly employed 8,000 hands, had fallen to 1.500. Within a few years the fine silk manufactures have begun to resume their former importance. The orders for goods in 1818 could scarcely be answered, and the quantity exported in that year was valued a! 60,000,000 francs. The merchants of Lyons carry on trade with Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Netherlands and almost every part of Europe. The population is estimated at 120,000
Marseilles is situated on the Mediterranean, at the foot of a ridge of hills, which extend in the form of a crescent around the down and its environs until each extremity reaches the sea. It is divided into the Old and New Town; the latier, containing nearly two thirds of the whole, is equal in beauty to any city of France. The port, which is half a mile long apd a quarter of a mile broad, occupies the centre of the town, and communicates with the sea by a narrow entrance, only 100 yards wide, defended by two forts: it is completely sheltered from all winds, but has not depth enough for ships of war. From its advantageous position and the security of its harbor, Marseilles has long enjoyed a large share of the foreign trade of France. The population is estimated at 110.000.
Bourdeaux is on the left bank of the Garonne, 47 miles from its mouth. The river here forms a spacious barbor, and the tide rises to the height of 12 feet, so that large merchant vessels and even frigates can come up close to the town. The internal commerce, carried on through the Garonne and Dordogne is very extensive, and the foreign trade exceeds that of any city in France, except Marseilles. The principal exports are wine and brandy. The population is 92,374.
Rouen, situaird on ibe right bank of the Seine, 70 miles from its mouth, in the midst of a pleasant and fertile country, is one of the principal manufacturing towns in France, especially in the article of cotton goods. The population is estimated at 87,000. Nantes is beautifully situated on the right bank of the Loire, 27 miles from its mouth. It has numerous manufactures and considerable foreign and inland trade, with a population of 77,000.
Cherbourg is a seaport on the north coast, at the bottom of a large bay between Capes La Hogue and Barfleur, in the department of La Manche. It has long been considered one of the most important stations of the French navy, and its improvement has from time to time, occupied the attention of the government for no less than a century and a half. More than two millions sterling were expended in an attempt to erect a breakwater against the swell of the sea, which bas after all proved almost enFirely fruitless. After the failure of this scheme Bonaparte de
termined to excavate a barbor from thc solid ground. The work was prosecuted with great vigor, and by 1813 a basin was finished, 1,000 feet long, 770 wide, 50 feet deep, covering a surface of about 18 acres, and capable of containing 50 sail of the line. Bonaparte's next project was a wet dock of equal dimensions. It was begun in 1813, and is now approaching towards completion, after having cost, along with the basin (and exclusive of the breakwater) nearly five millions sterling
Brest, the chief station of the French marine, is situated on a bay in the department of Finisterre, and has one of the best harbors in Europe. The road affords safe anchorage for at least 500 inen of war. The harbor is in the form of a long canal, with a very narrow and difficult entrance, defended by strong fortifications. The town contains an immense naval arsenal, a dock-yard, ropewalks, forges, foundries, and every thing necessary for the construction and equipment of ships of war. The population is 24,180.
Toulon, the only harbor for the navy on the coast of the Mediterranean, is a strongly fortified town a little E of Marseilles. The old and new harbor lie contiguous to each other and by means of a canal communicate with one another, and each has ad outlet into the spacious outer harbor, which is naturally almost of a circular figure, very large, and surrounded with hills. The entrance on both sides is defended by a fort, with strong batteries. The new harbor is an artificial basin, the work of Louis XIV. It is well defended by batteries and round it stands the arsenal, where every man-of-war has its own particular storehouse. Here are rope-walks, foundries, and magazines of all kinds of naval stores on a great scale. The population is estimated at 29,000.
The following are the principal seaports, not already mentioned. 1. Dunkirk is the only harbor of France on the German ocean, and being the most convenient port for receiving the merchantmen captured in time of war from the English and Dutch. it bas been strongly fortified by the French government. It has considerable trade and more than 26,000 inhabitants. 2. Caluis, 25 miles S. W. of Dunkirk and opposite Dover in England, has a small harbor too much obstructed with sand to admit large vessels. 3. Boulogne, on the English channel, in the Pas de Calais, is a favcia ite place of resort for English emigrants. The harbor was formerly one of the best on the coast but is now nearly choked up with sand. Here lay the flotilla prepared by Bonaparte in 180.1 and 1805 for the invasion of Great Britain. 4. Dieppe, 100 miles N. W. of Paris, is on the most direct route from London to Paris, and in time of peace there are regular packet-boats between this port and Brighton, a distance of 66 miles. 5. Havre de Grace, ihe port of Paris, is a strongly fortified town at the mouth of the Seine, with a harbor capable of containing 600 or, 700 vessels, ani deep enough for ships of war of 60 guns. It has an extensive inland trade by means of the Seine, especially with Paris. . The population is 21,000. 6. Rochelle, in the department of Lower Charente 80 miles S. of Nantes, is a strongly tortified scaport with
a good harbor and considerable trade. Population, 17,500. 7. Rochefort, on the Charente 5 miles from its mouth, bas a deep and secure harbor and is one of the principal raval stations of the kingdom. 8. Bayonne is situated near the S. W. corner of the kingdom, at the conflux of the Nive and Adour, which here form a commodious harbor two miles from the bay of Biscay. It has considerable commerce with Spain and 12,600 inhabitants.
The following are the principal towns in the interior not already mentioned. 1. Lisle or Lille, the capital of the department of the North, is a large and strongly fortitied city, with an extensive trade and various manufactures. Its citadel, the work of Vauban, is the first in Europe after that of Turin. Population in 1817, 61,500. 2. Cambray. famous for the manufacture of a fine speciés of linen which has received from this place the name of cambric, is on the Scheldt near its source, 100 miles N. N. E. of Paris, and contains 14,000 inhabitants. 3. Amiens, on the Somme, 40 miles from its mouth, contains 10,000 inhabitants, and is famous throughout Europe for its extensive manufactures of serge and other woolled stuffs, and also for the treaty of peace between France and England signed here in 1802. 4. Rheims is in the department of the Marne, on the small river Vesle a branch of the Aisne, 100 miles E. N. E. of Paris, and contains 38,000 inhabitants. The archbishop of this ancient city is the primate of the kingdom. 5. Strasbourg is a strongly fortified town in the department of the Lower Rhine, on the high road from France to Gerinany. It has a Protestant university and 50,000 inhabitants. 6. Versailles, a few miles S. W. of Paris, at the commencement of the last century was a small village in the midst of an extensive forest. Louis XIV. made it the royal residence, and erected here a magnificent palace, with beautiful gardens, adorned with statues, canals, fountains, and a park five miles in circumference. The population is 23,000. 7. Orleans is beautifully situated near the centre of the kingdom, on the N. bank of the Loire, by means of which, and the tributary streams and canals connected with it, a communication is opened with all pars of the interior. It has an extensive trade and 42,000 inhabitants. 8. Toulouse, on the Ga. ronne, at the head of navigation, has a university and 48,000 in. habitants. 9. Montpellier, the capital of the Herault, is 100 miles W.N. W. of Marseilles, and 5 or 6 from the sea, with which it communicates by a canal. It has long been a favorite residence of invalids from England on account of the pure air and mild climate. It has considerable trade, particularly in wine, and 33,000 inhabitants. Cette, its port, is at the eastern termination of the famous canal of Languedoc, 18 miles distant. 10. Nismer. 30 miles N. E. of Montpelier, contains 40,000 inhabitants, of whom 25,000 are Protestants. It is particularly interesting froin its ancient monuments, of which it is said to contain more than any other city in Europe except Rome. The town has suffered severely from the dissensions between the Catholics and Protestants in this part of France.
Population and Religion.] The population, in 1819, was 29,290,370. Of this number it is estimated that more than 25,000,000 are of French origin, 2,300,000 German, 1,000,000 British (in the ancient province of Brittany) 100,000 Biscayan (at the foot of the Pyrenees) 195,000 Italian, about 60,000 Jews and 10,000 gypsies. The established religion is the Roman Catholic, but all others are tolerated, and it is estimated that there are in the kingdom nearly 4,000,000 Protestanis and about 60,000 Jews.
Education.] Before the revolution there were in France 23 universities; in that great convulsion, education, like every thing else, was suspended, but since the commencement of the present century a regular system of schools has been established." In the primary schools reading, writing and arithmetic are taught, and the expense is defrayed in part by a trifling fee from the pupris, and partly by an allowance from the public treasury. The secondary schools or colleges are dependent on government, and the expenses are defrayed in like manner, partly by the pupils and partiy by the public. The lycées, now called royai colleges, are in number 36, and are large provincial schools, where the pupils are taught Latin, Greek, matbematics and rhetoric. Lastly come the universities. The name of university is at present confiued to the institution at Paris, but the provincial establishments bearing the name of academies, are constituted like the universities of other countries. Besides these, there are private schools and separate seminaries for particular branches, among which are the two iheological institutions of the Protestants at Strasbourg and Montauban. The following is the return made in 1815 of the public seminaries and number of pupils.
Pupils. 6,329 9,000 28,000 737,379
It is estimated that more than one half of the population of France are unable to read and write. Many schools on the Laneasterian plan have recently been established.
The principal literary association in France is thc Iostitute, a body composed of nearly 200 memhers, and divided, since 1816, into four academies. It comprises as members or corresponddents, a large portion of the literary and scientific characters of the country
Government.] The constitution of France, since 1314, resembles in its form that of Britain, the king being a limited monarch, and infallible in the eye of the law, the responsibility for public measures resting with his ministers. The royal title is so king of France anıt Navarre ;” and females are still excluded from succession to the crown. The crown prince is cailed Dauphin, and the oldest brother of the king Monsieur. The royal preroga