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Ancient Provinces Departments.
780,000 The Seine and Oise, 439.972 Isle of France, The Oise,
383,500 The Seine and Marne, 304,068 The Aisne,
442,989 The Marne,
311,037 The Ardennes,
275,792 Champagne, Tbe Aube,
238,819 The Upper Marne, 237,785 The Meuse,
284,703 l'he Moselle,
385,949 Lorraine, The Meurthe,
365,810 The Vosges,
334,169 The Upper Rhine, 318,577 Alsace,
The Lower chine, 391,642
l'he Cotes du Nord, 519,620
452,895 The Morbihan,
403,423 The Lower Loire, 407,900 Che Mayenne,
332,250 Maine, The Sarthe,
410,380 Anjou, The Maine and Loire, 403,864 Touraine, The Indre and Loire, 275,292 The Loiret,
286,153 The Orlean
The Eure and Loire, 265,996 nois,
The Loire and Cher, 212,552
228,158 Nivernois, The Nievre,
241,520 The Yonne,
385,994 The Cote d'Or, 355,436 Burgundy
he Saone and Loire, 471,457
292,882 The Vendee,
268,786 The Two Sevres, 254,105 The Vienne,
253,048 The Creuse,
243,195 Limousin, The Correze,
254,271 Bourbonnois, The Allier,
260,266 Saintonge and The Charente,
326,885 Angoumois, Aunis and
The Lower Charente, 393,011
The Puy de Dome, 548.84
187 2266 2420 2376 2937 3366 2200 2464 2992 2519 2610 2541 2332 1826 1936 2838 3036 2882 2816 3036 2178 2574 3058 2948 2618 2431 2662 2926 2930 2948 2948 3432 3564 2266 2000 2233 2068 2860 2508 29114 2332 2266 2088 2882
La Marche, The Upper 'Vienne,
Ancient Provinces, Departments.
Population: Square miles. The Rhone,
347,381 1188 Lyonnois, The Loire,
315,858 2024 The Isere,
471,660 3542 Dauphiny. The Upper Alps, 124,763 2266 The Drome,
253,372 2728 The Dordogne,
424,113 3740 The Gironde,
5:4,562 4400 The Lot and Garonne, 326,150 2244 The Lot,
268,150 2156 Guyenne, The Tarn and Garonne, 238,722 1562
The Aveyron, 331,373 3674.
286,493 1617 The Landes,
235,550 3828 The Upper Pyrenees, 198,763 1892 Bearn,
The Lower Pyrenees, 383,502 3234 County of Foix, The Arriege,
1936 Roussillon, The Eastern Pyrenees, 126,625 1716 (The Upper Garonne, 367,551
2464 The Aude,
240,993 2640 The Tarn,
295.885 The Herault,
301,099 2926 Languedoc, The Gard,
322,144 The Lozere,
143,247 2134 The Upper Loire 268,205 1930 The Ardeche, 290,833 2354 The Lower Alps, 146,944 2948
The Mouths of the Provence,
293,235 2112 Rhone, The Var,
283,296 4026 County of Ve-> The Vaucluse,
205,832 1452 naissin, Corsica, Corsica,
Mountains.] The Pyrenees, which separate France from Spain, run in a direction a little south of east from the bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean. They contaiu many lotty summits, the highest of which is Mont Perdu, which is 10,578 feet above the level of the sea. The mountains of Lozere, which are loosely connected with the eastern part of the chain of the Pyrenees, proceed in a N. E. direction to the sources of the Loire, where they divide into two branches; the northwestern branch, called the Mountains nf Auvergne, proceeds towards the centre of France, and contains the summits of Mont d'Or, (6,288 feet,) the Cantal, (5,964 feet,) and the Puy de Dome, (4,960 feet high ;) the northeastern, called the Sevennes, less lofty than the other, passes between the Loire and the Rhone, and proceeds as far north as the department of Cote d'Or.
On the east side of the Rhone there are several chains, more: or less connected with each other. The Alps, called here the Maritime Alps, separate France from Italy. The Mount. Jure
chain, which may be regarded as a branch of the Alps, cutmences near Geneva at the S.W. extremity of Switzerland, and after forming the boundary between Switzerland and France, continues its course in a northerly direction under the name of the Vosges as far as the parallel of 50° N. lat. The most elevated peaks in the Jura chain are the Reculet, (5,200 feet,) and the Dole (5,178 feet above the level of the sea.)
Rivers.] The four principal rivers in France are the Garonne, the Loire, the Seine and the Rhone. 1. The Garonne rises in the department of the Upper Pyrenees, and flowing on the whole in a N.W. direction, passes by Toulouse, Agen, and Bourdeaux, and discharges itself into the Atlantic ocean through two mouths after a course of more than 400 miles. It is three miles wide at its mouth, and frigates ascend as far as Bourdeaux. Its principal tributaries are the Arriege, the Tarn, the Lot and the Dordogne. After the junction of the Dordogne the river is called Gironde. 2. The Loire, the largest river in France, rises in the department of the Upper Loire, between the mountains of Sevennes and Auvergne, and flows at first in a northerly direction to the centre of the kingdom, where it turns to the west, and passing by Orleans, Blois, Tours, Angers and Nantes, falls into the Atlantic after a course of 500 miles. It is navigable to Nantes for vessels of 70 or 80 tons, and for boats almost to its source. Its principal tributaries are the Allier, the Cher, the Indre, the Vienne, the Sevre-of-Nantes, and the Mayenne. 3. The Seine rises in the department of Cote d'Or, and flowing in a northwest direction, passes by Troyes, Paris,and Rouen, and discharges itself into the English channel, after a course of 400 miles. It admits vess sels of considerable burden as far as Roven, and boats to Troyes. Its principal tributaries are the Aube, the Yonne, the Marne, the Oise and the Eure. 4. The Rhone issues from the lake of Geneva in Switzerland, and pursues a S.W. course to Lyops, where it turns to the south, and passing by Vienne, Valence and Avignon, discharges itself through three mouths into the Mediterranean. It is the most rapid river in Europe, and the up.vard navigation can be performed only by draught or steam. Its principal tributaries are the Saone, a large river from the north which joins it at Lyons, and the Isere and Durance from the east, wbich bring the tributary waters of the western face of the Alps.
The smaller rivers which discharge themselves directly into the sea are, the Somme and the Orne, which fall into the English channel; the Vilaine, the Sevre-of-Niort, the Charente and the Adour, which fall into the bay of Biscay; and the Herault and Var, which fall into the Mediterranean,
The principal rivers, whose course lies only partly in France are, 1. The Escaut or Scheldt, which rises in the department of Aisne, and flows immediately into the Netherlands. 2. The Maese, or Meuse, which rises in Upper-Marne, and passes by Neufchateau, Verdun, and Mezieres into the Netherlands. 3. The Moselle, which rises in the mountains of the Vosges, and running north across the S. E. corner of the Netherlands into Germany,
passes by Remiremont, Epinal, Metz, and Treves, and joins the Rbine at Coblentz. Its principal tributaries are the Meurthe and the Sarre. 4. The Rhine for a short distance forms the boundary between France and Germany.
Canals.] The following are the principal canals. 1. The celebrated canal of Languedoc, commenced and completed in the reign of Louis XIV. at an expense of £500,000, opens a comunication between the bay of Biscay and the Mediterranean through the southern part of the kingdom. It begins on the Garonne at Toulouse and proceeds in a direction a little S. of E. to a sma Il lake or bay communicating with the Mediterranean at Cette. It is 140 miles long, 60 feet broad; 6 feet deep, and is carried over the intervening rivers by 58 aqueducts. In one place it passes through a bill by a tunnel 500 feet long and 20 feet broad. 2. The canal of the centre, which connects the Saone with the Loire, and thus opens a communication between the Mediterranean and the bay of Biscay through the centre of the kingdom. 3. The canals of Orleans and Briare which connect the Loire with the Seine. 4. The canal of St. Quentin, which coupects the Somme with the Oise.
Face of the Country:] The southeastern part of the kingdom and narrow tracts along the eastern and southern borders are mountainous. The rest of the couníry may be called uneven and in some places hilly, the surface being everywhere sufficiently varied to render the prospects interesting. Correze and the neighboring departments surpass every part of France in beauty. Hills, dales, woods, streams, lakes and scattered farms are mingled into a thousand delightful landscapes. The banks of the Seine, for 200 miles from its mouth, and of the Loire as bigh as Angers, are also eminently beautiful. The country east of the Rhone presents many pleasing prospects, and the course of the Isere is a scene of perpetual beauty. The Pyrenees are the most striking of the mountains, and their verdure, their forests; rocks and torrents have all the character of the sublime and beaua Hiful.
Climate.] The eastern part of France is warmer than the westero in the same parallels. Mr. Young divides the country into four climates. A line commencing a little north of the mouth of the Loire, and passing in an E.N.E. direction to the Netherlands through the department of the Aisne would leave a tract to the N.W. called the northern climate, in which the vine will not grow. It is considerably warmer than in England but equally muist; and produces a great variety of fine fruits. The vine climate is a space included between the northero climate and a line passing nearly parallel with the other, from the mouth of the Garonne to the Rhine through the departmeot of the Meurthe. This is the pleasantest climate ; the air is light, pure and elastic ; and the sky is generally clear; the summer is not fervid, and the winters are mild. The Maize Climate is broader. Its southern boundary is a line beginning on the Pyrenees in the department of the Arriege and passing through Grenoble on the
Isere to the Alps. The vine also grows here luxuriantly. The tract S. E. of this line is called the olive climate. It is much the smallest, and both vines and maize grow here abundantly. This division of France, which, with here and there a set-off, is strictly accurate, points out the eastern side of the kingdom as 23 degrees of latitude hotter than the western, or at least more favorable to vegetation.
Soil and Productions.] The northwestern section of the kingdom, including the country on both sides of the Loire below Tours, and extending on the coast almost from the mouth of the Garonne to that of the Seine, has a poor and stony soil. The northern section, which corresponds nearly with the eastern half of the northern climate, has a rich soil, of considerable depth and of an admirable texture. The soil of the southwestern section is indifferent, except in the valley of the Garonne and its branches, where it consists of a deep, mellow, friable loam, with sufficient. moisture for any culture. The eastern section, extending from the Netherlands to the Mediterranean, has a fertile soil, but is less uniformly rich than the northern.
The principal agricultural productions of the northern half of the kingdom are wheat, barley, oats, pulse, and of late in a greater degree than formerly of potatoes; in the southern balf, maize, vines, mulberries, and olives. The cultivation of the vine is carried to a very great extent, the number of acres covered by the vineyards being computed at nearly 5,000,000, or one twenty fifth part of the whole kingdom. The olive has recently suffered from severe winters and the produce is scarcely ope quarter of its former amount. The most important mineral is iron, which is produced in France in greater quantity than in any other country except Great Britain. Coal also exists in great quantities and the mines are very extensively wrought.
Chief Towns.) Paris, the capital of France and one of the finest cities in the world, is situated on the Seine, which passes through the city from east to west dividing it into two nearly equal parts. It is surrounded with a wall 17 miles in circuit. The houses are generally from 4 to 7 stories high, and built of freestone. Some of the streets are remarkably broad and beautiful. The Boulevards particularly. which occupy the space appropriated to the walls of the town in former ages, when its circumference did not exceed seven miles, are from 200 to 300 feet broad, and planted on each side with long rows of lofty trees. All the streets are lighted with reflecting lamps, suspended at a great height in the middle of the street. The finest square is the Place Vendome, an octagonal space 500 feet long and 400 broad, surrounded by elegant stone buildings. In palaces and public structures of the first rank Paris is greatly superior to London. The Tuileries, the present royal residence, is a aoble and venerable structure extending from N. to S. above 1,000 feet. The Louvre, a quarter of a mile to the east of the Tuileries, is an elegant building of a square form, with a large interior court, 400 feet by 400, and its magnificent halls are used not as a royal habi