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Government. This country is subject to the emperor of Rus sia, who in consequence takes the title of “king of Poland,” but it is governed in every respect as a separate monarchy, under a liberal constitution granted by the emperor in 1815. The regal dignity. iş vested in a viceroy, in whom, and in a cabinet of ministers, the executive power resides. There is a diet consisting of a senate of 30 members, and a chamber of representatives of 77 deputies. The ministers are accountalile to the senate, being obliged to lay reports before it, and to submit to discussions, nearly in the form observed in the British parliament.
Revenue, Army, Religion.&-c.The revenue amounts to £900,000. The army consists of 50,000 men, of whom 20,000 are cavalry. The prevailing religion is the Roman Catholic, but all others are tolerated. The principal esports are corn, hemp, flax, cattle, timber, wax and honey. The most important river is the Vistula, which passes through the kingdom from S. E. to N. W.
Chief Towns.] Warsaw, the capital, is situated on the Vistula, a little north of the centre of the kingdom in lat. 62° 14' N. and lon. 21° 3' E. It contains a great number of churches and convents, and many beautiful palaces of stone mixed in with a great multitude of mean wooden hovels. Here is a university established in 1816. The population is estimated at 70,000, or including Praga on the opposite side of the river, 76,000, of whom 10,000 are Jews. Lublin, 85 miles S. E. of Warsaw, is a place of considerable trade, and contains 7,000 inhabitants.
Cracow. The free city of Cracow is situated in lat. 50° N. and lon. 20° E. in an extensive pļain, at the confluence of the Rudowa with the Vistula, 128 miles S. S. W. of Warsaw, near the point where ihe Russian, Prussian and Austrian dominions peet. It has three suburbs, one of which, Casimir, lies on the opposite bank of the Vistula. The town is well situated for trade and is a staple citv for Hungarian, Silesian, and Galician wares. The population is 25,000, of whom many are Jews. In 1815, by an act of the Congress of Vienna, Cracow, with a small territory adjacent, was constituted a free state under the protection of Russia, Prussia and Austria. The whole territory included in the new state contains 430 square miles and 61,000 inhabitants. The form of government is a democracy. The prevailing religion is the Roman Catholic, but all others are tolerated.
KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS.
Sith ion and Extent.] The kingdom of the Netherlands is bounded N. by the German ocean; E. by Germanv; S. by France, and V. by the German ocean. It extends from 49° 30' to 53° 34' N. lat. and from 2° 35to 7° 5' E. lon. The area is estimated at 25,565 square miles.
Divisions.] The kingdom is divided into 18 provinces, the exfent and population of which are given in the following table.
Face of the Country.] The face of the country is upcommonly level and low. In the northern provinces there are neither mountains nor hills to relieve the eye from the monotony of a continued flat ; and from the top of a tower or steeple, the only elevation commanding an extensive view, the country appears like a vast marshy plain, intersected in all directions by an infinite number of canals and ditches. Sach a prospect is not, however, altogether uninteresting : it exhibits vast meadows of the freshest verdure, and covered with numerous herds of cattle ; sheets of water, sometimes flowing and sometimes stationary; while at intervals clusters of trees, and in the environs of large towns, elegant country houses, situated in the middle of gardens and parks, and decorated with statues and busts, vary and enliven the scene.
The lowest tracts of country are in the provinces along the coast, many parts of which are below the level of the sea at high water. To prevent inundation, there are along the coasts, dikes or mounds of earth which have been erected at great expense, and are justly considered as among the greatest efforts of human industry. These mounds vary in height and thickness according to their situation; they present a gradual slope on each side, and the breadth at the top is often sufficient to allow two carriages to
The great rivers are bordered with similar dikes and provided at convenient distances with sluices, by means of which the country can be laid under water on the approach ofan enemy. The Dutch have also attempted, in particular situations, to regain portions of their country from the sea, and have actually succeeded in recovering considerable tracts. These, when surrounded by a dike, admit of being drained and converted into pasture land.
In the eastern provinces, bordering on Germany, the land is somewhat bigher, and contains a few elevations but none which deserve the name of mountains. The southern provinces of Hainault, Namur, Liege and Luxemburg are the most elevated portions of the kingdom, and in some parts are mountainous, particulariy Luxemburg.
Seas.] The Zuyder Zee is a great bay of the German ocean setting up beiween the provinces of Holland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Overyssel and Friesland, and covering an area of more than 1200 square miles. The Haarlem sea is a lake in the province of Holland, 14 miles long and as many broad, communicating with the Zuyder Zee through the river Y which passes by Amsterdam.,
The Biesboch is a large lake or arm of the sea, in the S. E. part of the province of South Holland, between Dort and GerIruydenburg. It was formed in the year 1421, by an inundation of the sea, which bạrst the dykes and suddenly overwhelmed 72 villages containing 100,000 inhabitants. A few islands are the only remains of this once fruitful tract. The river Maese passes through the lake.
Rivers.) Several navigable rivers terminate their course in this kingdom, all of which rise in other countries. 1. The Rhine comes from Germany and immediately on crossing the frontier 'divides into two great branches, the most southern of which, called the Waal, flows west and joins the Maese; the northern branch before arriving at Arnheim again divides into two streams, of which one, assuming the name of Yssel, takes a northerly direction, and falls into the Zuyder Zee, while the main branch proceeds from Arnheim to Wyk, where it once more forms two streams; the larger called the Leck joins the Maese above Rotterdam, while the branch still bearing the name of the Rhine, now reduced to a comparatively insignificant river, proceeds by Utrecht and Ley. den to the sea. 2. ihe Maese or Meuse rises in France and in its progress through the Netherlands receives the Sambre at Namor, the Qurthe at Liege, the Roer or Ruhr at Ruhrmonde, and the Waal at Loevestein, soon after which it divides and passes under yarious names to the German ocean. 3. The Scheldt rises in France, and in its progress through the Netherlands receives the Lys at Ghent, the Denler at Dendermonde, at Rupelmonde tie Rupei (which is formed by the union of the Dyle and the Great and Little Neethe) alter which it passes by Antwerp and dividing into two principal branches, called the East and West Scheldt forms at its mouth the islands of Zealand.
Canals. It would be difficult to describe the different canals, great and small, with which the northern provinces are intersected, for they are as numerous as the public roads of other countries. The common mode of travelling is not along a road in carriages, but along a canal in large covered boats; these are drawn by horses, and though not expeditious, present a more cheap and easy method of proceeding than by land.
Climate.] The summers are warmer and the winters colder than in England, the rivers, canals, and harbors being often frozen while those of England are open. In the maritime provinces the slimate is moist, variable, and owing to the numerous marshes, sui,ject to fogs, which would become extremely noxious, were it not for the dry easterly winds of the winter months. The least healthy districts are Zealand and North Holland.
Soil and Productions. The soil of the Netherlands is in general fruitful, the Dutch part affording rich pasture, while the Begic part, especially Flanders, abounds with excellent corn land. There are, however, considerable exceptions: in the duchy of Luxemburg, and part of the provinces of Liege and Namur, the soil is stony and barren; North? rabani, Overyssel and Drenthe contain a number of marshes and forests; and the bare ren heath of Bourtrang occupies a considerable pari of Groningen.
In the Belgic provinces agriculture has long been attended to with care; and this, added to an excellent soil, has rendered them one of the most productive countries of Europe. In the richest parts, the farmers leave no fallows, but raise a constant succession of crops, without any sensible diminution of the produce. The Dutch provinces do not produce much grain; their wealth consists in pasture. Large numbers of cattle are fattened bere. Here also are made butter and cheese of superior quality, and in vast quantities, for export to England and other countries. The other productions, common to the southern and northern provinces, are flax, hemp, tobacco, hops, madder and fruit.
Animals and Minerals.] The domestic animals, particularly horses and cattle, are of a large size, owing, doubtless, to the richness of the pastures. The breed of sheep is good, and the wool, though inferior to that of Spain, is in considerable request. The rivers, lakes and coasts abound in fish. Or minerals, ihere are none in the northern provinces : furf is there the great material for fuel. In Namur and Liege there are some valuable stratos of coal, which were long neglected, but are now wrought. Near Namur and throughout the mountainous part of Luxemburg are mines of iron, with some lead and copper.
Chief Towns.) Amsterdam, the largest, richest, and most populous city in the Netherlands, and after London and Hamburg the most commercial city in Europe, is situated in a low marsh on the south side of the river or inlet called Y, wbich connects: the Haarlem lake with the Zuyder Zee. The small river Amstel, from which the city derives its name, divides it into the od or eastern and the new or western town. From the marslits
nature of the soil, it has been necessary to build almost the whole city on oaken piles driven into the ground. The streets are broad and well lighted and several of them lined with trees; and a great number of canals intersect the city in every direction. On the land side it is defended by a wall and regular bastions, with a broad and deep ditch, and hy means of sluices the whole adjoining country can be laid under water at very short notice. Towards the sea it is provided with no fortifications; but the entrance to the harbor is guarded by two rows of piles, having openings at intervals for the admission of vessels; these are always shut at night. l'he most elegant and splendid edifice, not only in Amsterdam, but perhaps in the whole of Holland, is the stadthouse. It stands nearly in the centre of the town, on an open square, and is 282 feet long; 235 broad, and without reckoning the tower, 116 high, built principally of freestone, on a foundation of 13,659 piles, at an expense of £300,000. The commerce of Amsterdam suffered severely during the late war in Europe, and it is doubtful whether it will ever again atiain its former prosperity. The population in 1817 was 230,000.
Brussels, the largest city in the Belgic provinces, and one of the most splendid in Europe, is situated in Brabant, 23 miles south of Antwerp, partly in a plain and partly on a hill, at the foot of which flows the river Senne, a branch of the Dyłe. It has many elegant buildings and squares. but the chief ornament of Brussels is its public walks, no city in Europe possessing one superior to that which is called the “Green Alley," or to the great interior square called the “ Park,” which is a kind of pablic garden intersected by beautiful alleys bordered with trees and ornamented with a number of statués of white marble. The public fountains are 20 in number, and are all embellished with sculptures.
The manufactures of Brussels are celebrated throughout Europe, particularly its lace, camlets and carpets; the first alone employs nearly 10,000 individuals. Brussels is also celebrated for its manufacture of carriages, which, for cheapness and elegance, surpass those of London and Paris. The city carries on considerable trade, not only with the interior of the Netherlands, but with foreign countries, by means of the canals which bring it into communication with the Scheldt. Brussels has of late become a favorite place of resort for the English and other travellers, from its vicinity to the field of Waterloo. The population, according to a census taken in 1310, was 80,000.
Antwerp, a large and well built city of Brabant, is situated on the Scheldt, which is here 1,600 feet broad and very deep, affording a commodious haven for more than 1,000 vessels. By means of numerous canals these vessels can penetrale into the very heart of the town and there deposit their cargoes. In the sixteenth century Antwerp was the greatest place of trade in Europe, and contained 200,000 inhabitants, but the commerce