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the Kama; but as these rivers intersect several of the provinces of the empire, others find it more convenient to include all the intersected provinces in European Russia. We have adopted the latter course, and according to this division European Russia (including the kingdom of Poland,) contains 1,891,512 square miles.

Divisions.] Russia in Europe is divided into 46 governments, the extent and population of which are given in the following table.

In the northwest. Governments.

Square miles. Population. Pop. on a sq. m. 1. Finland, 89,520 1,115,000

12 2. Novgorod,

54,440
800,000

15 3. Pskov,

22,195 700,000 31 4. St. Petersburg, 18,015

700,000

S8 5. Esthonia,

7,000
250,000

36 6. Livonia,

19,925
610,000

30 7. Courland,

10,810
420,000

39 8. Wilna,

22,955 1,100,000 48

In the north. 9. Archangel, 377,655 200,000

1 10. Olonetz, 48,560 255,000

5 11. Vologda, 178,490 665,000

4
In the west.
12. Vitepsk,

16,855
750,000

44
13. Mohilev,
18,420 | 790,000

43 14. Minsk,

36,765
935,000

25 15. Grodno,

11,385 625,000. 55 16. Bialystock,

4,372
185,000

42 17. Volhynia,

28,725 1,200,000 41

In the centre. 18. Moscow,

10,055 1,100,000 109 19. Vladimir, 19,545 1,070,000

55 20. Jaroslav,

14,260 810,000 57 21. Kostroma, 38,400 1,160,000

30 22. Niznei-Novgorod, 20,410 1,100,000 54 23. Riazan,

13,020 1,050,000 24. Tambov, 22,780 1,150,000

50 25. Voronez, 30,430 775,000

25 26. Kursk, 14,895 1,210,000

81 27. Orel,

16,030 1,050,000 65 28. Tula,

11,855 960,000 81 29. Kaluga,

8,385 900,000 107 30. Smolensk,

21,420 1,065,000 50 31. Tver,

24,015 1,060,000

In the east. 32. Saratov, 91,140 950,000

10 33. Penza, 16,515 790,000

48 34. Simbirsk, 29,770 850,000

28

80

44

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Seas and Gulfs.] There are four seas bordering on Russia ; the White sea on the north, the Baltic on the west, the Black sea and the sea of Azoph on the south. There are five large bays or guifs; the gulf of Bothnia, the gulf of Finland, and the gulf of Riga opening into the Baltic ; and the bays of Onega and Archangel opening into the White sea.

Lakes.] There are no lakes of any importance except in the Borthwestern provinces where they are very numerous, and some of them of a large size. The most remarkable are, i. Lake Ladoga, the largest lake in Europe, being 130 miles long, 75 broad, and containing 6,200 square miles. It lies a little to the east of the gulf of Finland, into which it discharges its waters through the short river Neva. 2. Lake Onega, 130 miles long and 40 broad, lies east of lake Ladoga and is connected with it by the navigable river Svir. 3. Lake Ilmen, 48 miles long, is situated to the south of lake Ladoga, with which it is connected by the river Volchov. 4. Lake Peipus, lying south of the gulf of Finlaod, is 50 miles long and 35 broad, and communicates by a short strait at its southern extremity with the lake of Pskov. It has two outlets, one proceeding north to the gulf of Finland, and the other west to the gulf of Riga. 5. The Bielo-Ozero, or White lake, lies 25 miles S. E. of lake Onega and dischargs itself into the Volga by a short river issuing from its S. E. extremity.

Face of the Country) European Russia consists of an immease plain, interrupted only in a few places by hills of a moderate elevation. The only mountains are the Ural mountains in the N. E. which form part of the boundary between Europe and Asia ; the mountains of Russian Lapland in the N.W. which are a continua tion of the Scandinavian chain, and terminate among the small lakes between the guif of Finland and the White sea; and the mountains of Taurala in the south, which occupy the southern part of the Crimea, a large peninsula which projects into the Black sea.

The principai hills are the Valdai ridge which runs from N. E. to S. W. separating the waters which flow N. W. into the Baltic from those which flow S. E. into the Black sex, the sea of Azoph and the Caspian sea. They are of very moderate elevation, no part being more than 1,200 feet above the level of the sea. There are forests of immense extent in various parts of the country, but in general the great natural feature of European Russia is its steppes, wbich are vast plains formed in great part of sand, and with litile wood except stunted birehes.

Rivers.] The following are the principal rivers, beginning in the N. E. 1. The Petschora rises in the Ural mountains in about 61° N. lat. and flowing a little west of north, discharges itself into the Frozen ocean after a course of more than 600 miles. 2. The Dwina, sometimes called the northern Dwina, discharges itself into a bay of the White sea at Archangel, after a northerly course of 500 miles. 3. The Tornea, which forms the boundary be. tween Russia and Sweden, falls into the head of the gulf of Bothnia after a course of 300 miles. 4. The Neva forms the outlet of the great lake Ladoga, and after a westerly course of 35 miles empties itself into the gulf of Finland, below St. Petersburg, by three mouths. It is from 300 to 400 yards wide, and from 10 to 15 feet deep. 5. The Dina, or Dwina, rises in the Valdai hills near lar. 560 N. and lov. 33° E. and pursuing a westerly course of 500 miles falls into the gulf of Riga at Dunamuode a few miles below Riga. It is navigable throughout the greater part of its course. 6. The Nleinen rises a few miles south of Minsk, in lat. 53° N. and lon. 27° 30° E. and ropning north of west passes into Prussia, and discharges itself into the Kurische Haf, a large iplet of the Baltic. 7. 'The Pruth rises in the Carpathian mountains near lon. 25° E. and lai. 48° 30' N. It runs first to the east and then to the south. The first part of its course for a little distance is ia the Austrian dominions, but it soon becomes the boundary between Russia and Turkey and continues so till it falls into the Danube. 8. The Dniester has its source in a lake amid the Carpathian mountains in Austrian Galicia. and after traversing a great part of that country enters Russia and empties itself into the Black sea, after a S. E. course of abont 600 miles. 9. The Dnieper rises in the Valdai hills near the source of ibe Duna, and after a winding course to the south of more than 800 miles, in which it passes by Smolensk, Mohilev, Kiev, and Cherson, falls into the Black sea a little to the east of the mouth of the Dniester. It begins to be navigable very early, even above Smolensk; but in the lower part of its course the navigation is impeded by islands, and at one place, about 200 miles from its inouth, by falls which continue for nearly 40 miles. A little above its mouth the river widens into a kind of lake or marsh, called Liman, into a hich the Bog, one of the principal tributaries of the Dnieper, discharges

itself after a S. E. course of about 400 mileg. 10. The Don rises in the Valdai hills in the government of Tuin, and pursues a course at first S. E. then S. W. and on the whole S. of about 800 miles, and discharges itself into the bay of Taganrok at the N. E. extremity of the sea of Azoph. It is navigable for ships of burthed for many hundred miles from the middle of April to the end of June, but during the rest of the year the water on several of the shallows is not above a foot and an half deep. 11. The Volga, the largest river in Europe, has its source in a lake among the Valdai hills in lat. 57° N. and lon. 33° E. and after running at first in an easterly direction to Kazan in lop. 50° E. turns and pursues a southerly course till it discharges itself into the Caspian sea through 70 mouths. !! is 3.200 miles long, and is remarkably free from rapids, being navigable without interruption to Tver in lat, 66° 50 N. and lon. 36° 16' E. It abounds in fish more than any other river of the old world; the produce of the fisheries near the mouth of the river being valued at several million dollars annually. The principal tributaries of the Voigá are the Kama, which joins it 24 iniles below Kazan, and is hy some geographers.considered as part of the boundary between Europe and Asia ; and the Oka, which joins it at Nizpei Novgorod in lon. 44° E.

Climate Russia in Europe presents almost every variety of climate as might be expected from the great extent of the country. its northern provinces are almost uninhabitable on account of the intensity and long continuance of winter. The peninsula of the Crimea presents, on the contrary, all the luxuriance of the southern year; while the middle regions are blest with the mild seasons of England and Germany. In general it may be remarked that the cold is far greater than that of the west of Europe in the same parallels of latišude. The Neva is annually frozen from November to March, and the ice in tbe sea of Az.ph and the Black sea sometimes extends to a considerable distance from the land.

Soil and Productions.] The soil is very various, from the cold marshes which border the White sea and Frozen ocean to the rich and fertile plains along the Don and the Volga. In respect to productions Russia may be divided into four regions, 1. The northwest division,embracing Finland and the adjacent provinces to the north and east, is a bleak country producing rye, barley, oats, and in a few districts wheat, hut a great part of the surface is covered by lakes and rocks. 2. The northern division, comprising all the rest of the country above the parallel of 60°, is too bleak for tillage, and the inhabitants live chiefly by hunting and fishing. 3. The central and much the largest division, including ail įhe country between the parallels of 50° and 60° N. lat. produces hemp, flax and wheat in great quantities. 4. The southern divisjon, including all the provinces below the parallel of 50°, produces tobacco and ma ze as well as wheat, and near the soutbein verge vines, mulberries, almon's, figs and the olive. Agriculture is in general in a very backward state, though less so in the Baltic and

the southern provinces than in the rest of the empire. Russia is Europe is not distinguished for its mineral productions, the mountains which contain the richest mines being in the Asiatic provinces.

Chief Towns.) St. Petersburg, the capital of the Russian empire, is situated in lat. 59° 56' N. at the eastern extremity of the gulf of Finland, at the mouth of the river Neva. It is entirely a modera city, having been founded by Peter the great in 1703, on a low marshy spot of ground, which at that time contained only two huts. The form of the city is nearly circular, and its diameter is about four miles. The Neva flowing from east to west divides it into two parts, of which the larger and more populous is on the south side of the river. Soon after entering the city the Neva sends off a branch, and from the middle of the city another branch, both to the northward. These fall soon after into the sea, forming two islands on which the northern part of the city is built. The main stream flows through the middle of the city, and has along its south side a quay three miles in length, and embanked in all its extent with a wall and pavement of granite. The southern division of St. Petersburg is intersected by canals, so that water communications extend to every part of the town. No city in Europe can compare with St. Petersburg in the width and regularity of its streets. The houses are generally of brick and built in a simple style of architecture. The commerce of the town is very extensive, about one half of the foreign trade of the Russian empire being carried on through this port. The merchants in the foreign trade are almost entirely foreigners, principally Englishmen, but the interior traffic is in the hands of the natives, foreigners being prevented by law from engaging in it. The population of the town according to a census taken in 1817 was 285,000, of whom 65,000 were in the land and sea service, and 25,000 were foreigners.

Moscow, the largest city in Russia, and formerly the capital of the empire, is situated 400 miles S. E. of St. Petersburg in lat. 556 46' N. and lon. 37° 33' E. Including the suburbs it is more than 20 miles in circumference. The river Moskwa, a branch of the Oka, traverses it from west to east, and in its progress through the city receives two rivolets which flow into it from the north. Moscow consists of five circular or semicircular divisions, each surrounding the other. ]. The central part contains the Kremlin or citadel, and the ancient palace of the czars, together with sereral churches and monasteries. 2. The Kitaigorod, or Chinese town, surrounding the Kremlin in a circular form, contains numerous bazars and shops, and several public buildings. 3. The Bielo-gorod or White town extends partly around the second division in the form of a crescent, and derives its name from the white stone walls with which it was forinerly encompassed. 4. The Semliano-gorod or Earthen town, much more extensive than either of the preceding, and surrounding them both in a circular form. 5. The Slobodes or suburbs, which to the number of nearly 30, surround the wbole, and occupy a great extent of

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