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boundary of the country, dividing the dutchies of Holstein and Lauenburg from the kingdom of Hanover.
Canal.] The canal of Kiel connects the Baltic with the river Eyder, and thus opens a communication netween that-ea and i he German ocean. It is 22} miles long. 100 feet wide at the surface, 54 at the bottom, and at least 10 feet deep, and admits the passage of vessels of 120 tons This capal was begun in 1777 and finished in 1784. The number of vessels that passed through it during the war of 1803, when the navigation by the Sound was interrupted, was from 3,000 10 4,000, and the tolls collected upon it afforded a considerable revenue.
Face of the Country, Soil and Productions.] The face of the country is a low plain interrupted by very few hills and no mountains. The principal i'idge of hills runs through the peninsula of Jütland from north 10 south. It consists parily of gravel and partly of red sand, and produces only heath plants and low bushes. On the east side of this ridge the soil is fertile and productive; at the northern extremity it is sandy and dry ; on the western coast, it is fertile but marshy, and protected against the inroads of the sea partly by natural sand-heaps and partly by artificial dykes. The soil of Sleswick and Holstein is very fertile, particularly in the marshy districts along the coast The principal productions are grain, large quantities of which are exported, pota. toes, tobacco, madder, flax, hemp, &c. In Funen, Holstein and the south of Jutland the agriculture may be compared with that of England.
Aniinals.) The Danish horses, particularly those of Holstein, are admired for their beauty, strength, and speed, and are exported in considerable numbers to Germany, France, Russia, and Sweden. The breed of horned cattle is also in general very good, and that of sheep has been of late years improved by intermixture with Merinos. Swine are raised in large numbers and furnish a large quantity of bacon for exportation to Norway, Holland and
Even the abundance of poultry is worthy of notice, as their feathers form an important branch of trade.
Cliinate.) The climate is temperate, and though the atmosphere during the greater part of the year is thick and cloudy as in England. the country is with few exceptions perfectis healthy. The winter is occasionally of extreme severity, and the sea is impeded with ice. The Sound has at times been crossed by heavy loaded carriages.
Chief Towns.] Copenhagen, the metropolis of Denmark, and the best built city in the north of Europe, is on the east coast of the island of Zealand about 20 miles from the narrowes' part of the Sound. The harbor, which is formed by an arm of ihe sea running between the city and the opposite island of Amack, is Jeep enough for vessels of the largest size, and sufficiently capacious to admit 500 merchantmen, while the entrance is so parrow that only one ship can enter at a time. The city is made up of aree distinc parts, viz. The Old Town in the S. W. which is the largest and most populous part; the New Town or Freder.
ickstown, in the N. W. some parts of which are extremely beautiful; and Christianshaven, in the south, on the island of Amack, separated from the rest of the town by the inlet that forms the barbor, over the narrowest part of which there are two bridges. The island of Amack is several leagues in circuit, and forins à succession of kitchen gardens and meadows, which furnish the city with vegetables, milk, butter, and cheese. Copenhagen is not only the residence of the court, but the seat of all the great public establishments of the kingdom. Among the public buildings and institutions are 20 churches, and several Jewish synas gogues, 22 hospitals, a university, and a royal library of more than 250,000 volumes. The trade of the city is very extensive, and the shipping belonging to the port may be computed, on an average, at 400 vessels, manned by nearly 6,000 sailors. The population is computed at 105,000. Copenhagen was attacked by the British in 1807, and above 300 houses, including the cathedral and part of the university, were destroyed.
Altona, the second city in Denmark in size and importance, is on the Elbe two miles west of Hamburgh. It is well built and has 7 churches, an academy with seven teachers, and several manufactories. It carries on considerable inland and foreign commerce, and is extensively engaged in the fisheries. The number of vessels belonging to the port is 70, of which 30 are employed in the herring fishery. The population, according to Hassel, is 23,083, of whom 2,400 are Jews.
Kiel, the capital of Holstein, stands 51 miles N. of Hamburgh, at the bottom of a bay or gulf of the Baltic forming a convenient harbor, which is connected with the river Eyder by the canal of Kiel. A great annual fair takes place in January, but at other times there is little commercial activity. It has a university and 7,000 inhabitants. Sleswick, the capital of the dutchy of the same name, is 26 miles N:W. of Kiel, at the bottom of a long narrow bay of the Baltic, and contains 73000 inhabitants. Flensborg, 16 miles north of Sleswick, has a fine barbor and a flourishing commerce. The population is 15,000, and the number of ships 250. Odensee, the capital of the island of Funen, is 86 miles W.S.W. of Copenhagen, on a river which runs into a large bay on the N. E. side of the island about a mile from the town. The population is 6,500. Aalborg, the capital of a bishopric of the same name in Jutland, stands on the south bank of the bay of Lymfiord, about 10 miles from its mouth. It has considerable commerce in coro and excellent herrings. The population is 6,000. Aarhuus, on a bay of the Cattegat, 48 miles S. of Aalborg, is the chief point of communication between Jutland and the island of Zealand. It has 6,000 inhabitants, and carries on a considerable commerce, no less than 100,000 tons of corn being annually exported. Gluckstadt, on the Elbe, 20 miles from its mouth, and 28 N. W. of Hamburgh, has a considerable number of vessels engaged in the whale fisheries. The population is 5,000.
Elsinore is a well known seaport in Zealand, 20 miles north of Gopenhagen, on the west side of the Sound, nearly opposite to
Helsingborg in Sweden, at the point where the Sound is narrowest, being here less than 4 miles across. It has no harbor, but an excellent roadstead, generally crowded with vessels on their way to or from the Baltic, and anchoring here to pay toll or take in stores, the supply of which torms the business of the place. The aggregate number of vessels of all pations passing the Sound iš nearly 10,000, of which by far the greatest proportion is British; and the toll paid by them is about one per cent. on the value of the cargoes, and varies in amount from £120,000 to £150,000 sterling. "Consuls reside here from all the maritime nations in Europe The population of the town is nearly 7,000. The fortress of Cronberg, situated on a point of land a little to the north of Elsinore, is accounted one of the keys of the kingdom, being specially intended to guard the passage of the Sound, though its inadequacy to this object was fully demonstrated by the passage of the British fleet in 1801.
Population and Religion.] The population according to Hassel is 1,565,000. The established religion is the Lutheran under 7 bishops and 2 general superintendants, but all other religions are tolerated. The whole number of the clergy is 1580.
Education.) The university of Copenhagen bas 36 professors and 500 students, a library of 40,000 volumes, a botanical garden, and observatory. The university of Kiel has 28 professors and 107 students. In every parish there are two or three schools' where children are taught reading, writing and arithmetic. There are besides many Latin schools maintained at the public expense.
Government.) Denmark was formerly a limited monarchy, but in 1660, by one of the most singular revolutions recorded in history, the nobility, clergy and peasantry joined in surrendering their rights to the sovereign, so that Denmark is now, in law, an: absolute monarchy of the most unqualified kind; but the exercise of this power has been modified by the spirit of the age, the effect of the Protestant religion and the progress of improvement. The crown is hereditary in the male and female line, and the title of the sovereign is King of Denmark, grand duke of Holstein, duke of Sleswick, Lauenburg, &c. The dutchies of Holstein and Lauenburg, which are within the limits of Germany, make the king of Denmark a member of the Germanic confederation, and entitle him to a voice in the diet of Frankfort. ln regard to the administration of justice, Sleswick and Holstein preserve their ancient institutions, while Jutland and the islands are governed by the Danish code.
Revenue. The revenue of Denmark is about $7,000,000. The national debt is nominally between 60 and 70 million dollars, but in reality less on account of its depreciation.
Army and Navy.) The army on the present peace establishment consists of 26,000 men. The navy contains 3 ships of the line, 4 frigates and 3 brigs, with only 4,000 seamen in actual service, but the number is capable of being easily increased as there are several thousand registered seamen at the disposal of the
Manufactures and Commerce.] The manufactures, in general, extend only to the supply of the country, furnishing no surplus for exportation. The principal manufacturing establishments are at Copenhagen and Altona. The exports consist principally of corn to Norway ; borses to Germany, France, Sweden and Russia; oxen to Holland and Germany; live hogs and bacon 10 Norway; and dried fish to the Mediterranean. In 1816 the value of the corn exported was about $2,500,000, of fish $500,000, and of animals $500,000. Denmark is finely situated for navigation being almost surrounded by the sea. In 1802 there were 1,378 vessels belonging to this small state, measuring 130,000 tons, and manned by 9,000 seamen. Within a few years, however, the commerce and shipping of the country have very greatly diminished.
Islands.] The principal islands are Zealand, Funen and LaaJand. All the other Danish islands in the Baltic, with one or two exceptions, are considered as dependencies on these three.
Zealand, the largest of the Danish islands, is separated by the Sound from Sweden, and by the Great Belt from the island of Funen. It is very fertile and produces all kinds of grain, particuJarly barley. Its principal dependencies are, 1. The island of Samso, between Zealand and Jutland, 14 miles long, 5 broad, and containing 44 square miles with 5,0.90 inhabitants. 2. Moen, lying off the S. E. extremity of Zealand and separated from it by a narrow channel, is 16 miles long and contains 90 square miles, and 7,000 inhabitants. It is very fertile in corn. 3. Bornholm, the most easterly of the Danish islands, is 75 miles east of Zealand and 15 from the coast of Sweden in lat. 55° 12' N. and lon. 15° 20' E. It is 20 miles long, and contains 230 square miles, and 19,000 inhabitants. The soil is stony but fertile, producing coro in abundance and good pasture. The shore is every where difficult of access on account of the rocks.
Funen, which ranks next to Zealand in size and importance, is separated from Jutland by the Little Belt. It is very fertile, and produces corn and cattle in abundance for exportation. The principal dependency of Funen is Langeland, lying near its S. E. extremity, and separated from it by a narrow channel. It contains 100 square miles and 11,000 inhabitants, and is everywhere fruitful.
Laaland, lying between Langeland on the west and Falster on the east, is considered the most fertile spot in the Danish dominions. The land is low and marshy and the climate unhealthy, but it produces all kinds of grain, potatoes, flax, and hops in abundance for exportation. Falster, lying to the east of Laaland and separated from it by a narrow channel, contains 200 square miles and 14,000 inhabitants. It is productive in various kinds of grain, pulse and potatoes, but especially in fruit, which has given it the name of the orchard of Denmark.'
Femern, on the eastern coast of Holstein, iş about 30 miles in circumference, and contains 7,000 inhabitants.
Faroe Islands. The Faroe or Farver islands are a group of islands belonging to Denmark, lying in the Northern Atlantis
ocean to the N. W. of Shetland, between 61° 15' and 62° 20° N. lat. They consist of 25 islands, of which 17 are inhabited. The number of square miles is 550, and the population, in 1812, was 5,209. The islands consist generally of naked rocks, some rising to a great height, and presenting at a distance a most imposing appearance of grandeur. The principal part of the grain consumed in the islands is imported from Denmark. The chief wealth of the inhabitants consists in sheep; and fishing is also an important source of subsistence.
Situation and Extent.] Iceland, a large island in the northere Atlantic ocean belonging to Denmark, is situated between 63° and 67° N. lat. and between 12o and 25° W. long. Its length from east to west is about 280 miles, its mean breadth from north to south 210, and its superficial contents may be estimated at 40,000 square miles.
Face of the country, Mountains, &-c.) fceland has every appear. ance of having been formed by the operations of submarine volcanoes. In no quarter of the globe do we find crowded within so narrow a compass such a number of volcanic mountains, so many boiling springs, or such immense tracts of lava as here arrest the attention of the traveller. The general aspect of the country is the most rugged and dreary imaginable. On every side appear marks of confusion and ruins. Streams of brown lava destitute of all vegetation, vast chasms, from some or other of which volumes of smoke are perpetually ascending, occur in every part of the island. Every hill almost is a volcano; and besides the smaller cones and craters, there are several, whose eruptions are of the most terrific character. In the midst of this region of fire are not fewer than twelve or fourteen mountains, whose summits are covered with eternal ice, the quantity of which is every year increasing and extending nearer and nearer to the inhabited districts. The principal range of mountains runs through the island from east to west, and at the eastern extremity of the chain the ice has advanced almost to the shore, and threatens to cut off the communication between the southern and eastern districts. The most celebrated single mountain is Hecla, a volcano, which rises near the southern extremity of the island to the height of 5,000 feet above the level of the sea, and whose eroplions have been very numerous and powerful
Boiling Springs.] These springs occur in almost every part of the island and many of them throw up large colomas of boiling water, accompanied by immense volumes of steam, to an almos: