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however to a considerable extent an independent kingdom, preserving its ancient constitution and laws, and having a separate assembly or diet, a separate treasury, and separate army. The union with sweden consists simply in its being permanently governed by the same king.
Revenue, Ariny and Navy) The annual revenue is usually about $1,500,000. The army con-ists of 12,000 regular troops, besides militia. The navy is on a very small scale, containing only six brigs, eight schooners, and about 100 gunboats.
Fisheries. The fisheries are extensive, and may be considered, after timber and iron, the chief support of the export trade. The herring and cod fisheries are the principal branches, and give employment to many of the poor inhabitants along the coast. Salmon are likewise canght in great numbers in the lakes and rivers.
Manufactures and Coininerce. Norway, like other poor and thinly peopled countries, has scarcely any manufactures, the only wurks entitled to that name being the forges, foundries, glasshores, potash refineries, and saw-mills, which owe their existence principally to the abundance of wood. The principal imparts are manufactured goods of various descriptions, groceries, wine, and corn. The exports are timber, iron, copper, fish and oil, potash and glass, also cattle, hides and tallow. The commerce is principally with England, Holland and Denmark. The shippiay be onging to Norway amounts to nearly 100,000 tons, and the number of seamen is about 10,000.
Natural Curiosity.) The Malstrom, or Moskoe-strom, is a remarkable whirlpool near the little island of Moskoe, one of the Loffoden isiands, in about lat. 68° N. It occasioned by the very rapid ebb and Hood of the sea between Moskoe and a neighboring island. About a quarter of an hour, at high and low water, it is qmet. But when the tide is rising or falling, and especially when the N.W. wind blows in opposition to the tide, the sea boils with the most violent agitation ; its roar is heard at the distance of many leagues, and the force and extent of the vortex is so great, that ships three miles off are sometimes forced towards the centre and tinally dashed in pieces against the bottom. Whales are frequently absorbed by it in spite of their endeavours to escape.
Sttuation and Extent.] Sweden is bounded on the N. by Norwar; on the .. by Ru-sia and the Gulf of Bothna; on the S. E. and S. fry the Baltic sea ; and W. by the Sound, the Callegat and Nor sav. It extends from 55° 20 to 69° 30' V. lat. being about 1,00 les long from north to south, and containing according te Hassel 138,433 square miles.
Divisions.) Sweden is divided into 24 lans or provinces, as in the following table.' The extent and population in 1800 are annexed to each province.
Sg. miles. Popu- Pop. oz.
a sq.m I. Sweden Proper,
40,722 654,000 16 Provinces. 1. Stockholm city, 2. Stockholmiand,
2.838 171,797 60 3. Drotningholm, 4. Upsal,
2. 130 81,131 33 5. Nykoping,
2,977 96,547 32 6. Westeras,
86,583 30 7. Orebro,
3,872 95,025 24 8. Stora Kopparberg,
25,696 122,624 or Fahlun, II. G tblanıl,
- 42,086 1,454,000 34 9. Gottenburg,
1,892 116,674 69 10. Elfsborg,
5,434 152,937 30 11. Halmstad,
2,024 71,599 35 12 Christianstad,
2.310 116,681 50 13. Malmohus,
1,804 142,06 78 14. Skaraborg,
3,190 135,695 42 15. Linkoping,
4,510 158,057 35 16. Jonkoping,
4,400 114.480 17. Kronoberg,
3,608 87,604 24 18. Kalmar,
4,048 129,548 32 19. Bleking or
1,127 62,402 55 Carlscrona, 20. Carlstad,
6,578 135,138 20 21. Gotbland or
1,078 31,291 29 Wigby, III. Norland and Lapland, 106,304 239,132 2
(Gestrikland, 22. Gefleborg
Helsingland, 12,430 83,260 including
Medelpad, 3. Hernosand
Jamtland, 26,576 84,500 including
Asele Lapmark, 25. Umea
Umea Lapmark, 67,298 71,372 including
Face of the Country.) The coast is indented by numerous inlets, and is every where lined with a succession of small islands and rocks, which render the navigation very difficult and dan
gerous. The principal chain of mountains is that elevated range which divides Sweden from Norway and from which numerous inferior ridges proceed towards the S. E. The whole country is diversified with extensive lakes, large transparent rivers, wild cataracts, gloomy forests, verdant vales, stupendous rocks and cultivated fields.
Lakes.] The lakes are very numerous in all parts of Sweden. Of these the most important are, 1. Malar lake, which is about 60 mies long and from 20 to 30 broad, and communicates with the Baltic at Stockholm. It is said to contain upwards of 1200 islands, great and small. 2. The lake of Hielmar, lying southwest of lake Malar and communicating with it by a rapid torrent. It is 40 miles long but of small width. 3. Lake Wetter, lying south west of Hielmar lake, is 80 miles long but seldom more than 12 broad, and discharges its waters through the river Motala into the Baltic. 4. Lake Wener, lying N. W. of lake Wetter, is the largest of all, being 80 miles long and in some places 50 broad, and discharges its waters through the river Gotha into the Cattegat.
Rivers.) The largest rivers in Sweden are cailed Elbs or Elfs Gotha Elf, the outlet of lake Wener, leaves it at its S. W. extremity, and pursuing a course W. of S. for 70 iniles discharges itself inio the Cattegat hy two mouths, several miles apart. Soon after leaving lake Wener it forms the famous cataracts of Trolthala. Numerous rivers fall into Jake Wener, the most considerable of which is Clara Elf, which rises in Norway, in lake Foemund, a little south of the Dofrafield mountains, and pursuing a southeasterly course of about 280 miles discharges itself into lake Wener at Carlstad. The Gotha Elf is frequently considered as merely a continuation of the Clara Elf. The Motala, the outlet of lake Weller, flows in an easterly direction, and passing by Norkoping, falls into the Baltic after a course of 65 miles
'The Ditl is formed by two branches, both of which rise in the mountains on the borders of Norway, near lat. 62° N. It falls into the gulf of Bothnia about ten miles east of Geffle, after a circuitous course of more than 250 miles. Near its mouth is a celebrated cataract, esteemed little inferior to that of the Rhine at Schaffhausen, the breadth of the river being nearly a quarter of a mile, and the perpendicular height of the fall between 30 and 40 feet. There are numerous other rivers north of the Dal, which rise in the mountains on the western boundary and pursue a southeasterly course to the gulf of Bothnia. They are gen. erally rapid in their course and incapable of navigation. The names of the most important, heginning in the south, are the Anverinan, the Umea, the Pitea, the Lu'ea, and the Tornea.
Cinul.] There is a canal around the cataracts of Trollhata in the river Gotha, which overcomes a fa!l of 130 feet. It is a minivan, 22 1764 broad, and 9 feet deep, and in some parts is cut throth hain! rock. This important undertaking, which was completed in 1300, opens a safe and commoclious water commu
bication from Gottenburg to the extensive country around lake Woer It is the intention of the Swedish government to prolong this line of navigation through the Wetter and several other lakes to the eastern coast, thereby forming a direct commumication between the Baltic and the German ocean, passing through the centre of the kingilom.
Roads.) Great attention has been paid by the government to the roads of Sweden. Though not so broad, they are as good as the English turnpikes. The traveller journeying many thonsands of miles, and in every direction, will scarcely find one that deserves the name of indifferent. They are made wiib stone and gravel, yet nu toll is exacted. Each landholder is obliged to keep a part in repair, proportione i to his property.
Climate.) The different parts of Sweden present considerable varieties of temperature ; but even io the middle regions winter maintains a long and dreary sway. The gulf of Bothnia becomes one field of ice. and travellers pass uver il regularly to Russia. In the most southern provinces, where the mass of the population is centered, the limate may be compared to that of Scotland, which lies under the same parallel ; but the western gales from the Atlantic, which deluge the Scottish Highlan is with perpetuai rain, and form the chief obstacle to improvement are here little telt. In the north the summer is hot from the great length of The days, and vegetation arrives quickly at macurity. At Tornea, the sun is for some weeks visible at midnight; and the winter in return presents as many weeks of complete darkness. Yet these long nights are relieved by the light of the moon, by the reflection from the snow, and by the Aurora Borealis, or Borthern lights, which dart their ruddy rays through the sky with an almost constant effulgence.
Soil and Productions.] The soil of many parts of the northern districts is so full of stones and rocks, that there is scarcely roork for a tree to take root, but in the vallies and plains, wherever the climate permits, it is quite productive. The southern provinces are the most fertile, and agriculture is here conducted with much skill and industry. The quantity of corn raised in the country is not sufficient for the consumption of its inhabitants. It is estimated that 6,400,000 tons are annually produced, and 400,000 tons imported. The quantily of Max and hemp also is not enough for the supply of the country, but ot hops there is a superabundance. The immense forests which spread over the mountains yield excellent timber for masts and other purposes, and an abundance of tar and turpentine.
Minerals.] The principal mineral production is iron, and Swedish jron has long been celebrated as the best in the world. Tbe mine of Dannemora, in the province of Upsal, is particularly celebrated for the superiority of the metal, which in England is cailed Oregrund iron, because it is exported from Oregrund, an adjacent port. The mine yields annually more than 4,000 tons of metal, and employs about 1200 persons. The chief copper mines are in the province of Stora Kopparberg near the town of Fahlun.
Sweden also produces lead, silver and gold, thougb not in large quantities.
Chief Towns.) Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, is situated at the junction of lake Malar with an inlet of the Baltic. The form of the town is an irregular oblong, extending from north to sonth, while the waters cross it in two channels from east to west. The situation is extremely picturesque, as well on account of the lake and barbor, and the numerous islands which they contain, as from the unevenness of the surrounding country, which rises in some places in gentle eminences, and at others in abrupt rocks. Stockholm is generally described as standing on seven islands, but several of them are very small and contain only forts or buildings for naval purposes. The harbor is perfectly safe and sufficiently capacious to receive a thousand ships, and the largest of them may come close to the quays. It has, however, some disadvaotages arising from the number of small islands and rocks at the mouth of the inlet from the Baltic, and from the delay occasionally experienced in coming up a winding channel from the sea, a distance of more than 20 miles. Stockholm is the commercial emporium of the central part of Sweden. Its connection with the interior is very extensive by means of lake Malar and various rivers and canals united with it. The town in well built, and contains 13 bridges, 22 churches, and numerous other public buildings, some of which are in a fine style of architecture. The population in 1815 was 73,000.
Gottenburg is a large and thriving town in the southwest of Sweden, near the mouth of the Gotha Elf. It stands in a marshy plain, surrounded by precipitous ridges of naked rocks, rising to the height of from 100 to 300 feet. The town is built parily on the plain and partly on the declivity of one of the ridges. In the lower part of the town the houses are all built on piles; the streets here cross each other at right angles, and several of them are traversed by canals bordered with trees. The upper town is built with less regularity, but it has an imposing appearance, the houses rising one above another in the form of an amphitheatre. The barbor is formed by two long chains of rocks, about a quarter of a mile apart, and is defended by a fort on a -mall rocky island at the entrance. As a commercial and manufacturing town, Gottenburg ranks next to Stockholm, and it is more conveniently situated for foreign trade than any other place in Sweden. It is the seat of the Swedish East India Company, which has the exclusive privilege of importing East India commodities into the kingdom, and its commercial connections extend to all parts of Europe, to America, and the West Indies. The herring fishery was formerly carried on to a great extent, and there are several vessels engaged in the whale fishery. The amount of shipping is about 17,000 tons. The population in 1815 was 21,000.
Carlscrona, in the province of Blekingen, 220 miles S. S. W. of Stockholm, is the principal station of the Swedish navy. It is built on five rocky islands, which are connected together by bridges.