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tish Loch, is sometimes applied to an estuary or to an inlet of the sea, such as the Swilly, the Foyle, &c. The chief lake of fresh water is the Ern, which consists of two parts united by a sbort river or strait. It is 30 miles long, and 12 in its greatest breadth, and discharges itself through a river of the same name into the bay of Donegal, three miles below Ballyshannon. Lough Neagh in the N. E. is 22 miles long and 12 broad, and discharges its waters into the sea through the river Bann. The lake of Corrib is on the N. side of the bay of Galway into which it discharges its waters through a short rocky stream. Lough Ree and Lough Derg are mere expansions of the Shannon. Lough Lane, or as it is more commonly called the lake of Killarney, is in the S. W. part of the island and discharges its waters through Lane river into Dingle bay. It is a small lake but celebrated for the beautiful and romantic scenery with which it is surrounded.
Mountains. ] The mountainous chains of Ireland are neither numerous nor important, for though the country contains many single gummits of considerable elevation, vet they are not collected into such masses as to give to Ireland the character of a mountainous country. The most considerable connected chain is the ridge of bills which passes through the island from S. W. to N. E. forming the height of land between the waters which fow east into St. George's channel and those which flow west into the Atlantic. The Irish mountains generally form short lines or detached groups, which are so dispersed through the country, that there are few places in which the prospect is not terminated by this majestic scenery, forming a back ground seldom more remote than 20 miles. On the west and south side of the lake of Killarney is one of the highest ridges in the country; Mangerton, the loftiest summit, rising to the height of 2,693 feet above the level of the sea. There are many other single mountains in different parts of the island which exceed 2,500 feet, but there are none which reach to the height of 3,000 feet.
Face of the country. The face of the country is agreeably diversified w th mountains, hills, plains and valleys. The most mountainous parts are near the coast, particularly towards the south and west. The hills are in general easy of ascent, and admit of culture a' considerable way up their sides. The most extensive levels are about the middle of the island.
The bogs of Ireland form a very remarkable feature in the face of the country. They are supposed not to be of very great antiquity, and the most probable account of their origin seems to be that they were formed out of the ruins of forests, which having been thrown down, the trees were suffered to lie on the spot, and in this position intercepting and confining streams of water with the various rubbish brought with them, they became gradually covered with a vegetation of moss, sedgy grass, rushes and various aquatic plants. These bogs are rarely level, but genepally rise into hills. The reclaiming of these immense wastes has long been accounted an object of great national importance, and in 1809 commissioners were appointed to inquire into their extent
and the practicability of draining and cultivating them. In their reports, ihey state that the bogs cover more than one tenth of the surface of Ireland, but that they are confined principally to the middle section of the island ; it being supposed that a line drawn from Wicklow-head to Galway, and another drawn from Howthhead to Sligo would comprise between them nearly six-sevenths of all the bogs in the island. This extensive tract resembles in its form a broad belt drawn across the centre of Ireland, with its parrowest end nearest the capital, and gradually extending in breadth as it approaches the Western ocean. The commissioners were convinced that it was perfectly practicable to drain these bogs and convert the land to the purposes of tillage, and that the return from the drained land would much more than pay the expense of the undertaking.
Climate] The climate does not differ essentially from that of Great Britain. The principal difference is that it is more moist, the country lying more open to the Atlantic ocean, and westerly and south westerely winds being more prevalent. Generally speaking, the mean temperature of the north of Ireland is about 48° of Fahrenheit, of the middle 50°, and of the south 52°. Persons advanced in life complain of an unfavorable change in the climate within the last 60 or 70 years, saying that it is much severer and more uncertain than it used to be ; and some facts have been stated, which appear to confirm this account. The pine tree, especially that species called the Scotch fir, formerly grew on many of the mountains, and on parts of the northern and western coasts. Vast roots and noble trunks of this species of pine have been seen and examined with attention, in situations where human industry cannot now rear a twig of the hardiest tree.
Soil and Productions.) The soil is generally speaking a fertile loam, but remarkably shallow, the rocks appearing in many places on the surface, or at no great depth, even in the most flat and fertile parts. The quantity of cultivated land is greater in proportion than in England. Agriculture is in a backward state, though in many counties improvements begin to be adopted. Oats are most extensively cultivated, and form the principal food of the people. Ireland has long been celebrated for the immense quantites and excellent quality of the potatoes which it produces Flax is chiefly raised in the northeastern counties, and wheat in the southern. Many of the southern counties also and some of the western are principally occupied with dairy farms. The principal mineral productions are coal, which occurs in various parts of the island, and iron, which is abundant and in some instances of a very superior quality.
Chief towns] Dublin, the second city of the United kingdom in point of population, stanıls about a mile from the west side of Dublin bay, near the mouth of the Liffy, which passes from west to east through the centre of the city, and divides it into two nearly equal parts. The bay is of a circular form, and about six miles, in diameter ; but though spacious it is neither commodious not
safe, particularly in winter, owing to its great exposure to the winds from the east and south-east. To remedy this defect a strong wall of hewn stone has been built, 30 feet broad and nearly five miles long, extending directly into the bay, and terminated by a handsome light-house. It was begun in 1748, and finished within 7 years. The river Liffy, from the point where it enters the bay, is embanked on both sides with a noble wall of freestone, forming a range of beautiful and spacious quays through the whole city, uninterrupted by any building whatever nearer to its sides than the breadth of a wide street, for nearly 3 miles. The river is crossed in its course through the city by six stone bridges, of which five are modern, and built in a handsome style of architecture.
The old part of the city is irregularly huilt, but that portion erected within the last 50 years, which is the most considerable, is laid out in broad streets with spacious and beautiful squares. The houses are generally brick, and from three to five stories high. There is perhaps no city which, in proportion to its size, can boast of a greater number of magnificent buildings. Among the public edifices are the castle, which occupies the centre of the city; the Royal exchange; the Commercial buildings; the Linen hall, a vast and massy pile of buildings forming the magazine for this staple manufacture of Ireland ; the custom house, a most magnificent structure, finished in 1790 at an expence of £255,000 ; Trinity college ; and a splendid obelisk, 210 feet high, recently erected on an eminence at the west end of the city in honor of the duke of Wellington. The commerce of Dublin is. very extensive, the amount of import duties alone paid at the custom house in 1817 was £945,000, a sum nearly as great as that of all the other ports in Ireland, together. The population is 187,939. The country around the bay of Dublin rises gradually on all sides from the shore, and is covered with a vast number of villas and villages, which produce a fine effect when viewed from the metropolis; and this, together with the beauty of the bay itself, which has frequently been compared with that of Naples, the mountains in the vicinity, and the peculiarly picturesque summits of those of Wicklow in the back ground, render the whole prospect strikingly beautiful.
Cork, the second city in Ireland, is 126 miles S. W. of Dublin. The principal part of the town is situated on an island formed by the river Lee, which divides into two branches a little above the town and upites again a little below it, encompassing a considerable extent of ground. The suburbs extend along the opposite banks of both branches, and are united with the rest of the town by several bridges. The public buildings are very plain in their appearance and the houses generally are far from elegant. The commerce of the town consists principally in the exportation of salted provision, butter, tallow and hides, and it is computed that 100.000 head of cattle are slaughtered and salted in a single season. Cork stands about 15 miles from the sea, and its harbor, er the Cove of Cork, njue miles below the town, has long been
celebrated for its safety and capaciousness. The entrance is deep and narrow, and defended by a strong fort on each side, and large sums have been lately expended in fortifying two islands, which command the entrance. The population of Cork is estimated at 90,000:
Limerick, the third city in Ireland, is 94 miles S. W. of Dublin, on the Shannon, 60 miles from its mouth. A part of the town is on an island formed by the Shannon, and was formerly fortified, and esteemed one of the strongest places in Ireland, but the walls are now demolished. The commerce of the town is considerable, and the exports consist principally of beef and other provisions, and the imports are rum, sugar, tobacco, timber, wine, salt, &c. The population is about 50,000.
Belfast is 80 miles N. of Dublin, on the west side of the small river Lagan, at its entrance into Belfast Lough or Carricksurgus bay. It manufactures large quantities of linen and cotton goods, and has extensive commerce, particularly with the West Indies and America. The value of the exports, which consisted principally of linen, beef, pork and butter, amounted in 1810 to nearly
£3,000,000. The progress of Belfast in population and commerce has been remarkably rapid. In 1782 the population amounted to only 13,000, while in 1816 it was computed at 30,000. The custom-house duties in 1800 were only £62,668 and in 1816, £349,417.
Among the other important towns are the following. Galway is on the north side of the bay of Galway, at the mouth of the short stony river which forms the outlet of Lough Corrib, and contains 12,000 inhabitants. Sligo is at the mouth of a small river which falls into the head of the bay of Sligo and contains 10,000 inhabitants. Londonderry is pleasantly situated on the west bank of Foyle river near its entrance into Lough Foyle. It has an extensive commercial intercourse with the West Indies and America, and contains 18,000 inhabitants. Newry, 30 miles S. S. W. of Belfast, on Newry water which falls into Carlingford bay, has 15,000 inhabitants and considerable manufactures and commerce. Drogheda is situated on both sides of the Boyne, a few miles from its mouth. It ntains 15,000 inhabitants, and carries on considerable trade in the exportation of large quantities of corn, and in the importation of coals and other heavy commodities, which are carried' up the river and distributed througlt the interior, by means of a canal: Wexford, at the mouth of the Slaney, 60 miles S. of Dublin, has considerable woollen manufactures and a population of 9,000. The harbor is spacious, but not deep enough for large vessels. Waterford is on the Suir which soon after joins the Barrow, and forms the bay called Waterford harbor. It has considerable commerce, and pachetboats sail regularly to and from Milford-Haven. The population is 35,000.
Canals.] The Grand canal connects the river Shannon with Đublin bay. It commences on the Shannon, about half way between lake Ree and lake Derg, and terminates in the city of
Dublin, in a wet dock on the south side of the Liffy. Another canal connects Dublin with the river Boyne: it terminates in a wet dock on the north side of the Liffy. Both these canals are navigated by boats of 60 tons burden. In the N. E. part of the island there are two canals; one opening a communication between Lough Neagh and Belfast bay on the east, and another connecting the same lake with Carlingford bay on the south.
Education. Trinity college in Dublin is the only university in Ireland. It was founded by queen Elizabeth, and consists of a provost, 25 fellows, and 70 scholars. There are 13 professors, and in 1818 the number of students was 1209. Attached to the university are a printing office, an anatomy house, an observatory, and a library of 68,946 volumes. The education of the lower classes has been almost entirely neglected. Within a few years, however, societies have been formed by the benevolent in Great Britain for the establishment of schools in Ireland, and their efforts have been attended with much success. In 1817 there were 27,000 children receiving instruction in the schools of the Hibernian society.
Government. Since 1800 Ireland has been inseparably united with Great Britain, and the two countries are styled the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Ireland sends 100 representatives to the house of communs, and 28 members to ibe house of lords as the representatives of the Irish peerage, besides five spiritual lords.
Religion. The established religion is that of the church of England; but it is computed that three fourths of the people are Catholics, and of the remaining fourth about one half are Presby. terians. The Catholics were forinerly very severely oppressed, being deprived of every civil privilege, and subjected to various penalties, on account of their religion. This system of intolerance is now considerably mitigated. The Catholics have been long freed from all penalties in consequence of their religion, and the road to civil and military distinction has been opened
to them, with some reservation of the higher offices.
Population and Character.] The population of Ireland has about doubled within the last 70 years. In 1754 it was 2,372,634, and at present it is estimated at more than 4,500,000. The roanners of the superior classes in Ireland very much resemble those of the English. The Irish gentry seldum devote theinselves to literature or science, but amuse themselves with hunting and other robust exercises. Hence an overflow of health and spirits; and the observation of an able writer that Ireland produces the stoutest men, and the finest women in Europe, musi not be confined to the inferior classes. The Irish peasantry are, in general, sunk in poverty and ignorance. They are lodged in miserable mud hovels with one door, and frequently without either winduw or chimney. They go almost naked, and their food consists al. most entirely of milk and potatoes. These remarks apply to the southern part of the island; the north of Ireland, having been