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course of about 1,000 miles, generally to the southeast, it falls into the Atlantic ocean between the parallels of 399 and 40°.
The Rio Negro, or Cusu Leuvu is formed by a number of streams which rise in the Andes between 35° and 38° S. lat. It pursues an easteriy course, and being joined by several branches, the principal of which is the Sanquel from the north, falls into the Atlantic near the parallel of 41. S. lat.
Inhabitants. Patagonia is inhabited by two principal nations of Indians, the Moluches, and the Puelches.' The Moluches occupy all the tract west of the Andes, and an extensive district east of the mountains. The Puelches inhabit the rest of the country, extending along the Atlantic coast and a considerable distance into the interior. Both these nations are subdivided into three or four tribes. The northern tribes of the Puelches are called by the Spaniards the Pampas, because they claim the immense plains of that name. They are of a roving disposition, and frequently attack and harass the Spanish settlements, as well as the travellers who pass from Buenos Ayres to Mendoza over the Pampas. The Tehuelbets, the most southern tribe of the Puelches, inhabit the coast of the straits of Magellan. They are very strong, well made, and warlike,and of extraordinary stature. Several of them are seven and an half feet high, and the usual height of those seen by the Spanish navigators in 1786 was from six and an half to seven feet.
Straits of Magellan.] The straits of Magellan, which separate Patagonia from Terra del Fuego, are 300 miles long, in some places several leagues broad, and in others not half a league. The navigation of these straits is dangerous in the extreme,
both on account of the violence of the currents and the tempestuous weather, so that ships bound to the Pacific ocean universally prefer the passage around Cape Horn.
Terra del Fuego, or the land of fire, is a large island, separated from Patagonia by the straits of Magellan. The face of the country is represented as dreary and inhospitable. It is inhabited by savages, about whom little is known. Statenland is a small island, 30 miles long by 12 or 15 broad, lying east of Terra del Fuego, and separated from it by the straits of Le Maire. It is barren and desolate, but the English have a small settlement upon it.
Falkland islands consist of two large islands, with a great sumber of small ones surrounding them, lying between 51° and 52°30 S. lat and intersected by the meridian of 60° W. Ion. The climate is so in hospitable, and the soil so barren, that they seem wholly unfitted for the habitation of men. The British attempted a settlement in 176+, but in 1774 they were ceded to Spain.
South Georgia, or New Georgia, in lat. 54° 30' S. and lon. 37° W. is a desolate island, inaccessible during a great part of the year,
on account of the ice with which it is surrounded. It is visited by the English and Americans, for the purpose of taking seals and sea elephants, which were formerly very numerous.
The Gallapagos islands lie in the Pacific Ocean, on both sides. of the equator, between Jon. 89° and 92° W.. about 200 miles from the western coast of South America. They are very numerous, but only nine are of any considerable size. Albemarle, the largest, is 65 miles long and 45 broad. Many of the islands are well wooded, and abound in fine turtles.
Bermudas, or Somers" islands, are a cluster of small islands in the Atlantic,belonging to the English, in number about 400,but for the most part so small and barren, that they have neither inhabitants nor name. They are about 200 leagues from cape Hatteras in North Carolina, and the north point of the group is in lat. 32° 24' N. lon. 63° 28' W. The principal island is St. George, on which there is a town containing 300 houses. The population of the whole group is 10,381, of whom 5,462 are whites and 4,919 blacks. The Bermudas contain from 10,000 to 12,000 acres of poor land, of which nine parts in 10 are either wholly uncultivated, or reserved in woods for a supply of timber for building small ships, sloops, and shallops for sale ; this being one principal occupation of the inhabitants. The air is so salubrious that invalids from the United States frequently go thither for the recovery of their health.
Situation and Extent.] Europe is bounded on the N. by the Arctic or Frozen Ocean; E. by Asia, from which it is separated towards the north by the Ural mountains, and towards the south by the sea of Azoph, the Black sea, the sea of Marmora, and the Grecian Archipelago ;* on the S. by the Mediterranean, which separates it from Africa; and on the W. by the Atlantic Ocean. Its greatest length, from cape St. Vincent at the southwestern. extremity, to the Ural mountains, is about 4,000 miles, and from cape Matapan, at the southern extremity of Turkey, in lat. 36° 23' N. to the North cape in lat. 71° 11', N. it is 2,400 miles broad. The area is estimated by Hassel' at 3,387,019 square miles.
The intermediate boundary, from the Ural mountains to the sea of Azoph is variously represented by geographers. The line which approaches nearest to a natural boundary begins on the sea of Azoph, at the mouth of the Don, and follows up that river to the point where it approaches nearest to the Volga ; then acros to the Volga, and up that river to the mouth of the Kama, one of its branches, whose head waters rise in the Ural mountains; the boundary would therefore be completed' by pursuing it along the Kama to its source.
Divisions.] Europe is commonly described under the following divisions : 1. Great Britain.
9. Germany. 2. Ireland.
10. Switzerland. 3. Norway.
11. Netherlands. 4. Sweden.
12. France, 5. Denmark.
13. Spain. 6. Russia.
14. Portugal 7. Prussia.
15. Italy. 8. Austria.
Seas.] The following are the principal seas. 1. The White Sea on the northern coast of Russia, opening into the Frozen Ocean ; 2. The North Sea, or German Ocean, which is almost inclosed by Great Britain on the west, and Netherlands, Germany, Denmark and Norway on the east. 3. The Baltic, which has Sweden and Denmark on the west, Germany and Prussia on the south, and Russia on the east. It is 600 miles long, from 75 to 150 broad, and contains about 120,000 square miles. 4. The Mediterranean, the largest sea in the world, lies between Europe on the north, Asia on the east, and Africa on the south. It is 2,000 miles long, and on an average between 400 and 500 broad, containing about 900,000 square miles. 5. The Grecian Archipelago, or Ægean sea, lies between Greece and Asia Minor, and abounds with small islands. 6. The sea of Marmora is a small body of water 90 miles long, lying between Turkey on the north, and Asia Minor on the south. 7. The Black sea,called also the Euxine, lies between Russia on the N. Asiatic Turkey on the E. and S. and Turkey in Europe on the W. It is 932 miles from east to west, and on an average 320 broad, containing about 300,000 square miles. 8. The sea of Azoph lies N. E. of the Black sea, and contains about 16,000 square miles.
Bays or Gulfs.] The principal bays in the Baltic are the Gulf of Bothnia, which separates Sweden from Russia, and the Gulfs of Finland and Riga, which lie wholly in Russia. The bay of Biscay washes the whole western coast of France and the northern coast of Spain, and opens into the Atlantic Ocean between Cape Ortegal and the island of Ushant or Ouessant. The principal bays in the Mediterranean are the gulf of Lyon, on the coast of France, the gulf of Genoa, in the N.W. part of Italy, and the gulf of Venice or Adriatic sea, which stretches from S. E. to N. W. between Italy and Turkey.
Channels.] The English channel lies between England and France. St. George's channel lies between Great Britain and Ire: Jand. The Cattegat separates Denmark from Sweden, The Skager Rack, which separates Denmark from Norway and opens into the North sea, is merely a continuation of the Cattegat.
Straits.] The strait of Jenikale connects the sea of Azoph with the Black sea; the Bosphorus, or strait of Constantinople, connects the Black sea with the sea of Marmora ; the strait of the Dardanelles, the ancient Hellespont, connects the sea of Marmora with the Archipelago ; the strait of Gibraltar separates Spain from 41
rica, and connects the Mediterranean with the Atlantic ocean ; the strait of Dover or Caluis separates England from France, and connects the English channel with the North sea or German ocean ; the Baltic communicates with be Cattegat by three straits ; the most eastern, called the Sound, lies between the island of Zealand and the coast of Sweden; the middle, called the Great Belt, between the islands of Zealand and Funen; and the western, called the Little Belt, between the islaod of Funen and the coast of Denmark
Rivers. The principal rivers are the following, beginning in the southwest. loto the Mediterranean flow the Ebro and the Rhone ; into the gulf of Venice, the Po; into the Black sea, the Danube, the Dniester, and the Dnieper; into the sea of Azoph, the Don; into the Caspian sea, which lies wholly in Asia, the Volga ; into the guif of Archangel, tije Dwina ; into the gulf of Riga, the Dwina or Duna ; into the Baltic, the Vistula and the Oder; into the North sea, the Elbe, the Weser, and the Rhine ; into the English channel, the Seine ; into the bay of Biscay, the Loire and the Garonne; into the Atlantic ocean, the Duero, the Tagus, the Guadiana and the Guadalquivir,
Most of these rivers are cunfined in their course to some particular country, under which they will be most conveniently described. The Danube, the Rhine, and the Rhone, however, belong to no one country. The Danube, the largest river of Europe except the Volga, rises near the S. W. corner of Germany, in lat. 48° Ñ. and after pursuing an easterly course throngh Germany, passes into Hungary, where it turns to the south and then to the S. E. and becomes for a short distance the boundary between Hungary and Turkey, after which its course lies wholly in Turkey till it discharges itself into the Black sea by five mouths between 44° 30' and 45° 30' of N. lat. It is 1620 miles long and is pavigable, though with some interruption from shoals and rapids, to Uim, in lon. 10° E.
The Rhine rises near the centre of Switzerland, and flowing N.E. falls into the lake of Constance. Issuing from that lake with a copious current, it Hows west, forming the boundary between Switzerland and Germany,and then turns to the north, forming the boundary between Germany and France for a short distance, after which its course lies wholly in Germany till it enters the kingdom of the Netherlands, where it turns to the west and di. vides into several streams, which pursue their way under various names to the North sea. It is 700 miles long, and is navigable with few interruptions from its mouth to the lake of Constance.
The Rhone rises also near the centre of Switzerland, within 5 miles of the source of the Rhine, and flowing west falls into the lake of Geneva. Issuing from that lake it pursues a southwesterly course into France, where it turns to the south, and discharges itself by three mouths into that part of the Mediterranean called the Gulf of Lyon, after a course of 500 miles. It is the most rapid river in Europe, and the upward navigation can be performed only by draught or steam.
Mountains.] The principal ranges of mountains are, 1. The Scandinavian chain, which commences at the southern extremity of Norway, and running north, soon becomes the boundary between Norway and Sweden. It proceeds in a northeasterly direction, parallel with the coast of Norway, almost to the 70th degree of N. lat. where it turns to the east, and soon after to the southeast, in which direction it continues till it gradually sioks into hills and terminates among the small lakes between the gulf of Finland and the White sea. In almost every part of its course it is parallel with the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, and in shape it resembles a horse shoe.
2. The Pyrenees run in an easterly direction from the bottom of the bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean, forming the boundary between France and Spain. From the western extremity å branch proceeds into Spain, and soon divides into numerous inferior chains, which diverge from each other, and spread themselves over the whole of Spain and Portugal. From the eastern extremity a branch proceeds into France, in a northeasterly direction till it reaches the sources of the Loire, where it divides into two. branches, oue of which proceeds in a northerly direction between the Loire and the Rhone, and the other in a northwesterly direction towards the centre of France.
3. The Alps, the loftiest mountains in Europe, form the northern boundary of Italy, separating it from France, Switzerland and Germany. They are in the form of an arch, with one end resting on the gulf of Genoa and the other on the gulf of Venice. Various chaine proceed from the Alps in almost every direction. The Apennines commence near the Mediterranean at the S. W. extremity, and pursuing an easterly course around the gulf of Genoa, turn to the S. E. and pass in that direction to the southern extremity of Italy. Another chain commences near the head of ihe gulf of Venice at the S. E. extremity of the main range, and pursuing at first a southeasterly course, passes in a semicircular form through the centre of European Turkey, and termiDates on the Black sea at Cape Emineh, in lat. 43° 30' N. The principal northern branch of the Alps is the Mount Jura chain, which commences near Geneva, at the S. W. extremity of Switzerland, and in the first part of its course forms the boundary between Switzerland and France, after which it continues to run in a northerly direction, under the name of the Vosges, on the west side of the Rhine, as far as the parallel of 50° N. lat. Ben sides these three principal branches, the Alps throw off numerous inferior chains in a northeasterly direction, waich overspread nearly the whole southern half of Germany.
4. The Carpathian mo'ıntains encircle Hungary on three sides, separating it from Germany on the N. W. from Galicia on the N. E. and from Turkey on the S. E. At the southeast extremity of the range, a branch proceeds in a southerly direction across the Dangbe to the centre of European Turkey, connecting the Cara pathian mountains with the great eastern branch of the Alps.