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period, is perfectly clear, and the dews are scarcely perceptible, nor is the beat oppressive. The proximity of the Andes tempers the air, and the mercury fuctuates belween 70 and 80 of Fahrenheit, and rarely rises to 85o. Thunder storms, so frequent on the east of the Andes, are unknown in this part of Chili. The climate, generally, is remarkably salubrious.
Soil and Productions. The humid region, south of the river Maule, is abundantly clothed with fine timber and forest trees; but in the dry region north of that river, there is only here and there a solitary tree. All the country lying south of the parallel of 32o, including the whole of the bumid region and the southern part of the dry region, is a land abounding with corn, wine and oil. The country between the parallel of 32o and the northern boundary is dry and barren of vegetable productions, but rich in mines of tin, copper, silver and gold. The principal productions are wheat, which is of an excellent quality, and extensively cultivated in the vallies; barley, which is raised in great quantity for the use of horses and mules; and hemp, which fourishes in every part where the soil can be regularly irrigated. The vine also is very generally cultivated, and with great profit, and the olive tree yields abundantly.' The climate and soil are well adapted to the culture of sugar; but the inhabitants have been long accustomed to get that article from Lima, in exchange for their wheat, and they are not disposed to alter their ancient habits. Rice, likewise, would grow on the low lands, but it is brought from Lima. Cattle are everywhere numerous and of a large size.
Minerals.] Almost all the precious and useful metals abound in the northern provinces. Gold is found in the sands of the plains, brooks and rivers, and to a greater or less degree in almost every mountain and hill. Several of the mines have been wrought for centuries and have yielded a great producé. All the silver mines are found in the highest and coldest parts of the Andes, and on that account few of them are worked. The silver mine of Huasco, discovered in 1811, is the richest in the world; any given quantity of the ore, yielding more pure silver by one half than the ore of Guanaxuato, which is the richest in Mexico, and three times as much as that of Potosi Tbe copper mines are exceedingly numerous,and all that are worked yield at least half of the weight of the ore in refined copper. In 1787 there were more than 1,000, mines between the cities of Copiapo and Coquimbo. The copper of Coquimbo is esteemed the best in the world. The value of the gold and silver annually produced, a few years since was estimated at $3,000,000; and that of the copper and tin is supposed to be $500,000. Besides these metals, lead, and iron of the very best quality, are found in abundance. There are also several mines of quicksilver.
Volcanoes and Earthquakes.) There are 14 volcanoes in Chili which are in a state of constant eruption, and a still greater number that discharge smoke only at intervals. With one or two exceptions, they all lie nearly in the middle of the Andes from E to W. so that the lava and asbes thrown out by them, never
extend beyond the mountains. Three or four earthquakes occur in Chili annually. They are however slight, and little notice is taken of them. Between the years 1520 and 1782 only five great earthquakes occurred. That on the 15th of March 1657 destroyed a great part of the capital; that on the 18th of June 1730 drove the sea against the city of Conception, and overthrew its walls, and that on the 26th of May 1751, completely destroyed this city, which was again inundated by the sea, and levelled with the ground all the fortresses and villages situated between 34o and 40° S. lat.
Chief Towns.) St. Jago, the capital, is in lat 33° 31' S. in a delightful plain, on the south bank of the Mapocho, a branch of the Maypo, 90 miles from the ocean, and 21 from the Andes. The city is regularly laid out, the streets intersecting each other at right angles, and inclosing in the middle a spacious open square, on the sides of which are the principal buildings, and in the centre a beautiful fountain. Among the public buildings are a cathedral, four churches, elever convents, seven nunneries, three hospitals, a university and a mint. The private houses are built of unburnt bricks, and on account of the earthquakes are usually of one story. The population is estimated at 46,000.
Valparaiso, the port of St. Jago, and the most commercial city in Chili, is built on a high rugged promontory, which projects into the ocean, forming with the shore a deep crescent, the concavity of which, opening to the north, forms the harbor. The entrance is immediate and easy, and ships of any size, or in any number, may ride in persect safety against all winds but those from the north, which blow with great violence in winter, accom panied with a heavy sea. The town is built irregularly, the houses being scattered along the beach and over the hills and ravines of the promontory. The surrounding country is very barren, and all the vegetables and provisions consumed in the town are brought from Quillota, 36 miles distant. The population does not exceed 6,500 souls
Conception, the second city in rank in Chili, stands on the north side of the Biobio a league from tbe sea, and contains 13,000 jnhabitants. It was originally built three leagues to the north of its present position, but having been twice destroyed by earthquakes, the inhabitants removed
hither. Talcahuano, the port of Conception, is six miles distant, on the S. W. side of the bay of Conception. This þay is one of the largest and safest on the coast of the Pacific Ocean. It is 10 miles long from N. 10 S. and 9 from E. to W. The mouth of the bay opens towards the north, and is divided by the island of Quiriquina into two channels; the eastern and safest is two miles broad, and the western about a mile and an half. Both have sufficient depth of water for the largest vessels. There is good anchorage under the south side of the island of Quiriquina, but the best is at the S. W. extremity of the bay, opposite the town of Talcahuano.
The most important seaports, not already mentioned, are Copi. apo, situated immediately at the mouth of the river of the same pame, in lat 27o. S. The harbor affords good anchorage, is easy of
access for vetsels of any size, and as it opens towards the west, is protected from the northerly and southerly winds. It is visited chietly for the metals furnished by the mines in the vicinity, thosurrounding country being barren. 2. Coquimbo or La Serana, in lat. 29° 54', on the south bank of the river Coquimbo, withio half a league of the coast. Its harbor is a fine capacious bay, easy of access, and protected from all wiods, as well as from the swell of the sea. It is the chief port of the mining country, and the richest of the copper mines are in its vicinity. 3. The port of Valdivia, in lat. 39° 50', is one of the safest, strongest, and most capacious harbors on the western coast of America; but there is no cultivated territory, or civilized population in its vicinity to make it of much importance at present. The city of Valdivia is nine. miles from the coast, on the south bank of a river of the same Dame.
Roads.] The high ridges, which everywhere separate the vallies of Chili from each other, are passable only for mules. At present there are but three carriage roads in the whole country; two of these run from Santiago to Valparaiso, and the third from Santiago to Conception. Except these there is not another road, on which a carriage can travel with safety, out of the particular valley to which it belongs. The commerce with the propinces of Buenos Ayres is carried on through the passes of the Andes. The pass most frequented is that of Putaendo or Uspallata, on the road between Santiago and Mendoza. The distance between these two cities is 800 miles, and common carriers usually perform the journey in seven or eight days. The pass of Putaendo, and most of the others, aré utterly impracticable for mules in the winter, but during that season they are continually passed on foot.
Population.] According to a census, taken about the year 1812, the population is 1,200,000, exclusive of independent tribes of Indians. With a trifling exception, the whole of this population is situated in the country north of the river Biobio ; and if from this portion of Chili, is deducted all that dry, unproductive district to the north of the river Juncal, which, except a few picuna hunters, has not an inhabitant upon it, it will appear that this population is concentrated between the rivers Juncal and Biobio, on a territory of about 100,000 square miles, making 12 to a square mile. Wbat portion of the 1,200,000 are Indians, cannot be exactly ascertained. In almost every yalley there is a town of submissive Indians, and there are besides about 50,000 held in slavery. Mestizoes are numerous in the vicinity of all the Indian towns, and the Huasos or peasantry are all of this mixed class. There are very fevy negroes, not more than 1,000 in all the country.
Government.] Chili was formerly a Spanish colony, under the dominion of a viceroy. In 1810, during the troubles in Spain, the people took the government into their own hands; but in 1814 the Spanish troops from Peru invaded the country, and re-estabished the royal authorily. In 1817, however, the revolutionişts,
aided by an army from Buenos Ayres under General San Martin, defeated the royal troops, and restored the independence of the country. The declaration of independence is dated February 12th, 1818. The supreme authority, at present, is in the hands of a director, who is absolute. It is expected, however, that a congress will soon be called, and a government organized on republican principles.
Religion and Education.) The Roman Catholic is the established religion, and the church is very rich. There are said to be about 10,000 monks and nuns in Chili; and the religious institutions with which they are connected, hold nearly one third of the landed property of the country, besides about ten million dollars in money, lent out at an interest of five per cent. per annum. There are two bishoprics in Chili; that of Santiago, comprehending the territory north of the river Maule; and ihat of Conception, including the rest of the country, from the Maule to the southern boundary. Very little attention has been paid to education. Previous to the revolution there was no printing press in the country:
Army and Navy.) The army, in 1818, consisted of 8,400 regular troops, besides militia. The navy consisted of one vessel of 52 guns; one of 36; two of 22; one of 18; and one of 14. These vessels have all been recently purchased, and mapped by foreign seamen, chiefly Americans and English. Indeed it is said, that there is not a sailor to be found among all the natives of Chili.
Revenue:] The whole amount of the revenue for the year 1817, according to the official statements of the government, was 2,177,967 dollars; and the expenditure during the same period was 2,119,595 dollars. More ihan two fifths of the revenúe was derived from forced loans, and from fines and confiscations imposed on the property of royalists. The expenses of the new government, in time of peace, it is supposed will not exceed half a million dollars.
Commerce.] While Chili was a Spanish colony, European goods, to the amount of more than a million of dollars, were sent from the mother country, in exchange principally for gold and silver. From the opening of the ports by ihe revolutionists in February 1817, to July 1818, the imports into Chili in British vessels amounted to about $1,800,000; and in vessels belonging to citizens of the United States, 10 about $1,300,000. The imports consisted of arms, ammunition, iron, furniture, tobacco, and of French, India, and British manufactures, particularly the latter. The exports were gold, silver, copper, tin, wheat, hemp, hides, peltry, figs, raisins, &c.
Araucanians. T'he Araucanians are a warlike tribe of Indians, inbabiting the territory included between the river Biobio, in lat. 36° 50', and the river Tolten iu lat. 39°, and extending from the Andes to the Pacific. They are courteous, hospitable, humane, brave, patient of hardship, and enthusiastic lovers of liberty. The Spaniards for more than two centuries, have in vain endeav
ored to subdue them. From the first incursions of the Spaniards, their history furnishes a long list of battles evincive of the most determined valor, a valor not surpassed at Thermopylae or Marathon. In the last war, which was concluded by a most terrible battle in 1773, the Spaniards expended 1,700,000 dollars, but to no purpose; the Araucanians are now absolutely independent, and keep a resident minister at St. Jago.
Islands.] There are 47 islands in the Archipelago of Chiloe or Ancud at the southern extremity of Chili. Of these, 32 are peopled by the Indians and Spaniards, and the rest are uninhabited. Chiloe, which is by far the largest, and gives its name 10 the whole groupe, lies under the parallel of 43° S. lat. and is separated from the continent by a channel, in some places only a mile broad. The native Indians, called Chilotes, are remarkably ingenious, docile, and submissive to the Spaniards. They have a strong attachment to a sea-faring life, and make excellent sailors. Though the navigation of the Archipelago is very dangerous, on account of the currents, they venture fearlessly into this perilous sea in frail boats called piraguas, without either keel or deck. The principal articles of commerce furnished by these islands are lumber and fish, the former of which is sent in the form of boards, to Lima and Valparaiso.
The islands of Juan Fernandez are two small islands, lying about 110 leagues from the coast of Chili,in lat. 33° 40' N. and lon. 78° 52' W. They are at present uninhabited, but are celebrated as the solitary residence for several years of Alexander Selkirk, a Scotch sailor, from whose adventures De Foe wrote the popular novel of Robinson Crusoe.
Situation and Extent.) Patagonia is bounded N. by Buenos Ayres ; E. by the Atlantic Ocean; S. by the straits of Magellan, which separate it from Terra del Fuego; and W. by Chili and the Pacific Ocean. On the Atlantic coast it reaches as far north as Cape Lobos in lat. 37° 30' S. and on the Pacific as far as the southern boundary of Chili in lat. 43° S. The number of square miles, according to Hassel, is 491,000.
Face of the country. The interior of Patagonia has been very imperfectly explored, being occupied by hostile Indians. The Andes pass through the whole length of the country from north to south, parallel with the westero coast, at the distance of from 200 to 300 miles. The northern part of the country east of the Andes consists of immense plains, which may be regarded as a continuation of the pampas of Buenos Ayres.
Rivers.) The principal rivers are the Rio Colorado and the Rio Negro or Cusu Leuvu. The Colorado is formed by a nunber of streams which rise in Buenos Ayres, on the eastern declivity of the Andes, between 30° and 380 S. lat and after a