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inhabitants; and Santa Cruz de la Sierra, on the river Guapay, one of the head streams of the Madeira,
Node of travelling.) The road from Buenos Ayres to Mendoza, a distance of 900 miles, and from Buenos Ayres to Tucuman, which is still farther, pass across the Pampas, and i he usual mode of transporting produce, in wagons drawn by oxen, which at a distance look like thatched cabins slowly moving over the plain. There are few places of refreshment or repair, and the wagoner usually carries with him the provision necessary for his support: The oxen are unyoked at night, and occasionally through the day, and permitted to seek their food in the high grass, with which the pampas are covered. Thus the carrier pursues his way over a waste for weeks in succession. The route from Buenos Ayres to Mendoza, is usually performed in 30 days.
In the mountainous country, mules are universally used for transportation, the road frequently leading over rugged precipices, and through narrow passes, where any other mode of conveyance would be impracticable. The produre of the mincs of Potosi is conveyed to Buenos Ayres, a distance of nearly 2,000 miles, on the backs of mules. The carriers who make a business of transportation by mules, have from 50 to 100 of these animals in a druve, and like the wagoners of the plains, they turn them loose at night to find their provisions for themselves.
Population.] According to the official estimates furnished in $817, by the government of Bueuos Ayres to the deputies of the United States, the population was 1,300,000, exclusive of Indians. The civilized Indians alone, it is supposed, amount to more than 700,000. The population is composed, as in the other Spanish colonies, of whites, Indians, mestizoes, negroes, and mulattoes. The number of negroes and mulattoes is very small. The most populous districts are around the towns on the coast, and near the mouths of the great rivers, and the mining districts in the west, but particularly the northwestern provinces, near the borders of Peru, which were formerly attached to that country, and are still called Alto Peru, or Upper Peru. The plains in the north are almost exclusively occupied by tribes of wandering Indians.
Indians.] Under the old government, the Indians were most cruelly oppressed. They were subject to a tribute to the crown, levied on all males helween the ages of 10 and 50. Those in the mining districts were besides burdened with a personal service to the crown, called the mita, which was a conscription raised among those subject to the tribute, in order to work the mines of Potosi. Thousands of these unfortunate people were marched every year to Potosi, and although the period of service was only 18 months, they were attended by a numerous train of friends and relatives, who on the eve of their entering the mines, sang melancholy dirges, and sounding a horo in solemn strains, mourned over them, with all the ceremonies which they used on the death of a relative. Their wives and children remained with the conscripts, who selvom resisted more than a year, the excessive labour and noxious air of the mines. The Indians of Upper Peri
usual place of abode ; from which his grain and grazing farmsales,
have the appearance of habitual melancholy, and still wear mourning for the destruction of their incas. They hand down from father to son, The story of their wrongs, and constantly seek an opporiunity for revenge. In 1778, they rose in rebellion against the Spaniards, and maintained the contest for three years, during which they destroyed some of the finest towns in the northwestern provinces. The present government of Buenos Ayres, immediately on its establishment, released the Indians from the service of the mita, and have since abolished the tribule. These measures have done much to pacily their feelings.
Government and Revenue. Buenos Ayres was formerly a Spanish colony, under the government of a viceroy,but a new government was established in 1810, which ruled in the name ol the king of Spain till the 9th of July 1816, when it declared itself wholly. independent, under the title of the United provinces of Rio de la Plata, which has since been changed for that of the Voited Provinces of South America. Since 1810 there have been three or four revolutions, in each of which, the form of government, so far üs relates to the executive department, has been altered. During all the changes, however, there has existed a congress consisting, of representatives from the several provinces. The revenue for the year 1817 was 3,037,187 dollars.
Laws.] Since the revolution many reforms have been intro duced. The barbarous impositions on the Indians have been abolished. the law of primogeniture is repealed, and all titles of nobility are prohibited under pain of the loss of citizenship. One, of the first decrees of the congress manumitted the offspring of slaves born after February 1813, and emancipated all slaves imported after that period.
Religion.] The Roman Catholic religion is established as that of the state, but there are many, advocates, both in conversation and writing for universal toleration. The number of monks and nuns was never very great in Buenos Ayres, when compared with other portions of the Spanish dominions, and they have diminished since the revolution. Few of the young men now apply themselves to the study of theology, since other occupations, much more tempting to their ambition, have been opened io their choice.
Education.] Previous to the revolution education was discouraged. The art of printing was almost unknown. Several schools were actally soppressed in the capital, and in the declaration of independence one of the charges against the mother country is, that young men were prohibited from going to Paris to study chemistry. Great attention is now paid to the establishment of schools and the general diffusion of knowledge. There are no books prohibited ; all are permitted to circulate freely; and many English works have been imported.
State of Society.) All the wealthy and influential citizens are sound concentrated in the cities and towns. It is rare to find a wealthy land owner who has not a house in the city, which is his
committed to the care of peasants, are occasionally visited. The best specimen of the population is to be found in the city of Buenos Ayres. Since the revolution, the people of this city have had much intercourse with foreigners, and have greatly profited by it. Their manners, dress, and modes of thinking, have been improved by intercourse with the English, Americans, and French. Great prejudices prevail against whatever is Spanish. It is even offensive to them to be called by this name. The áppellation which they have assumed, and in which they take pride, is that of South Americans.
Herdsmen.) The herdsmen or peasantry of the Pampas form a very considerable proportion of the population. Thinly strewed over the great plains, they have commonly, each one, the charge of a country many leagues in extent; they are wholly illiterate, and dwell on an immense waste, in continual solitude. From infancy the herdsman is continually on horseback, and there is, perhaps, no more expert horseman in the world. The wars that have been recently carried on in this country have called these berdsmen into the field of battle, and it is said, they make the most formidable partisan soldiery that ever existed. In courage they are inferior to none ; and in adroit and rapid horsemanship they exceed what has been told of the Parthian, the Scythian or the Cossac of the Dop. They are usually called Guachos, an epithet, like that of Yankee, originally cast on them. in derision, but now no longer offensive.
The herdsman's cloak, or poneho, as it is called, is a square piece of cloth, a little larger than a Dutch blanket, with a slit in ihe middle, through which the head is put, leaving it to hang down all round. This poncho is his bed at night, and by day his cloak, a belt, a saddle cover or a bag, as fancy or necessity may require. The Lazo, or running noose, is an instrument used by the herdsman in managing his berd, and sometimes in attacking a foe. It is a cord or thong, made of strong hide, about 30 yards. long, with an iron ring, or a loop at one end, through which a running noose may be made in an instant; lhe other end is fastenedo to the broad belt wbich secures the saddle. As soon as it is thrown, and takes effect, the horse, as he has been taught, stands firm, or. moves off with what has been caught. The Lazo is thrown by a herdsman with unerring aim, either on foot or on horseback, or at, full speed, at a fleeing animal or retreating foe. The Bolas is an instrument similar in its use to the Lazo. It is made with three. cords of about three feet each from the knot which upites them in the middle, and to the end of each of the cords is fastened a ball of about two pounds weight. The Bolas, with a few twirls over the head, is thrown like a stone from a sling, and entangling about the legs of the animal at which it is directed, instantly prostrates it at the mercy of the pursuer. This instrument, as well as the Lazo, is usually placed behind the saddle. Mounted, and thus equipped, the herdsman is ready for a journey of a thousand miles, for the protection or the siezing of his herd, or for the.de sence of his country.
Mule trade.] One of the principal branches of internal commerce is the trade in mules, wbich are sent in droves from Salta over the Andes, into Peru. These animals are collected, from all the southeastern provinces, at Salta, where a great mule fair is held, at which the drovers attend, and each, liaving purchased as many as, assisted by his lirelings, he can manage, sets out on his journey to Lima; which, taking into account the circuits he is obliged to make to find pasturage for the drove, may be safely computed at not less than two thousand miles; and a great part of the way over the crags and défiles of the most rugged portione of the Andes, among which many of his mules commonly straj off and are entirely lost. To reach Lima with two thirds of the number with which the journey is commenced from Salta, is reckoned a successful voyage. In this way it is estimated that from 50,000 to 70,000 mules are sent annually into Peru. All the labor and transportation by beasts of burden in Peru has been heretofore performed entirely by mules. During the late wars in South America, the mule trade has been interrupted, and the stock of these useful animals in Peru having been nearly exhausted, the prosperity of that country has been very seriously affected by it.
Commerce and Manufacturés] Under the old government, commerce was a monopoly in the bands of merchants of Spain. At present the export and import trade is principally in the hands of the British, though he United States and other nations participate in it to a certain degree. The exports consist, principally, of hides, beef, and tallow, the great staples of the country; a variety of furs and peltry; with gold, and silver from the mines of Potosi
. The imports are prin cipally British manufactures, consisting of woollen and cotton goods of every description, hardware, hats, porter, &c.; from the United States are imported Jumber, and naval stores of all kinds, salted fish, furniture, boots, shoes, &c. and from Brazil, sugar, coffee an d rum.
The value of the exports is estimated at $10,000,000 per annum; and that of the imports is about the same.
Situation and Extent.} Chili is the long narrow country lying between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean from the 25th to the 43d degree of S. lat. It is bounded on the N. by the desert of Atacama, which separates it from Peru; E. by the Andes, which separate it from Buenos Ayres; S. by Patagonial, and W. by the Pacific Ocean. It is about 1300 miles long, and on an average 140 broad, containing about 180,000 square miles.
Divisions.] The southern part of the country, including the territory below the river Biobio in lat. 36° 50' S. is in the pa
psses. siun of various tribes of independent Indians, particularly
the Araucanians. The rest of the country, extending from the ri Biobio to the northern boundary, is inhabited by the Spaniar
de and divided into the following 22 districts :
The 15 first named districts border on the Pacific Ocean in the order here mentioned, beginning in the north ; and many of them extend to the Andes through the whole breadth of the country; the seven last named border on the Andes.
Rivers.) Few countries are so well watered as Chili. Lying at the foot of the Andes, it naturally receives the waters which fall on the westero declivity of those mountains, and rush with the rapidity of torrents directly into the Pacific Ocean. The rivers are very numerous but very short. They serye, however, to irrigate the vallies, and render them exceedingly fertile. Through a large portion of the country there is no valley nor scarcely a field, which is not so situated, that it may be regularly irrigated from some river.
The most remarkable streams, beginning in the north, are the Salado, which forms the northern boundary, the Juncal, the Quillota, the Maypo, the Maule, the Bigbio, the Tolten, and the Valdivia.
Face of the country.) Chili has been called the Switzerland of America. The lofty chain of the Andes runs along its whole eastern boundary, and the country below is composed, to a considerable extent, of vallies surrounded by high mountains or ridges. In most cases there are little openings in these ridges, more or less rugged and precipitous, and passable only for mules, by means of which, the society of one valley carries on its intercourse with that in its vicinity. To the traveller who wanders over these delightful vallies, the scenery is frequently exceedingly grand. Passing from north to south, he scarcely ever loses sight of the towering summits of the Andes on the right, and now and then, ascending an eminence, or looking through an opening in the ridge, he has a distant view of the great Pacific Ocean.
Climate. Chili may be divided, as to its climate, into two, regions; the variable and humid region, south of the Maule, where the weather is changeful and it rains occasionally throughout the year, as in the United States; and the invariable and dry country to the north of that river, where it does not rain for two thirds of the year, and in the most northerly provinces of which it does not rain at all. Throughout the whole of the dry country, extending from 25° to 35° of S. lat. a distance of nearly 700 miles, not a cloud is to be seen from November to May. The atmosphere, during thin