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a university and numerous convents. The population is abous. 170,000 ; of which number the whites constituie one sixth part, the Indians another sixth, and the remainder is composed of mestizoes and casts of different kinds.
Popayan is situated in the Andes under lat 20.28' N. about 200 miles N. E. of Quito, on an extensive plain, elevated 5,905 feet above the level of the sea, and in the immediate vicinity of the great volcanoes of Purace and Sutora. It is the seat of the royal mint, the annual coinage of which is estimated at a million dollars. The population is computed at 25,000, of whom one third part are negroes ; one sixth part, Indians; and the remainder whites, mestizoes and mulattoes.
The principal sea ports on the coast of the Caribbean sea are Carthagena and Porto Bello. Carthagena is in lat. 10° 30' N. on a sandy island, artificially connected at the west end with the main land The harbor is spacious, defended froin every wind, with a sufficient depth of water, and good anchorage, but the entrance is very narrow. The climate is excessively hot and unbealthy, but the advantageous situation of the town has, notwithstanding, made it a place of extensive trade. Its wealth and importance has caused it to be frequently pillaged by the English and French, and during the contest which is now carrying on between Spain and her colonies, it has frequently been taken and retaken by the contending parties. The population is estimated at 24,000. Porto Bello is on the north coast of the isthmus of Darien, in lon. 79° 26' W. It has an excellent harbor, but the situation of the town is unþealthy, being surrounded by mountains which prevent the free circulation of the air. The population is inconsiderable, and consists chiefly of negroes and mulattoes.
The principal ports on the Pacific are Panama and Guayaquil. Panama is on the south side of the isthmus of Darien, 65 miles south of Porto Bello, at the bottom of the bay of Panama. It was formerly a place of great trade. Guayaquil is on the west bank of the river of the same name, about 20 miles from its mouth. The river is navigable to the town for vessels of any size, and affords an excellent harbor.
Canals.] Various plans have been proposed for connecting the two oceans by canals. The small river Chagre, which falls into the Caribbean sea a little west of Porto Bello, is navigable to Cruces, 5 leagues from Panama. The elevation of the country between Cruces and Panama has never been accurately asertained, but it is supposed would afford no obstacle to a canal for boats, thongh it would be wholly impossible to construct one for large vessels. A branch of the Rio Atrato, which falls into the gulf of Darien, approaches within five or six leagues of the Pacific Ocean, and the intervening country is quite level and proper for a canal. Another branch of the Rio Atrato approaches se near 10 a small river which falls into the Pacific, that a small canal has been actually dug between them, by means of which, when the rains are abundant, canoes loaded sviib cacao pass from sex to sea.
Population and Religion) The population has never been accurately ascertained, but is computed at 1,800,000. It is composed of Spaniards, Creoles, Indians, mestizoes and negroes. Of these the Indians are the most numerous. The religion is Roman: Catholic, as in all the Spanish colonies.
Government.] New Granada, a few years since, was a Spanish colony under the dominion of a viceroy, whose residence was at Santa Fe de Bogota. In 1811, however, 'a Congress, assembled at Carthagena, declared the country independent. The royal troops afterwards succeeded in re-establishing the authority of the mother country; but the revolutionists have recently again thrown: off the yoke, and this country is now united with Caraccas under the title of the Republic of Columbia. The independence of the new republic has never yet been acknowledged by any civilized nation.
Natural Curiosity.) The Cataract of Tequendama, in the river Bogota, near Santa Fe, is a natural curiosity. This river, after watering the elevated plain on which that city stands, breaks through the mountains, and with two bounds rushes down a precipice to the astonishing depth of 570 feet. The column of vapor, which rises like a cloud from the shock, is seen from the walks around Santa Fe, i5 miles distant, retiecting the colors of the sajnbow in ever varying beauty.
Boundaries and Extent.] Caraccas, including Spanish Guiana, is. bounded N. by the Caribbean sea; N. E. by ihe Atlantic Ocean ; E. by English Guiana ; S. by Portuguese Guiana, and W. by New Granada. It extends on the coast from the mouth of the Esequebo, in 6°40 N. lat. to Cape de la Vela in lat. 12° N. In the interior it extends as far south as the equator. The number of square miles, according to Hassel, is 511,324.
Divisions.] In 1804 there were five provinces, which are given in the following table, with the population according to the estimate of Depons : Provinces.
Chief Towns. Venezuela, (including Varinas,) 500,000. Caraccas Maracaibo,
100,000 Maracaibo. Cumana,
80,000 Cumana. Spanish Guiana,
34,000 St. Thomas. Vargarita island,
728,000 Bays.) The Gulf of Maracaibo in the N.W. is inclosed between two peninsulas, and communicates with the Caribbean sea by a mouth 40 miles wide. The Gulf of Cariaco is formed by a long narrow peninsula which projects from the main land to the sout), of the island of Margarita. The Gulf of Paria, formed by the
main land on the west, and the island of Trinidad on the east, is 25 leagues long hy 15 broad, and every where afforda anchorage and protection for the largest vessels. It receives the waters from several of the mouths of the Orinoco, and communicaies with the ocean by two outlets, one at the N. W. point of the island of Trinidad, and the other at the S. W. point of the same island.
Face of the country.) The northern part of the couniry is motintainous, being occupied by the chain of Venezuela, a branch of the Andes which comes from New Granada, and atier proceeding for some distance in a northeasterly direction, at lası turus to the east, and runs along the coast, continualiy diminishing in height till it terminates on the gulf of Paria, opposite the island of Trinidad. The whole country south of the mountains consists of immense plains, which stretch out for hundreds of miles in length and width, comprehending nearly the whole country waLered by the Orinoco and its branches. The district along the banks of the Orinoco in the lower part of its course, extending 200 leagnes from its mouth, and in some places 30 leagues broad, is annually overflowed in the rainy season, and nothing is ihen discoverable but here and there a hillock, and the tops of the tallest trees.
Lakes.] Lake Maracaibo in the N.W.is 200 miles long and 70 broad, and communicates with the gulf of Maracaibo through a narrow strait, which is well defended by strong forts. It is easily navigated by vessels of the greatest burden. A large lake, called lake Parina, is frequently laid down on the maps a little to the east of the sources of the Oriooco, but its dimensions and even its existence have never been ascertained.
Rivers. The numerous small rivers which rise on the northcrn declivity of the chain of Ven-zuela fall directly joto the Caribbean sea, and are generally navigable only for a few miles. All the rivers which rise on the southern declivity of the same chain are tributaries of the Orinoco, except the Guarapiche, which falls into the gulf of Paria.
The Orinoco, the great river of this comntry, has already been described. Its principal tributaries are 1. the Caroni, a large riv. er from the south, the navigation of which is obstructed by falls one league from its mouth; 2. the Apura, which rises on the borders of New Granada, to the south of Lake Maracaibo, and ...fo ter pursuing an easterly course for 170 leagues, during which it receives from the north numerous navigable and wide spreadmg branches, discharges itself impetuously ioto the Orinoco through many mouths ; 3. the Meta, which rises in New Granada, on the eastera declivity of the mountains, noi far from Santa Fe de Bogola, and flowing N. E. joins the Orinoco 30 leagues below the cataracts of Atures.
Climate.] The towns on the coast, which enjoy a regular land and sea breeze, and those near and on the mountains have a milder climate than would be expected from their tropical situation. The temperature of the city of Caraccas is delightful
throughout the year. The rainy season lasts from April to No. vember, and during this period all the rivers are in a state of inundation, and the low plains become temporary lakes.
Soil and Productions.] No country in America can be compared with Caraccas in the fertility of its soil, and the variety and richness of its productions. All sorts of colonial produce are raised here in greater abundance than in any of the West Indies, and of a far superior quality. The cacao of Caraccas brings a price in commerce twice as great as that of the Antilles; the indigo is inferior to none but that of Guatimala; the tobacco is said to be worth as inuch again as the best wbich Virginia or Maryland afford- ; the coffee would rival that of Mocha if the same care were used in its preparation. Besides these articles, cotton and the sugar cane are successfully cultivated; the forests yield dyewoods, gums, rosins, medicinal plants, and beautiful timber for the cabinet maker and shipwright. The plains to the south of the mountains are covered with immense herds of mules, oxen and horses. The pearl fishery was formerly carried on in the siraits between the island of Margarita and the main, but it is now abandoned, the bank having been exhausted.
Chief Towns.) Caraccas, the capital, is situated among the mountains near the northern coast, in a valley elevated 2,900 feet above the level of the sea. It is regularly laid out, and contains a university, and several churches, hospitals and monasteries. The population in 1802 was estimated at 42,000, of whom one fourth were whites, and the rest negroes, Indians and mulattoes. lo consequence of its elevation the city enjoys a delightful temperature throughout the year, but this advantage is counterbalanced by its exposure to earthquakes, one of which, in March 1812, destroyed many houses and buried 12,000 persons in the ruins.
La Guayra, the port of Caraccas, is on the coast, 7 miles north of the city, in an unhealthy situation, being surrounded by lofty mountains which exclude the breeze. The harbor, though more frequented than any other on the coast, is open to the wind and continually agitated by the surge of the sea, which renders loading and unloading extremely inconvenient, and sometimes impossible. It is regarded merely as a shipping place for the capital, and is well defended with forts and batteries. The population is 6,000, of whom two thirds are in the garrison and the gunboals. The road to Caraccas passes over a lofty mountain, on the summit of which are two forts.
Porto Cabello, situated on a peninsula 30 leagues west of Caraccas, is the commercial emporium of a considerable district. Its harbor is one of the best in America, being deep, spacious, completely protected from the surge of the sea and from every wind, and well defended by several forts. The inhabitants, 7,500 in number, are principally employed in commerce and navigation, and have been heretofore extensively engaged in the contraband trade with Curacoa and Jamaica.
Valencia is delightfully situated in a beautiful and fertile plain near the western bank of a lake of the same name, about sex
leagues south of Porto Cabello. All the produce from the inte rior, which is shipped at Porto Cabello, passes through this town. The population is 6,000:
Maracaibo is on the western bank of the lake of the same name, near its outlet. The harbor has a bar at its mouth, over which vessels drawing more than 12 feet of water cannot pass. The population is 25,000, more than half of whom are whites.
Cumana is situated near the mouth of the gulf of Cariaco, on an arid and sandy plain, about a mile from the sea. The houses are low and lightly built on account of the frequent earthquakes, one of which, in 1797, destroyed four fifths of ihe city. The inhabitants,18,000 in number, are principally engaged in commerce, navigation and the fisheries. Barcelona, 10 leagues west of Cumana, on the small river Neveri, ahont 3 miles from its mouth, is surrounded by extensive plains which abound with horned cattle. The population is 14.000, hall of whom are whites.
St. Thomas, the chief town in Spanish Guiana, and capital of the new republic oi Columbia, is regularly laid oui on the south bank of the Orinoco, 90 leagues from its mouth, and contains 7,000 inhabitants.
Inland Navigation.) By means of the Orinoco and its tributary streams, all the country south of the mountains enjoys an easy communication with the sea. This river forms a natural channel for the conveyance to the ocean, of the cattle and produce raised on the banks of the Apura and its wide spreading branches. By means of the Meta also, a navigable communication is opened into New Granada, almost to the very foot of the Andes. The flour, and other productions of an extensive district near Santa Fe de Bogota, are conveyed to market by the Orinoco in preference to the Magdalena. The navigation of the Orinoco is somewhat diffiéult on account of the islands and rocks with which it abounds, but there is no insurinountable obstacle till you arrive at the cataracts of Atures, 80 leagues above the mouth of the Meta.
Population. The population in 1801, according to the estimate of Depons, was 728,000, of whom about 136,000 were whites, 218,000 negro claves, 291,000 freed men, and the remainder Indians. In 1822 the whole population may be estimated at more than 1,000,000, without including the tribes of independent Indians.
Indians.) Most of the Indian tribes in this country have been brought into subjection to the Spaniards, and have become partially civilized by the labors of the Catholic missionaries. They are allowed to live in villages by themselves, and to be governed by magistrates of their own choice. The principal ladians remaining unsuhdued are the Goahiros, who occupy a tract along the coast to the west of the Gulf of Maracaibo, extending for more than 30 leagues. They are about 30,000 in number, and often make inroads into the neighboring settlements. They trade with the English of Jamaica, from whom they receive arms and clothing. The Guarounos, who inhabit the islands formed by the mouths of the Orinoco, are about 8,000 in number. Their inde