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all the tropical productions. There are 45 plantations devoted to the sugar coltivation, 225, to cotion, and 133 to coffee. The population in 1803 was 16,640, of whom 1,290 were whites, 1660 colored persons and 13,690 slaves. Little Carenage bay on the west side of the island is the best harbor in all the Caribbean islands. It is large and deep, has an excelleat bottom, is free from worms, and is perfectly safe even in hurricanes. St. Lucia bis often been taken and retaken in the wars between England and France. It was ceded to France in 1763, but early in the late war it fell into the hands of the English and has never since been restored.

3. St. Vincent lies 8 leagues S. S. W. of St. Lucia. It is 24 miles long from N. to S. and contains about '84,000 acres or 131

The country is generally very rugged and mountainous. Of the 84,000 acres in the island about 47,000 are cultivated. The remaining 37,000 are unfit for agriculture. The soil of the good land is a fine mould well fitted for sugar, which is the principal production. The sovereignty of the island is divided between the English and a race of independent negroes called black Caraibes. The English pari is in the S.W. and includes about half of all the land fit for cultivation. , The rest belongs to the black Caraihes who live in the N. E. The population in 1791 consisted of 1450 whites, 11,853 slaves, 500 red Caraibes, and about 10,000 black Caraibes. Kingston, the capital of the English part of the island, is built on a bay to which it gives name, on the S. W. coast.

This island was discovered in 1672, and the English soon after made several unsuccessful attempts to seule it. In 1685 a slave ship from Africa with a cargo of negroes was wrecked en Bequia, a little island near the southern coast. From this island they soon went over to St. Vincent, and were made slaves by the Caraibes. Finding their numbers increase, their masters came to a resolution to kill all the negro male children; on which the blacks rose in a body and defeated their design. The Caraibes afterwards occupied one half the island, and the blacks the other. By the accession of runaway slaves from Barbadoes, the blacks became very numetous. The French from Martinico, in 1719, attacked the negroes at the request of the Indians, and were very roughly handled. The English met with the same surcess in 1723. The Caraibes gradually diminished in number and in 1791 they amounted only to 500. The independent blarks are called black Caraibes, partly because there was an actual intermixture, but principally because they adopted the Caribbean Customs. The island was çerled in 1763 to the English who at first designed to exterminate the blacks, but in 1773, a trraty of friendship was formed hetween his majesty and the chiefs of ihe negroes. In 1779 the island was taken by the French assisted by the negroes, but ia 1783 was restored.

4. Barbadoes lies 28 leagues east of St. Vincent and is the mosi eastern of all the West India islands. It is 21 miles long from N. to S. and contains 106,470 acres or about 166 square miles,

most of which is under cultivation. The soil in the low lands is black, on the hills of a chalky marl, and near the sea generally sandy. Of ibis variety of soil the black mould is best suited for the cultivation of the cane, and with the aid of manure has given as great returns of sugar, in favorable seasons, as any in the West Indies, the prime lands of St. Christopher excepted. The population in 1811, according to returns made to parliament, was 81,939, of whom 16,289 were whites, 3,392 free people of color, and 62,258 slaves. An alarming insurrection of the blacks broke out in Barbadoes in 1816, which was suppressed after the loss of many lives. The island has suffered severely from hurri

That of October 1780 destroyed 4,326 lives, and property to the amount of £1.320,000. Bridgetown, the capital, is one of the finest cities in the West Indies. It lies on the S. W. coast of the island on the bay of Carlisle, which is large enough to contain 500 ships. The city contains 1200 houses built mostly of brick and about 12,000 inhabitants. It has often been destroyed ny fires and hurricanes. The island was first discovered by the Portuguese. In 1605 the English found it uninhabited, took possession of it, and have retained it to the present time.

5. Grenada lies 20 leagues S.S.W. of St. Vincent. It is 24 miles long from N. E. to S.W. and contains about 80,000 acres or 109 square miles. The interioris mountainous but no where inaca cessible. The soil, on the whole, is in a high degree fertile. Of tue 80,000 acres nine tenths are probably susceptible of cultivation. Sugar, cotton and coffee are the principal productions. The population in 1811, according to an official return, was 31,362, of which number 771 were whites, 1210 free people of color, and 29,381 slaves. St. George, the capital, formerly called Fort Roya. al, lies on a spacious bay in the S. W. part of the island Its barbor is one of the best in the West Indies, and is defended by a fort. Grenada was settled in 1650 by the French who exterminated the natives. The English took it in 1762 and it was cone firmed to them by the peace of 1763. In 1779 it was taken by the French but was restored to Britain at the peace of 1783.

The Grenadines are a cluster of small islands dependent on Grenada, and lying between that island and St. Vincent. Cariacou the largest contains 10 square miles,

6. Tobago lies 30 leagues S. E. of Grenada. It is 30 miles long from N. E. 10 S.W. and contains 140 square miles. The country is in general undulating but in the N. W. mountainous. Its soil is chiefly a rich black mould well fitted for all the fruits of the climate. l'he population in 1805 consisted of 900 wbites, 700 people of color and 14,803 slaves; in all nearly 16,500 souls. The island lies out of the usual track of the hurricanes, and in this respect has an incalculable advantage over those farther north. Tobago has been alternately in the hands of the English and French several times within the last century, but was confirmed to the former by the treaty of Paris in 1814.

7. Trinidad lies opposite the mouths of the Orinoco, near the coast of South America, from which it is separated by the gulf of

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Paria. In size it is the largest of the Caribbean islands, being 60 miles long from N. to S. and containing 1700 square miles, or 1,088,000 acres, of which it is estimated that 870,400 pable of cultivation. Three distinct ridges of mountains cross the island from west to east; the northern, middle and southern. Between them are extensive plains and fertile vallies. Of the 870,400 acres capable of cultivation only a very small part is actually improved. The sugar plantations cover 6,900 acres, the cotton 2,531, coffee 4,886, grain and provisions nearly 10,000. The population in 1803 was 28,477, of which number 2,261 were whites, 5,275 free colored persons, 19,709 slaves and 1,232 Indians. Port Espana, near the N.W. corner of the island, is the principal seaport and contained in 1806 about 3,000 inhabitants. There is a remarkable lake on this island known by the name of Tar lake. It is on the west coast, a little S. of the middle of the island, on a promontory which reaches about 2 miles into the sea. It is of very considerable depth, and yields a substance which on exposure to the heat of the sun has the consistence of pit coal. A gentle heat renders it ductile, and when mixed with a little grease or common pitch, it is much used for gravang the bottoms of ships. This island was in the possession of the Spaniards, but was taken by the English in 1797, and ceded to them in 1802.


1. Margarita. This island belongs to Caraccas and will be described in our account of that country.

2. Tortuga, Sal Tortuga or Tortuga Salada, is 16 leagues W. fronu Margarita, and 15 from the Maine. It is about 40 miles io circumference, and is chietly noted for its large salt pond, from which immense quantities of salt are taken annually. Great numbers of turtles also come into the sandy bays to lay their eggs, from whicis circumstance the island is called Turtle island.

3. Orchilla or Horchilla lies 20 leagues N. W. of Tortuga and is 24 miles long from N. E. to S. W.

4. Bonair or Buenaire lies 33 leagues W. N. W. of Orchilla and 21 from the Maine. It is about 40 miles long from N. W. to S. E. and is inhabited by Caraibes and negroes, who raise cattle, and cultivate yams, maize and potatoes. It is a dependency of Curacoa.

5. Curacoa is 8 leagues W. of Bonair. It is 60 miles long from S. E. 10 N. W. and on an average 10 broad. The soil is natural ly barren, yet through the industry of the Dutch has been rendered very productive. The island derives its principal importance from its conveniences for the smuggling trade, which is carried on to a great extent with the South American provinces. The island

#as taken by the English in 1806 but was restored to the Dutch in 1814.

6. Aruba or Oruba lies 13 leagues W. of Curacoa. It is 15 miles long, and eight broad. It is considered as a dependency of Curacoa, but is uninhabited.


Situation and Extent.] South America is bounded N. by the Caribbean sea ; E. by the Atlantic ocean ; S. by Terra del Fuego, from which it is separated by the straits of Magellan ; W. by the Pacific Ocean; and on the N. W. it is connected with North America by the isihmus of Darien. It extends from lat. 54° S. to lat. 12° N. and from lon. 31° 30' to 81° W. Its greatest length from N. to S. is 4570 miles, and its greatest breadth 3,230. The area is estimated at 7,000,000 square miles.

Divisions.] South America is divided into the following countries : 1. New Granada.

5. Brazil. 2. Caraccas.

6. Buenos Ayres. 3. Guiana.

7. Chili. 4. Peru.

8. Patagonia. Mountains.] There are two extensive ranges of mountains, one running along the western and the other along the eastern coast. The Andes or great western range, commencing on the straits of Magellan at the southern extremity of the continent, runs in a northerly direction to the isthmus of Darien, and is genu erally parallel with the shore of the Pacitic ocean, at the distance of from 50 to 200 miles. In different parts of its course it varies greatly in its general aspect. Sometimes the range consists of one entire mass, while at others two or three distinct ridges appear, separated by longitudinal vallies. In Chili the Andes are about 120 miles broad, and consist of a great number of mountains, all of them of prodigious height and appearing to be chained to each other. In Peru they divide into three ridges, which continue till about the 6th degree of S. lat. where they are united into a single chain. They again divide on entering New Granada into two distinct ridges, which inclose between them a longitudinal valiev 200 miles long, 20 or 30 broad, and elevated 9,000 feet above the level of the sea. Farther to the north, between the 2d and 30 degrees of N. lat. the Andes divide into three separate ranges ; the western is the proper Andes and passes into North America over the isthmus of Darien ; the eastern, called the chain of Venezuela, pursues a northeasterly course into Caraccas, and winding along the shores of that province, terminates on the gulf of Pariir opposite the island of Trinidad; the middle range runs north, between the rivers Magdalena and Cauca. The most elevated part of the Andes is the double ridge in New Granada, which

abounds with colossal sommits, the highest of which rises to more than 20,000 feet above the level of the sea. In Chili, Peru, and New Granada the loftiest peaks form one row of volcanoes, many of which are in a state of constant eruption.

The eastern range of South American mountains, sometimes termed the Brazilian Andes, runs along the coast of Brazil fiom about 120 to 32° S. lat. It is connected with the great western range by a ridge called by Humboldt the Andes of Chiquitos, which winds its way irregularly across the continent between 10° and 20° S. lat. separating the waters which flow north into the Amazon from those which flow south into the Plata.

Rivers.) Owing to the peculiar construction of South America, no river of any magnitude flows from it into the Pacific ocean, the Andes forming a continued barrier along the whoie western coast. For the same reason no important stream enters the Atlantic between 12 and 32° S. lat. More than three fourths of all the water which falls on this continent is carried to the ocean through the channels of the three great rivers, the Orinoco, the Amazon and the Plata.

The Orinoco rises in lat. 5° N. and lon: 650 W. Its course is very crooked, somewhat resembling the tigure 6. For the first 300 miles it runs from N. to S. It then turns, and proceeds in a westerly direction for several hundred miles, to St. Feroando, where it receives from the S. W. the Guaviari, a very considerable river. Here it tuşns northward, and aster receiving the Vichada from the west, pours its waters down the cataracts of Atures. These cataracts are 740 miles from the mouth of the Orinoco, and 760 from its source, and completely obstruct the navigation. At the distance of 90 miles below the cataracts the river is enlarged by the junction of the Meta, one of its principal tributaries, which is 500 miles long and navigable 370 iniles. About 90 miles below the mouth of the Meta, the Orinoco receives from the west the Apura, a large and deep river, 520 miles long, having numerous and wide spreading branches, and more rapid than the Orinoco into which it empties its waters by many mouths. After receiving the Apura it turns, and running about 400 miles in an easterly direction divides into many branches, and discharges its waters into the ocean by 50 mouths, the two most distant of which are 180 miles aparı. Only seven, however, are navigable, and but one of them, the southern, called the Ship’s Mouth, for vessels of more than 200 tons. All the rivers which rise on the southern declivity of the chain of Venezuela, and on the eastern declivity of the Andes between the paralleis of 2° and 9° N. lat. are tributaries of the Orinoco. It thus forms the channel which conveys to the ocean the waters of an immense valley, extending from east to west about 1,000 miles, and from north to south, ia many parts between 500 and 600.

The Amazon, the largest river in the world, rises in Peru between two ridges of the Andes in about lat. 10° S. under the name of the Tunguragua, and after running in a northerly direction through tour or fivc degrees of latitude leaves the moun:

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