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by him in his schools were Englishmen of the Episcopal churcii. The Wesleyan Methodists have also employed missionaries hoth: in Christophe's and Petion's dominions, special permission having been obiained for that purpose.

Exlucation.] Great efforts were made by Christophe, the late king, for the education of his subjects. A royal free school was established at St. Marks, and twelve public schools in the principal towns of the kingdom, in which several thousand children are slow taught the English and French languages, and the elements of mathematics, under instructors sent out from England. A royal college has also been established and liberally endowed at Cape Henry, the capital of the kingdom, in which provision is to be inade for instruction in all the languages, arts and sciences usually tanght in European and American colleges. In 1818 there were 40 scholars in the college, who were selected from among the best in the common schools. Besides the above, the king caused schools to be established in every village in his kingdom:

Governinent and Army] Henry Christophe, the late king of Hayti, under the title of Henry the First, usually resided and held his court at Sans Souci, a village about 15 miles from Cape Henry, where he built a spacious and handsome palace. He was an absolute monarch. An hereditary nobility formed the first class of his subjects, and all the proprietors of landed estates had great authority over the cultivators of the soil, who were held in a species of slavery. The government of the southwestern division of the island was elective, and Petion, the chief magistrate, was styled President of Hayti. Petion and Christophe are now both dead and their dominions are in an unsettled state. Various propositions have been recently made by the French government for the purpose of bringing the inhabitants to their former subjection, but they have all been rejected with disdain. The regular army of each of the sovereigns was about 10,000


Commerce.] In 1789 the French employed in the trade of St. Domingo 710 vessels, navigated by 18,466 seamen. The value of the exports in 1791 was £5,371,593; the principal articles were coffee to the amount of 84,617,328 pounds ; sugar, 217,463 casks ; indigo, 3,257,610 pounds ; cacao, 1,536,017 pounds ; cotton 11,317,226 pounds. Since the revolution the commerce has greatly declined. From 1804 to 1808, according to Walton, only about 75 vessels arrived annually, with cargoes amounting to about' £150,000. The principal article of exportation from: the Spanish part of the island is the produce of horned cattle, which have multiplied to such a degree that they are slaughtered for their skins.


Situation and Extent.] Jamaica lies about 30 leagues south of Cuba, and the same distance west of St. Domingo, between 17%

40' and 18° 30' N. lat. and between 76° 18' aud 78° 57' W. lon. It is of an oval form,about 150 miles long, and on an average more than 40 broad, contaiving 6,400 square miles, or 4,090,000 acres.

Divisions.] The island is divided into three counties as follows:

Counties. Towns. Parishes. Villages.











Face of the Country.] A range of lofty mountains called the Blue mountains, runs through the whole island from E. to 15. and rises in some of its most elevated peaks to the height of more than 7,000 feet above the level of the sea. The aspect of.the country on the opposite sides of this range is widely different. On the N. side of the island the land rises from ihe shore into hills and swells, which are remarkable for their beauty, being all of gentle acclivity and commonly separated from each other by spacious vales, and romantic rivulets. As you proceed towards the interior the land becomes more elevated, and is clothed with almost houndless forests ; and in the centre of the island it rises into lofty mountains whose heads are lost in the clouds. The sontherp front of the main ridge of the Blue mountains is generally rough and craggy ; but as you descend on the south side you meet with several lower ridges, running parallel with the principal one, the summits .of which are more round and smooth, and at the foot of the lowest ridge lie vast plains or savannahs bounded only by the ocean, and displaying all the pride of the richest cultivation.

Soil and Productions. A large portion of the soil in this island is unfit for cultivation. Out of 4,090,000 acres which the island contains, only about 2,000,000 have been granted to individuals by the crown, and even all of these are not improved. In 1791 the lands in cultivation were distributed nearly as follows :

767 sugar plantations, averaging 900 acres each 690,000 1000 breeding and grazing farms, at 700 each 700,000 plantations of cotton, coffee, pimento, ginger, &c. 350,000

1,740,000 Edwards supposes that the remaining acres, amounting to 2,350,000, are chietly unfit for cultivation, not so much on account of the barrepness of the soil as of its mountainous sitoation. Indeed almost all of the waste land is covered by a rich, strong growth of timber. The land actually cultivated has a deep and very fertile soil.

Rivers.) The island is well watered. There are about 100 rivers which take their rise in the mountains and run commonly with great rapidity to the sca on both sides of the island. None

of them are navigable except for boats.-Black river, which discharges itself in the S. W. part of the island, about 20 miles W. of Pedro bluff, is the deepest and largest. It is pavigable for flatbottomed boats and canoes about 30 miles.

Climate.] The climate of the coast is hot and sultry. This is particularly true of the plains on the southern coast, where the average temperature from June to November inclusive, is 80° and but little cooler in the other six months. In the interior it is more temperate. On the highlands about eight miles from Kingston, the thermometer seldom rises above 70°, and about six miles farther at the height of 4200 feet above the level of the sea, it averages from 550 to 65o.

Chief Towns.) Spanishtown or St. Jago de la Vega, the capital of the island, stands on the river Cobre, six miles from its entrance into Kingston harbor. Population about 5000.

Kingston is on the south coast of the island, about 10 miles E. of Spanishtown, on the north side of beautiful harbor, in which vessels of the largest burden may anchor in safety. It was founded in 1693, after the destruction of Port Royal by an earthquake in the preceding year. It is built on a plain, which commences on the shore and rises with a gradual ascent to the foot of the Liguanea mountains, a distance of about six miles. This plain is covered with the country residences of the principal inhabitants and with sugar estates. The population of the town is 33,000, of which number, 10,000 are whites, 18,000 slaves, 2,500 people of color, and 2,500 negroes.

Port Royal stands at the extremity of the long and narrow peninsula which bounds Kingston harbor on the south, about 10, miles S. W. of the town of Kingston. It has an excellent harbor, in which a thousand ships could anchor with convenience. It once contained 2.000 houses, but in June 1692 a dreadful earthquake overwhelmed the town, and buried pine tenths of it eight fathoms under water. It was, however, rebuilt, but about 10 years afterwards it was laid in ashes by a terrible fire, and in 1722, one of the most dreadful hurricanes ever known, reduced it a third time to a heap of rubbish. Thongh once a place of the greatest wealth and importance in the West lodies, it is now reduced to three streets, a few lanes, and about 200 houses. It still contains, however, the royal navy yard, the navy hospital, and barracks for a regiment of soldiers. The fortifications are remarkably strong and are kept in excellent order.

Montego bay, in the N. W. part of the island, is a flourishing commercial town with about 230 houses. In 1795 it was almost destroyed by an earthquake. Savannah la Mer in the S. W. has good anchorage for large vessels. It was almost destroyed by a dreadful hurricane and inundation of the sea in 1780.

Population.] In 1812, according to an official return there were 319,913 slaves, and the number of whites and free people of color was estimated at 40,000, making a total of nearly 360,000.

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Religion. The bishop of London claims this and the other British West India islands, as a part of his diocese ; but his jurisdiction is renounced by the laws of Jamaica. The governor, as head of the provincial church, inducts into the various rectories. The United Brethren, the Baptists, and the Methodists employ missionaries here, principally among the negroes.

Government.] The legislature of Jamaica is composed of the governor, of a council nominated by the crown, consisting of 12 gentlemen, and a house of assembly containing 43 members, who are elected by the freeholders. A bill becomes a law as soon as the governor's assent is obtained, but if the royal disapprobation is afterwards officially signified, it ceases to be valid.

Commerce.) The most important exports are sugar, rum, molasses and coffee, and next to these cacao, cotton, indigo, pimento and ginger. The amount of sugar exported has gradually increased from 11,000 hhds. in 1742 to 140,000 in 1802. In 1791 the coffee exported amounted to about 600,000 lbs.; in 1807 it had increased to 28,500,000 lbs.


Situation and Extent.] Porto Rico, called by the natives Boriqua, lies to the E. of Hispaniola. between 17° 54°and 18° 304 N. lat. and between 65° 30' and 67° 45' W. lon. It is 115 miles long from E. to W. and has a mean breadth of 36, containing 4,140 square miles. Its shape is nearly that of a paralellogram.

Puce of the Country, Soil, &c.] The country is pleasantly diversified with hills and vallies. The soil is generally fertile. The principal agricultural productions are sugar, cotton, rice, maize, and tobacco. Hurricanes are not' unfrequent, and are sometimes very destructive.

Chief Town.] St. Juan de Porto Rico, the capital, is on the north side of the island, about 15 leagues west from cape St. Juan. It stands on a peninsula in a spacious bay, and is connected with the main land by an isthmus of considerable length. The harbor is spacious and safe, and admits vessels of any burden. The entrance is less than half a mile wide, and the fortifications are strong and commanding. The population is variously estimated from 10 to 30,000.

Population.] The population in 1778 was 80,660. In 1795, it received a large accession from St. Domingo, many of the Spanish inhabitants of that island removing hither. At present it is supposed to exceed 100,000.

Government.] Porto Rico is a captain generalship. Origally, with Cuba, it was a part of the viceroyalty of Mexico; then it was attached to the government of Cuba ; and finally made a distinct province.

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Situation and Extent. The Bahama islands lie directly north of the Greater Antilles, and are separated from Cuba by the Old Bahama channel, and from Florida by the New Babama channel or Gulf of Florida. They lie between lat. 20° and 28° N. and between lon. 69° and 80° W.

Banks and Keys.] There are two noted banks in these seas : the Great and Little Babama banks. The Great Bahama bank lies between lat. 21° 40' and 26° N. and between lon. 74° 50' and 80° 20' W. Its length, from Verde key in the S. E. to Isaacs key in the N. W. is 450 miles. Its breadih in the south is about 140 miles. A little north of the tropic it is divided by an arm of deep water called Providence bay.which is 100 miles long from S. E. to N.W. and about 30 broad, and opens on the N.W. side of New Providence into the N. E. channel. The Old Bahama channel separates this bank from Cuba, and the New Bahama channel from Florida; the N. W. channel on the N. divides it from the Little Bank ; Rock sound and Exuma sound on the N. E. separate it from Eleuthera and Guanahani. Little Bank is bounded by the New Bahama channel on the W.; by the N. W. channel on the S.; by the N. E. channel on the S. E. and the Atlantic ocean on the N. E. Its length, from the Hole in the Wall in the S. E. to Maranilla Reef in the N. W. is about 180 miles. The depth of water on the Great Bapk varies from one to seyen fathoms; on the Little Bank from three to twelve.

The Keys or Kays are rocks or sand islands scattered in great profusion over this part of the ocean. Their number has been computed at 700. The larger and more remarkable have received appropriate names; the rest are known only by the generic name of Keys.

Islands. Besides the Keys already mentioned, the Bahamas consists of 14 islands or groupes of islands. The following are their names arranged in geographical order, beginning in the S. E. 1. Turks islands.

8. Watling's island. 2. Caicos.

9. Guanahani or St. Salyador. 3. The Inaguas.

10. Eleuthera and Harbor islands. 4. Mayaguana.

11. New Providence. 5. Crooked island groupe 12. Andros. 6. Long island.

13. Abaco. 7. Euma.

14. Great Bahama. Turks islands are famous for their salt ponds, which in some years have yielded more than 30,000 tons of salt for exportation. Gnanahani, called by Columbus St. Salvador, and by the English sailors Cat island, is celebrated as the spot where Columbus first Janded in the new world.

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