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acre, was also given for the support of a college. The college is located at Vincennes, and a large brick building is already erected.
Population.] The population in 1800 was 2,500; in 1810, *1,520; in 1815, 68,784; and in 1820, 147,178, of whom 190 were slaves and 1,230 free blacks. A majority of the inhabitants are from Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and the Carolinas ; the remainder are from every other state in the Union, and from almost every nation in Europe: The Indian title to large tracts of fine land has been recently extinguished by the Uoited States, and the number of immigrants is, in consequence, rapidly increasing
Government.] The legislative power is vested in a general assembly, consisting of a senate and house of representatives. The representatives are chosen annually by counties, and their number can never be less than 36 por more than 100. The senators are chosen for three years, and their number can never be less than one third, por more than one half of the number of representatives. The executive power is vested in a governor, who is chosen by the people for three years, but he cannot bold his office longer than six years in any term of pine years.
Judiciary power.] The judiciary power is vested in a supreme court and such inferior courts as the general assembly may, from time to time, direct and establish. The judges of the supreme court are appointed by the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate. The judges of the inferior courts are chosen partly by the general assembly, and partly by the people in their respective counties. The justices of the peace are elected by the people in the several towns, and hold their offices for five years. The judges of the supreme court as well as of the inferior courts bole their offices for seyen years.
Situation and Extent.] Illinois is bounded N. by the Northwest teritory; E. by lake Michigan and Indiana ; S. by Kentucky ; and W. by Mississippi river, which separates it from the state of Missouri and Missouri territory. The boundary begins in Ohio river at the mouth of the Wabash, and proceeds, thence, up the same, and with the line of Indiana, to the north-west cor. per of said state ; thence, east, with the line of the same state, to the middle of lake Michigan; thence, north, along the middle of said lake, to the parallel of 49° 30 N. lat. ; thence, west, along that parallel, to the middle of the Mississippi river; and thence, down along the middle of that river, to its confuence with the Ohio river; and thence, up the latter river, along its north-westero shore, to the place of beginning. It extends from 37° to 420
90' N. lat., and from 87° 17' to 91° 50' W, Jon. The area is estimated at 52,000 square miles.
Divisions.] Illinois is divided into 19 counties.
Counties, Pop. Chief towns. Counties. Pop. Chief towns. in 1820.
in 1820. Alexander, 626 America. Monroe, , 1,537 Harrisonville. Bond, 2,931 Perrysville. Pope, 2,610 Golconda. Clark, 931
Randolph, 3,492 Kaskaskia. Crawford, 3,022
5,253 Belleville. Edwards, 3,444 Palmyra. Union, 2,362 Jonesburg, Franklin, 1,763
Washington, 1,517 Covington. Gallatin, 3,165 Shawneetown. Waybe,
1,114 Jackson, 1,542 Brownsville, White,
4,828 Carmi. Jefferson,
It has a
Rivers. This state is well provided with navigable waters. It is bordered on three sides by the great rivers Wabash, Ohio and Mississippi ; its N. E. corner touches upon lake Michigan, and it is intersected by the Illinois and Kaskaskia, which ruo from N. E. to S. W. through the heart of the state.
The Illinois is formed by the Kankakee and the Desplanes, which unite in the N. E. part of the state. After their union, the river runs in a S. W. direction nearly 400 miles, and falls into the Mississippi 18 miles above the moutb of the Missouri. gentle current, and is navigable for boats nearly to its source. The Illinois has numerous tributaries, sereral of which are parigable for boats more than 100 miles.
The Kaskaskia rises is the eastern part of the state, between the Illinois and Wabash, and running in a south-westerly dirèction, falls into the Mississippi 84 miles below the mouth of the Illinois, after a course of 150 miles, for 130 of which it is navigable.
The other considerable rivers, beginning in the N.'W. are, 1. Rocky river, which rises near the northern boundary of the state, and running in a S. W. direction, enters the Mississippi 160 miles above the mouth of the Illinois, after a course of 200 miles. 2. The Au Vase, which runs into the Mississippi, 55 miles above the mouth of the Ohio. It is navigable for boats 60 miles. 3. Saline river, which empties itself into the Ohio, 26 miles below the mouth of the Wabash. It is navigable 30 miles. There are salt works, belonging to the United States, on this stream, 20 miles from its mouth. 4. The Little Wabash, which runs into the Wabash, a few miles from Ohio river, after a southerly course of more than 100 miles. 5. The Chicago, which empties itself into lake Michigan, at its southern extremity. The portage from Chicago river to the Desplanes, one of the head branches of the Illinois, is only 9 miles, and the land here is so low as often to be covered with water and passed in boats.
Face of the Country, Soil and Productions. The greater part of the state is either fat or rolling. Extensive prairies are
spread over two thirds of its surface. The soil may be divided into six classes. 1. Bottoms, bearing a heavy growih of timber. This land is of the first quality, and is found on all the principal rivers. It varies in widtb from 50 rods to 2 miles, and is of inexhaustible fertility. 2. Newly formed land, found at the mouths of rivers. There are many thousand acres of this land at the mouth of the Wabash, and at the confluence of the Ohio with the Mississippi. It is annually inundated, and is very unhealthy. 3. Dry prairies, near the rivers, bordering on the bottom land, but elevated from 30 to 100 feet. The prairies of the Ilinois river are the most extensive of any east of the Mississippi, and have alone been estimated at 1,200,000 acres.
This soil is not inferior to the first rate river bottoms. 4. Wet prairie, found remote from rivers or at their sources. The soil is generally cold and barren, abounding with swamps and ponds, and covered with a tall coarse grass. 5. Timbered land, moderately hilly, well watered, and of a rich soil. 6. Hills, of a sterile soil, and destitute of timber, or covered with stinted oaks and pines.
Corp is at present the staple production. Wheat does well, except on the bottoms, where the soil is too rich. Tobacco grows to great perfection. Flax, hemp, oats, Irish and sweet potatoes do as well as in Kentucky.
Military Bounty Lands. In 1817 there were in Illinois upwards of 16,000,000 acres of land belonging to the United States, obtained by purchase from the Indians. The portion of these lands lying between the Illinois and the Mississippi has been assigned by Congress, as bounty lands, to the soldiers who enlisted during the late war. The whole amount surveyed is about 5,530,000 acres, equal to 8,640 square miles, and is divided into 240 1ownships. This land is represented to be of an excellent quality.
Chief Towns.] Kaskaskia, the seal of goveroment is on the right bank ot Kaskaskia river, 11 miles from its mouth, and 150 S. W. of Vincennes. It contains about 160 houses scattered over an extensive plain. The town was settled upwards of 100 years ago from Lower Canada, and about one balf of the inhabitants are of French origin.
Cahokia is on a small river of the same name, which discharges itself into the Mississippi one mile below the town, 4 miles south of St. Louis, on the opposite side of the river, and 52 N. W. of Kaskaskia. It contains about 1,000 inhabitants, most of whom are of French origin.
Shawncetown,, the capital of Gallatin county, is on the north bank of Ohio river, 12 miles below the mouth of the Wabash, and 12 E. of the salt works belonging to the United States, on Saline creek. The inhabitants are supported principally by the profits of the salt trade.
Edwardsville, the capital of Madison county, is a flourishing town, on Cahokia river, 22 miles N. E. of St. Louis. Cairo is situated at the junction of the Ohio with the Mississippi.
Canals and Roads.). A canal has been projected to unite the bead waters of the Ilipois with lake Michigan. The Mlinois, and the Chicago, a river of lake Michigan, are so connected, that in freshets boats pass readily from one to the other. For the improvement of this navigation the government of the United States bas appropriated 100,000 acres of land. This canal will open, probably at less expense than any other, a communication between the great lakes aod the Mississippi ; but as there are no settlements of any importance on the shores of lake Michigan, it will probably be some time before this communication will be opened.
Two per cent of the nett proceeds of the United States' lands, lying within the state, are to be expended under the direction of Congress, in making roads leading to the state.
Education.) At the time of the admission of Illinois into the Union, in 1818, the goveroment of the United States granted to the state, on certain conditions, one section or thirty-sixth part of every township for the suppurt of schools ; and three per cent. of the nett proceeds of the United States' lands, lying within the state, for the encouragement of learning, of which one sixth part must be bestowed on a college or university. As a farther provision for the university, two entire townships have been given to the legislature.
As the condition of these grants, the convention, which formed the constitution of the state, was required to provide, by an ordidance which is irrevocable without the consent of Congress, that all lands sold by the United States shall be exempt from every species of taxation for five years from the day of sale ; also, that the bounty lands granted for military services during the late war, shall, if they continue to be held by the patentees, or their heirs, remajn exempt from taxes for three years from the date of the patents ; and that the lands belonging to the citizens of the United States residing without the state, shall never be taxed higher than lands belonging to persons residing therein.-Similar provisions are required of all the new states as the condition on which they receive grants of land and money for the support of schools, roads and canals. It is also usually required that all the Davigable waters of the state shall be common highways, and for ever free of toll or duty to all citizens of the United States.
Population] The population has increased very rapidly within a few years. In 1810 it was 12,282; in 1818, 35,220 ; and in 1820, 55,211 ; of whom, 917-were slapes. The settlements at present are principally confined to the banks of the Mississippi, ihe Kaskaskia and its branches. There are a few also on the Wabash ani the Ohio.' The constitution provides that no more slaves shall be introduced into the state.
Indians.] There are about 15,000 Indians in this state and Indiana. The principal tribes are the Sacs, 3,400 in number, on Rocky river, 4 miles E. of the Mississippi, and 400 above St. Louis ; the Pottawatamies, 2.000 in number, around the southern part of lake Michigan; the Delawures and several other tribes, on
White river in Indiana ; and the Miamies and Eel river Indians, in Indiana, on branches of tbe Wabash.
Government.] The legislative power is vested in a general as sembly consisting of a senate and house of representatives. The representatives are chosen for two years and the senators for four years. The number of representatives cannot be less than 27 nor more than 36, until the number of inhabitants shall amount to 100,000 ; and the number of senators can never be less than one third por more than one half of the number of representatives. The executive power is vested in a governor, who is chosen by the people for four years, but he is not eligible for more than four years in any term of eight years. In all elections, every white male inhabitant, having resided in the state six months, is allowed to vote, and the constitution requires that all votes shall be given viva voce.
Judiciary power.) The judiciary power is vested in a supreme court and such inferior courts as the general assembly shall from time to time ordain and establish. The judges are appointed by the assembly and bold their offices during good behaviour, or till removed by the governor on the address of two thirds of each branch of the general assembly.
Minerals.] Copper and lead are found in some parts of the state. Coal lias been discovered on the banks of Au Vase river; on the Illinois, 260 miles from its mouth, and in places near Kaskaskia and Edwardsville. Salt is made at the United States' saline, on Saline river, to the amount of 200,000 bushels annually, and is sold at the works for 50 and 75 cents a bushel. These salt works supply the states of Indiana and Illinois.
Situation and Extent.] Missouri is bounded E. by Mississippi river, which separates it from Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee ; S. by Arkansas territory ; W. and N. by Missouri territory. The boundary line runs as follows: beginning in the Mississippi river in lat. 36° N. it runs due west along that parallel to the river St. Francis ; thence, up that river, to the parallel of 36° 30' north latitude ; thence, west, along that parallel, till it meets the meridian, which passes through the mouth of Kansas river; thence, north, along that meridian, till it meets the parallel of latitude, which passes through the mouth of Des Moines river; thence, east, along that parallel to the Mississippi river; and thence, down the middle of the Mississippi to the place of beginning. It extends from 36° to about 40® 30' N. lat. and from 890 to 94° 10' W. lon. The area is estimated at 60,000 square miles.
Divisions. The state is divided into 15 counties.