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from the mouth of the Great Miami river, at the S. W. corner of the state. It is regularly laid out, in a pleasant and healthy situation, and is one of the most flourishing towns west of the Alleghany mountains. The growth of the city has been rapid, almost without a parallel. In 1805, the population was 500; in 1810, 2,540; in 1820, 9,642. In 1819 it contained a court. house ; 3 brick market houses ; 4 printing offices; a steam Tour mill, built of stooe, 9 stories high; a steam saw mill; 1 woollen and 4 cotton factories ; 2 glass houses, and several other manufacturing establishments ; 4 banks ; a college ; and 9 or 10 houses of public worship for different denominations. The commerce of the town is very flourishing. About 130,000 barrels of flour were inspected here during the year ending April 1st, 1819, and more than 120,000 bushels of salt imported. A cumpany has been recently formed for the purpose of importing goods directly from Europe by the way of New-Orleans.
Chillicothe, the capital of Koss county, is regularly laid out on the west bank of Scioto river, 45 miles, in a direct line, from its mouth, on the border of an extensive and fertile plain, of about 10,000 acres. It contains 3 banks, 3 houses of public worsbip, and an academy ; and in the vicinity are many valuable mills and manufacturing establishments. Population, in 1820, 2,426.
Zanesville, the capital of Muskingum county, is situated on the east side of Muskingum river, at the falls, opposite Putnam. It is a very flourishing town, and is well situated for trade aud manufactures. The navigation of the Muskingum is uninterrupted from its mouth; the falls afford numerous fine mill seats, and the surrounding country abounds with inexhaustible beds of coal for such establishments as require the use of fuel. Here are already erected 2 glass-houses, several flour mills, an oil mill, saw mills, a nail factory, and a woollen factory. A company was incorporated in 1814, for the construction of a canal and locks around ihe falls, and the work is now rapidly progressing. The expense is estimated at from 70,000 to 100,000 dollars, and the company
in tend to unite with the canal extensive water works for manufacturing purposes. The population of Zanesville, in 1820, was 2,052. Putnam is a flourishing town on the west bank of Muskiogum river, opposite Zanesville, and connected with it by two bridges. Population, in 1820, 512.
Columbus, the capital of the state, is regularly laid out, on a pleasant rising ground on the east side of Scioto river, just below the confluence of the Whetstone, 45 miles north of Chillicothe. The growth of the town has been remarkably rapid. In 1812, the lots were first exposed for sale, with the timber then standing upon them, and in 1820, it contained a bandsome state-house, a building for the public offices, and a penitentiary, all of brick; a bank ; a market-house; 2 printing offices; more than 200 houses. and 1,500 inhabitants.
Steubenville, the capital of Jefferson county, is on the west bank of Ohio river, in the midst of a fertile and populous country, abounding with coal and iron ore, It was regularly laid out in
1798, and has very rapidly increased. The population in 1810, was 800; and in 1820, 2,539
Marietta, the capital of Washington crunty, is on the west bank of Ohio river, immediately above the mouth of the Mus, kingum, and 178 below Pittsburgh. Ship building was formerly carried on here to a considerable extent, and since 1816 ibis business has revived. The situation of the town is upfortunate; parts of it being liable to annual inundation Population of the township, in 1820, 1,746.
Cleveland, the capital of Cuyahoga county, is situated at the mouth of Cuyahoga river, on the southern shore of lake Erie, and is a noted place of embarkation for various parts of the lake, Population, in 1820, 606. Circleville, the capital of Pickaway county, is on the cast side of Scioto river, 26 miles south of Columbus and 19 north of Chillicothe. It is situated on two ancient fortifications or mounds of earth, one circular, the other square ; the areas of which, together, cover nearly 20 acres. The round fort consists of two circular but parallel walls, about 20 feet high, and at the top 50 feet asunder. There was originally but one regular opening into the circular fort, and that was on the east side, from the square fort. The latter has seven avenues leading into it, beside that which communicates with the circle. The town lies principally within the circular mound, and hence derives its name. Population, in 1820, 535. Athens, the seat of the Ohio University, is on a peninsula, formed by a large bend of Hockhocking river, 37 miles from its mouth and 40 west of Marietta. Population, in 1820, 1,094.
Canals and Roads.] It has been proposed to comect lake Erie with Ohio river by means of a canal from the Cuyahoga, which empties itself into lake Erie, to the Tuscarawa, one of the upper streams of the Muskingum. Between these rivers there is now only a short portage, and so certain is it that the two rivers may be connected by a canal, that in the law of Congress, appropriating a portion of the public lands to the improvement of inland navigation, 100,000 acres were assigned for defraying the expense of carrying into effect this project. Of all the canals proposed for connecting the waters of the lakes with those of the Mississippi, this probably will be first opened, and will be a great benefit to the country through which it passes. li is supposed that lake Erie may also be connected with the Ohio by means of canals, uoiting the branches of Maumee, with a branch of the Great Miami.-- Three per cent of the net proceeds of the United States' lands within the limits of Ohio, have be in given by Congress to the legislature for the purpose of opening and improving its roads. The produce of this fund has hitherto been divided among so many roads, that very little of the good wbich was anticipated, has been derived from it.
Education. There are three institutions with the title of university in this state, viz. Cincinnati university, at Cincinpati; the Ohio university, at Athens, on the Hockhocking; and the Miami university, at Oxford, in Butler county, near the S, W, corner of the state. There are besides two incorporaled colleges, one at Cincinnati ; and the other at Worthington, on Wherstone river, 9 miles north of Colunibus. The Cincinnati university has existed only on paper, and may now be considered as extinct. The Ohio university is endowed with two townships or 46,000 acres of land, and has an annual income of 2,300 dollars. It is just commencing its operations. In 1818 a large and convenient edifice of brick was erected for the accommodation of the institution. The Miami university is endowed with one township of land, which produces at present an annual income of pearly 4,000 dollars. The funds are daily increasing in value, and the erection of buildings for the accommodation of the institution has already commenced. The Cincinnati college was incorporated in 1819, and is the most flourishing literary institution in the state. It bas funds, amounting to 30,000 dollars, raised by private subscription. A medical college is connected with it. Worthington college was incorporated in 1819. All these institutions are yet in their infancy.-One section, or thirty sixth part, of every township has been granted by the government of the U. States for the support of common schools. There are also 10 incorporated academies in the state.
Population.] The population has increased with astonishing rapidity. In 1791, it was 3,000 ; in 1800, 42,156 ; in 1810, 230,760 ; and in 1820, 581,434, none of whom were slaves. The inhabitants are made up of emigrants from every state in the Union, and from almost every country in Europe. They have not resided together long enough to form a fixed and unifora character. The majority of the emigrants have been farmers from the northern and middle states, who are in general industrious, temperate, and frugal, and possess much intelligence and enterprise. The population will probably continue to increase rapidly for some time to come ; though not with the same rapidity as heretofore. The recent extinction of the lodian title to the northwestern quarter of the state, called the Indian reservation, will have an immediate effect on the progress of population in that quarter.
Religion.) The Presbyterians and Methodists are the prevailing denominations. In the southwestern parts of the state, and in some other places, there are a few Shakers and Quakers or Friends. There are also a few of almost every other denomination.
Government.] Ohio was adroitted into the union in 1803, The legislative power is vested in a general assembly, consisting of a senate and house of representatives. The representatives are chosen for one year, and their number cannot be less than 36 oor more than 72. The senators are chosen for two years, and their oomber must not be more than one half, nor less than one third of the nuinber of representatives. The executive power is vested in a governor, who is chosen for two years by the people,
Antiquities.] The monuments of the ancient population of Ohio consist of fortifications, and wounds or embankments, of various forms and dimensions. Among them all, there is not a single edifice, nor any ruins which prove the existence, in former ages, of a building composed of imperishable materials. No fragment of a column, no brick, nor a single hewn stone, large enough to have been incorporated into a wall has been discovered. The mounds of earth are found interspersed over almost the whole face of the country; but the forts, as they are called, are not so numerous.
The mounds vary greatly in shape and magnitude : some are of a conical figure, ending on the top in a point, and as steep on the sides, as the earth could be made to lie; others are of the same form except that they present a flat area on the top, like a cone cut off at some distance from its vertex, by a plane parallel with its base; and others again are of a semiglobular shape. The fortifications consist of a circular wall, composed of earth, and usually very steep on the sides. Their height is various ; some are so low as to be scarcely perceptible; some are from 20 to 30 feet in perpendicular height; while others again are of an intermediate elevation. The walls are generally single, but, in a few instances, they consist of two, which are parallel and adjacent to each other. The space inclosed within the walls varies from a few perches to nearly 100 acres. The number of entrances or gateways varies in different forts from one to eight or more, according to the magnitude of the inclosure.
Mounds and fortifications of the above description are not confined to the state of Ohio, but are found scattered over the whole country west of the Alleghany mountains from the great lakes on the north nearly to the southern extremity of North America. They are found of the greatest magnitude and grandeur in some of the southern provinces of Mexico. From that country, indeed, they seem to decrease in size, beauty and regularity, in a ratio corresponding directly to the distance. They are generally found in the vallies of the larger streams; and on the most elevated plains or terraces, which are provincially termed the second and third banks, counting from the river. They are undoubtedly of great antiquity: the forests over them exhibit no appearance of more recent growth than in other places. Trees, several hundred years old, are in many places seen growing out of the ruins of others, which appear to have been of equal size.
There have been various conjectures concerning the time when these monuments were erected, the people hy whom they were built, and the design of their erection. Those called forts are generally in the strongest military positions of the country, and were perhaps, without exception, designed for defence in war. The rounds were probably burying places, as human bones have frequently been discovered in them.
Commerce and Nonvfuctures. The principal exports from this state are horses, cattle, swine, whiskey and flour. Large herds ot' swine are driven in the autumn to Philadelphia, Baltimore and other eastern markets ; Detroit and other military posts on the northern frontier are also supplied with provisions principally from Ohio. The markets for the northern part of the state and for many of the interior counties are Montreal and New-York. In all the southern part of the state the produce is boated down the Ohio and Misssissippi rivers to New-Orleans. 'The value of the manufactures of this state, in 1810, was $2,894,290.
Situation and Extent.] Indiana is bounded N. by the state of Illinois, lake Michigan and Michigan territory; E. by the state of Ohio; $. by Kentucky; and w. by the state of Illinois. The boundary line commences in Ohio river at the mouth of the Wabash, and proceeds up the last mentioned river to the point where the meridian of Vincennes cuts the river for the last time ; thence, north, along that meridian, to a point 10 miles north of the southern extremity of lake Michigan ; thence, due east, to the point of intersection with the western line of the state of Ohio ; thence, south, along that line, to the mouth of the Great Miami; and thence, down the Ohio, to the place of beginning. It extends from 37° 45' to 41° 50' N. lat. and from 84° 42' to 87° 49' W. lon. The area is estimated at 36,000 square miles.
Divisions.] The northern half of the state is in possession of the lodians. The part occupied by the whites is divided into 35 counties.
Counties. Pop, Chief towns. Counties. Pop. . Chief towns. in 1820. ,
in 1820. Clark, 8,709 Charlestown. Owen,
838 Crawford, 2,583
Perry, 2,330 Troy. Davies, 3,432 Washington.
1,472 Dearborn, 11,468 Lawrenceburg Posey, 4,061 Harmony, Delaware, 3,677
Randolph, 1,808 Dubois, 1,168
Ripley, 1,822 Fayette, 5,950
2,334 Floyd, 2,776
Spencer, 1,882 Franklin, 10,763 Brookville,
Sullivan, 3,498 Fort Harrison Gibson, 3,876 Princeton. Switzerland, 3,934 Vevay. Harrison, 7,875 Corydon. Vanderburgh 1,798 Jackson, 4,010 Brownstown, Vigo, 3,390 Jefferson, 8,038 Madison.
147 Jennings, 2,000 Vernon.
Warwick, 1,749 Darlington Knox, 5,437 Vincennes. Washington, 9,039 Salem. Lawrence, 4,116
12,119 Salisbury, Martin, 1,032 Monroe, 2,679
Total, 147,178 Orange