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Chief towns.


Port William.






in 1810.
Cumberland, 6,191

2,082 Fayette,

21,370 Fleming,

8,947 Floyd,

Franklin, 8,013
Gallatin, 3,307

Grayson, 2,301

6,735 Greenup, 2,369 Hardin,

Harrison, 7,752

4,703 Henry,

6,777 Hopkins,

2,964 Jefferson, 13,399 Jessamine, 8,377 Knox,

5,875 Lewis,

2,357 Lincoln, 8,676 Livingston, 3,674 Loga",

12,123 Madison, 15,540 Mason,

Mercer, 12,630
Montgomery, 12,975
Muhlenburg, 4,181
Nelson, 14,078
Nicholas, 4,898

Pendleton, 3,061

6,897 Rockcastle, 1,731 Scott,

Shelby, 14,877
Warren, 11,937
Washington, 13,248

Woodford. 9,650

Pop. in 1820. 8,058 3,876 3,507 23,250 12,186

8,207 11,024

7,075 10,851 1,805 4,055 11,943 4,311 10,498

1,961 12,278 4,184 5,714 10,816

5,322 20,768 9,297 3,661 3,973 9,979 5,824 14,423 15,954 13,588 15,587 4,956 9,587 4,979 16,273 7,973 3,879 2,031 3,086 7,597 2,249 14,219 21,047 4,852 5,089 3,874 3,470 11,776 15,947 7,951 2,340 12,207

Slaves in 1820. 1,332

852 281 9,274 1,144

197 3,550 1,242 2,918


184 3,241

566 1,466

108 2,137

596 2,265 2,004

982 6,886 2,802


464 3,053 1,020 4,698 4,154 3,366 3,825

498 2,054

675 3,875

919 468 207 328 637

155 4,620 5,158

803 1,729

816 1,035 2,554 3,734 553

96 4,678



Mount Sterling




Bowling Green.


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Rivers. Kentucky is almost insulated by navigable rivers. The Big Sandy, the Ohio and the Mississippi form its boundary on three sides, while the Cumberland, in iwo places, intersects its southern border. The Big Sandy rises in the Cumberland

mountains, and running in a northerly direction forms the bousdary between Virginia and Kentucky, and falls into the Ohio, after a course of 200 miles. Cumberland river rises in the Cumberland mountains, near the sources of the Big Sandy, and running in a southwesterly direction, crosses the southern boundary of the state into Tennessee, where it makes a great bend, and assuming a northwesterly direction returns to Kentucky, and dis- . charges itself into the Ohio, 10 miles above the mouth of Tennessee river, after a course of 600 miles, for 500 of which it is navigable for boats.

The principal rivers wbich lie wholly within the state, beginning in the east, are, 1. Licking river, which rises in the Cumberland mountains, and running in a N. W. direction, discharges itself into the Ohio at Newport, opposite Cincinnati, aster a course of 180 miles. In spring floods, it is navigable for 100 miles from its mouth, but for ten months out of twelve its navigation is of little value. 2. The Kentucky, wbich rises in the Cumberland mountains, near the sources of the Cumberland and the Licking, and running in a N. W. direction, for 280 miles, discharges itself into the Ohio at Port William, 77 miles above the rapids at Louisville. It is navigable for boats of considerable size 180 miles, in the winter floods. Its principal tributary is the Elkhorn, which joins it 8 miles below Frankfort. 3. Salt river, which falls into the Ohio 20 miles below Louisville, and is navigable 65 miles. On its banks are numerous salt licks. 4. Green river, which rises near the centre of the state, and running in a westerly direction for 280 miles, discharges itself into the Ohio, 120 miles below Louisville and 50 above the mouth of the Cumberland, It is navigable for boats nearly 200 miles.

Face of the Country, Soil and Productions.] The only mountains are the Cumberland range, which separate Kentucky from Virginia. The eastern counties are mountainous. A tract along the banks of the Ohio, from 5 to 20 miles wide, and extending through the whole length of the state, bas a good soil, but is hilly and broken, except the lands immediately on the Ohio, for about one mile in width on an average, which are bottom lands, and subject to periodical inuodations. Between this tract, the eastern counties and Green river, lies a fine country, which has been called the garden of the state. It is about 150 miles long, and from 50 to 100 miles wide, and comprises the counties of Mason, Fleming, Montgomery, Clarke, Bourbon, Fayette, Scott, Harrison, Franklin, Woodford, Mercer, Jessamine, Madison, Garrard, Casey, Lincoln, Washington and Green. The surface of this district is agreeably undulating, and the soil black and fertile. The coun. try between Green and Cumberland rivers is called 6 the bar

In 1800 the legislature of Kentucky made a grant of this tract to actual settlers, under the impression that it was of little value, but it proves to be excellent 'land; and hogs and cattle are raised here in abundance.

The whole state, below the mountains, rests on an immense þed of lime stone, usually about 8 feet below the surface. There


are every where apertures in this limestone, through which the waters of the rivers sink into the earth. The large rivers of Kentucky, for this reason, are more diminished during the dry season, than those of any part of the United States, and the small streams entirely disappear. The banks of the rivers are natural curiosities. They have generally worn very deep channels in the calcareous rocks over which they flow. The precipices formed by Kentucky river are in many places awfully sublime,presenting perpendicular banks of 300 feet of solid limestone, surmounted with a steep and difficult ascent, four times as high. In the S. W. part of the state, between Green river and the Cumberland, there are several wonderful caves : one, called the Mammoth cave, is said to be 8 or 10 miles long.

The principal productions of Kentucky are hemp, tobacco, wheat and Indian corn. Salt springs are numerous, and supply not only this state, but a great part of Ohio and Tennessee with this mineral. Iron ore abounds in various places, but the metal is not of a good quality.

Chief Towns.) Frankfort, the capital of the state, is regularly laid out on the east side of Kentucky river, 60 miles above ils confluence with the Ohio. The site of the town is a semicircular allovial plain, from 150 to 200 feet lower than the table land in its rear. The river is here about 80 yards wide, and after heavy rains frequently rises 60 feet. Opposite Frankfort, and connected with it by a bridge, is South Frankfort, which is rapidly increasing. Steam boats of 300 tons come up the river as far as this place when the water is high, and most of the foreign goods consumed in Kentucky are landed here or at Louisville. Population, ia 1820, 1,679.

Lexington, the largest town in the state, and the seat of Transylvania university, is delightfully situated, in a beautiful valley, op Town fork, a small stream which falls into the south branch of Elkhorn river, 25 miles E. S. E. of Frankfort. It is regularly laid out, and contains 3 banks; and 7 houses of public worship, 3 for Presbyterians, and one each, for Episcopalians, Baptists, Methodists and Roman Catholics. The growih of the town has been exceedingly rapid. In 1797, it contained only about 50 houses, and the best farmers lived in log cabins. It is now a large and beautiful town, covered with stately and elegant buildings, and in wealth and refinement is not surpassed by any place in the western country. The country around Lexington is much admired for the beauty of its scenery, and is adorned with more than 50 handsome country seats. The population of the town, in 1820, was 5,279.

Louisville is pleasantly situated on an elevated and beautiful plain, on the south bank of the Ohio, immediately above the rapids, and 50 miles west of Frank fort. It contains 3 banks ; ą. theatre; and 3 houses of public worship, 1 for Roman Catholics, 1 for Presbyterians and i for Methodists. Among the manutace turing establishments is a distillery, which yields 1200 gallons

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a day, and is the most extensive establishment of the kind in the United States. Here are also 5 tobacco manufactories; a factory for the construction of steam engines, in wbich about 60 workmeo are employed; a soap and candle manufactory, supposed to be the largest in the western country; a sugar refinery; a steam four mill, and two steam saw mills. The commerce of Louisville and of Shippingport, which lies adjacent, has increased rapidly within a few years. There are now upwards of 25 steam boats, measuring together 6,050 tons, employed in their com

The population of Louisville, in 1820, was 4,012. Shipping port is on the Ohio, 2 miles below Louisville, at the foot of the rapids, on a beautiful plain. It is the natural harbor and landing place for all vessels ascending the Ohio. During three-fourths of the year they of necessity stop here, which they can do with perfect safety, as there is a basin immediately in front of the town, capable of containing any number of vessels, of

Russellville, the capital of Logan county, is a flourishing town, in the midst of a very fertile country, and contained, in 1820, 1,712 inhabitants. Newport, the capital of Campbell county, is on the Ohio, immediately above the mouth of Licking river, and opposite Cincinnati. An arsenal has been established here by the United States, with barracks for 2 or 3 regiments of soldiers. Bardstown, the capital of Nelson county, is on a branch of Salt river, 35 miles S. W. of Frankfort. Here is a large Roman Catholic cathedral.

Canal.] The Ohio, at the rapids in Louisville, descends 22 feet in about two miles. Boats ascend, but not without difficulty. The legislature of Kentucky, several years since, incorporated a company for opening a canal around these rapids ; and, in 1816, the ground was surveyed, and the expense of a capal for vessels of 30 tons, was estimated at $240,000.

Education.] Transylvania' university, in Lexington, was originally incorporated before the separation of Kentucky from Virginia. In 1818, it was re-organized under a board of 13 trustees, who are chosen biennially by the legislature. In 1820, its officers were a president and 8 professors, of whom 4 were medical professors ; 3 tutors; 2 assistant tutors, and the principal of the preparatory department. The number of students was 235, of whom 34 were medical students, and 99 in the preparatory department. The library contains about 3,000 volumes, and a considerable sum has been expended in the purchase of a chemical and philosophical apparatus.- A college was established, in 1819, at Danville, 33 miles S. S. W. of Lexington. It has a professors. Respectable schools and academies are increasing in the state, the result of individual exertions.

Population and Religion.) The population of the state, in 1790, was 73,677 ; in 1800, 220,959 ; io 1310, 406,511 ; and, in 1820, 561,317; having increased nearly eightfold in 30 years. Of the whole population in 1820, 126,732 were slaves. The principal religious depozinations are Baptists, Presbyterians and

Methodists. There are a few Catholics and some Episcopalians. The Catholic bishop resides at Bardstown.

Government. The legislative power is vested in a general assembly, consisting of a senate and house of representatives. The representatives are chosen for one year and cannot be less than 58 nor more than 100 in number. The senate consists of not less than 24 sor more than 38 members, who hold their office for 4 years, one fourth part being chosen annually. The executive power is vested in a governor, who holds his office for four years, but is ineligible for seven years after the expiration of the time for which he shall have been eiected.

Commerce and Manufactures.] Hemp, tobacco and wheat are the principal exports. These are carried down the Ohio and Mississippi to New Orleans, and foreign goods are received from the game place in return. Louisville is the centre of this trade. The privcipal manufactures are cloth, spirits, cordage, salt, and maple sugar. The value of the manufactures, in 1810, was estimated at $6,181,021.

Curiosity.] In Big Bone valley, abont 20 miles S.W. of Newport, larger quantities of huge animal remains have been discovered than in any other part of the United States. It is now more than balf a century since these first attracted the attention of Europeap travellers, and so many of the bones have been carried away, ibat a few fragments only remain to excite the feelings which are naturally produced by a view of this tomb of the mammoths.


Situation and Extent.] Óbio is bounded N. by the Michigan territory and lake Erie ; E. by Pennsylvania ; S. E. by Virginia ; S. by. Kentucky, and W. by Indiana. It extends from 38° 30° to 42° N. lat, and from 80° 32' to 84° 50' W. lon. The area is estir mated at 39,000 square miles.

Divisions.] In 1820 there were 59 counties, and 742 town's Counties. Towns, Pop. Pop. Chief towns.

in 1810. in 1820. Adams,

9 9,434 10,406 West Union. Ashtabula, 19

7,382 Jefferson. Athens,

12 2,791 6,333 Athens. Belmont,

15 11,097 20,329 St. Clairsville, Brown, 7

13,356 Ripley. Botler,

12 11,150 21,746 Hamilton. Champaign, 10 6,303 8,479 Urbana, Clarke, 10

9,538 Springfield. Clermont, 11 9,965


Williamsburg Clinton, 7 2,674 8,085

Wilmington. Columbiana, 23 10,878 22,033 New Lisbon, Cosbocton, 14



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