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navigable for sea vessels to Wilmington, 34 miles from its mouth, for large boats to Fayetteville, and for small boats above the forks. Its principal tributaries are, Clarendon river, or the N.E. branch, wbich unites with it just above Wilmington, and is navigable for 70 miles ; and Black river, which joins it a few miles farther up. 6. Yadkin river rises in the Allegbany mountains, and running in a S. E. direction through Wilkes, Surry, Rowan, Montgomery, Anson and Richmond counties, passes into South Carolina, lo Montgomery county are the narrows, where the river, which was before 200 or 300 yards wide, is contracted to 30. A few miles below the narrows it receives Rocky river from the west, and then takes the name of Great Pedee, which it preserves during the remainder of its course. This river was surveyed under the direction of the Yadkin Navigation company, in 1818, from Wilkes courthouse, in the mountains, to Cheraw
ll, about 6 miles below the South Carolina boundary, a distance of 2471 miles. The expense of making it navigable for boats of ten tons through this distance, is estimated at $250,234, exclusive of the parrows, where for the present it is intended to make a turapike road for seven miles. 7. The Catawba, which rises in the western part of the state aad passes into South CaroBoa, where it lakes the name of Wateree. 8. Broad river, still farther west, which rises in the Alleghany mountains, and passes almost immediately into South Carolina.
Chief towns.] Newbern, the largest town in the state, is on a flat sandy point of land, at the junction of Neuse river with the Trent. It carries on considerable commerce, and contained, in 1820, 3,663 inbabitants.
Raleigh, the capital, is a beautiful town in Wake county. It is regularly laid out, and contained, in 1820, 2,674 inhabitants. The state-bouse is a beautiful building of brick, and has been recently adorned with a superb marble statue of Washington, executed in Italy by the first sculptor of the age.
Fayetteville is advantageously situated near the west bank of Cape Fear river, at the head of navigation for large boats, and is one of the most flourishing commercial towns in the state. Large quantities of tobacco, cotton, naval stores and other produce are brought to this place from the back country, and carried down the river to Wilmington, in boats containing about 120 barrels. The growth of Fayetteville bas been very rapid. The population, in 1820, was 3,532.
Wilmington, on the east side of Cape Fear river, just below che junction of the N. E. branch, 34 miles from the sea, is the depot for the produce of a large section of North Carolina, and the exports from this port have usually been twice as much as from all the other ports of the state. The situation, however, is considered unhealthy, and vessels drawing more than 11 feet of water, cannot pass over the flats, formed 20 miles below the town, by the meeting of the tide waters with the current of the ciyer. Population, in 1820, 2,633.
Edenton is at the head of a bay on the N. side of Albemarle mpound, near the mouth of Chowan river. Plymouth is on the S. side of the Roanoke, 5 miles from Albemarle sound.
Education.] The University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill, 27 miles W. of Raleigh, was incorporated in 1788, and has been liberally patronized by the state. la 1821 it had a president, 4 professors, 2 tutors and 146 Students.-- At Salem, in Stokes county, there is an academy for young ladies, under the direction of the Moravians, which is in high repute, pupils resorting hither from all parts of the Southern states.-Within a few years there has been much zeal displayed in thę establishment of acad mies and schools. Previous to 1804, there were but 2 acade mies in the state. The number at present is 50, and is rapidly increasing.
Internal Improvements.] Since the year 1815 the state has been zealously engaged in the business of internal improvements. It is intended to improve the navigation of the inlets and sounds, so as to open a direct and easy communication with the ocean ; to remove the obstructions in the navigation of the principal rivers; to connect the rivers by navigable canals; to improve the roads; and to drain the marshes and swamps of the eastern and southern counties. In prosecution of these plans, skilful engineers have been employed for several years, in making the necessary surveys, and several private companies have been formed under the patronage of the state.
Population.] The population, in 1790, was 393,751 ; in 1800 478,103; in 1810, 555,500; and in 1820, 638,829, of whom 205,017 were slaves and 14,812 free blacks. The slaves are principally confined to the low country. The western parts of the state were settled by Scotch-Irish emigrants. Almost all the country between the Catawba and the Yadkin is thus peopled. The Moravians, in 1751, purchased a tract of 100,000 acres, ly. ing between the head waters of the Yadkin and the Dan, and it now contains a number of flourishing villages.
Religion.] The Methodists and Baptists are the prevailing denominations, especially in the low country. The Scotch-Irish are Presbyterians, and there are also in the western parts of the state a few settlements of German Lutherans and German Cal. vinists.
Government.] The legislative power is vested in a general assembly, consisting of a senate and house of commons. The senators are chosen annually, one from each county. The members of the house of commons are chosen annually, two from each county, and one from each of the six principal towns. The executive power is vested in a governor, and a council of 7 persons, all of whom are chosen annually by a joint ballot of the two houses.
Commerce and Manufactures. Most of the produce of North Carolina is exported from the neighboring states. Not a single point has yet been found on the coast, within the linits of the state, at which a safe and commodious port could be establishell:
Mitherto, the productions of the northern parts of the state, lying on the Roanoke and its branches, and also on the upper parts of the Tar and Neuse, have been sent to the markets of Virginia ; and the trade of Broad river, the Catawba, and the Yadkin has gone to South Carolina. The principal exports are pitch, tar, turpentine, lumber, rice, tobacco, wheat and Indian corn. The value of the exports from the ports of North Carolina in 1820 was only $808,319. The value of the manufactures 1 1810 was estimated at $6,653,152.
Situation and Extent.) South Carolina is bounded N. and N. E. by North Carolina ; S. E. by the Atlantic; and S. W. by Georgia, from which it is separated by Savannah river. It extends from 32° to 35° 8' N. lat. and from 78° 24' to 83° 50' W. lon. The area is estimated at 24,000 square miles.
Divisions.] The state is divided into 28 districts.
17,682 Barnwell, 14,750 6,336 | Lexington, 8,083 Beaufort, 32,199 27,339 | Marion,
10,201 Charleston, 80,212 57,221 | Marlborough, 6,425 Chester, 14,189 4,542 | Newberry, 16,104 Chesterfield, 6,645 2,062 Orangeburgh, 15,653 Colleton, 26,404 21,770 Pendleton, 27,022 Darlington, 10,949 4,473 | Richland, 12,321 Edgefield, 25,119 12,198 | Spartanburgh, 16,989 Fairfield, 17,174 7,748 Sumpter,
25,639 Georgetown; 17,603 15,546 Union,
14,126 Greenville, 14,530 3,428 Williamsburgh,
8,716 Horry, 5,025 1,434 | York,
14,936 Kershaw, 12,432 no return Lancaster,
8,716 2,798) Total, 502,741
Slaves. in 1820:
4,879 2,800 3,463 3,033 5,749 8,82T 4,715 7,627 3,308 16,143 4,278 5,864 4,590
Face of the Country.) The sea coasť is bordered with a fine chain of islands, between which and the shore there is a very convenient navigation. The main land is naturally divided into the Lower and Upper country. The low country extends 80 or 100 miles from the coast, and is covered with extensive forests of pitch pine, called pipe barrens, interspersed with swamps and marshes of a rich soil. 'After leaving the low country, in proceeding into the interior, you first pass through a region of little saod hills, resembling the waves of the ocean in a high sea This curious country, sometimes called the middle country, continues for 50 or 60 miles, till you arrive at the Ridge, which is a remarkable tract of high ground as you approach it from the
sea, but level as you advance from the N. W. Beyond this ridge, commences a fine healthy country of hills and dales, terminating, in the western extremity of the state, in lofty mountains. Table mountain, in Pendleton district, four miles from the northern boundary of the state, is 4,300 feet above the level of the sea, and is the highest land in the state.
Soil and Productions. The banks of the rivers and creeks, in the low country, are bordered with a belt of excellent land, producing cotton and maize in abundance; the marsbes and swamps in this district make fine rice plantations; and some of the low grounds between the sand bills in the middle country, are suitable for agriculture and pasturage; but with these exceptions, the whole country below tbe Ridge has a sandy barren soil, oot worth cultivation. The soil of the upper country is generally strong and productive. Cotton and rice are the staple productions of the state. The climate and soil are equally well adapted to tobacco grain, and indigo, and these were formerly cultivated to a great extent: but since the invention of the machive to cleanse uplaod cotton from its seeds, the cultivation of cotton has become so profitable, that almost every thing else is neglected.
Climate.] The climate of the upper country is healthy at all seasons of the year. In the low country, the summer months are sickly, particularly August and September, and at this season the climate frequently proves fatal to strangers. November and December are ihe best months in the year for strangers to arrive in Carolina.
Rivers. The following are the principal rivers, beginning in the east. 1. The Great Pedee, which rises in North Carolina, where it is called Yadkin river. After entering this state it runs in a S. S. E. direction, receives Lynche's river and Black river from the west, and the Little Pedee and Waccamaw rivers from the east, and discharges itself into Winyaw bay, which communi. cates with the Atlantic, 12 miles below Georgelown. It is navigable for sloops of 70 tons, about 130 miles, to Greenville, and for smaller boats, to Chatham, 20 miles higher up. 2. The Santee, the principal river of South Carolina, is formed by the Congaree and Wateree, which unite about 25 miles S. E. of Columbia. It runs in a S. E. direction, and discharges itself into the ocean through two mouths, a few miles south of the entrance to Winyaw bay. The Congaree is formed by the union of Broad and Saluda rivers, the foriner of which rises in North Carolina, and running in a S. E. direction, receives the waters of several considerable creeks and unites with the Saluda a few miles N. W. of Columbia. Near the point of their confluence successive Jedges of granite run across both streams, occasioning falls of no inconsiderable elevation and extent. The Santee is pavigable to Camden, on the Wateree branch, for boals of 70 tous; and on the Congaree, steam boats ascend as far as Columbia. 3. Cooper and Ashley rivers discharge themselves into Charleston harbor, one on the eastern and the other on the western side of the city.
4. Edisto river is formed by two branches which upite in Orangeburg district. It runs in a southeasterly direction, and discharges itself into the ocean through two mouths, called the North and South Edisto inlets, which inclose between them Edisto island. It is navigable for large boats 100 miles. 5. The Savannah, which forms the boundary between South Carolina and Georgia.
Chief Towns.) Charleston is built on the tongue of land between the river's Ashley and Cooper, which unite immediately below the city and form a spacious and convenient barbor, communicating with the ocean at Sullivan's island, 7 miles S. E. of the city. The harbor has a bar at its mouth, over which in the deepest places there are 16 feet of water at low tide. The city is regularly laid out in parallel streets, from 35 to 70 feet in width, running from river to river, and intersected by others at right angles. The new houses are of brick and many of them are elegant.
Among the public buildings are a city-ball, a theatre, an orphan asylum, an alms-house, 6 banks, and 18 houses of public worship, viz. 3 for Episcopalians, 3 for Presbyterians, 3 for Methodists, 2 for Independents, one each for Lutherans, Baptists, French Protestaats, Friends, Roman Catholics and Jews, and an orphan house church. The library society have a well chosen library of 13,000 volumes, which is increased annually by the importation of books to the value of about £300 sterling. The commerce of Charleston is extensive and flourishing. It imports the foreign goods consumed in South Carolina, a considerable part of North Carolina, and a part of Georgia. ln 1815 it was the fifth town in the Uoited States in amount of shipping, the number of tons being 36,473. The population, in 1790, was 16,359; in 1800, 18,712; in 1810, 24,711 ; and in 1920, 94,780, of whom 12,652 were slaves, and 1,472 free blacks. The citizens of Charleston have ever been distinguished for polished mannersand unaffected hospitality
Columbia, the capital of the state, and the seat of South Carolina college, stands on the east side of the Congaree, just below the confluence of Salada and Broad rivers. It is regularly laid out on an elevated plain, which slopes on every side,commanding an extensive prospect. It contains a state house, 4 houses for public worship, and about 3,000 inhabitants.
Georgetown is situated on Widyaw bay, near the mouth of the Pedee, 13 miles from the sea and 60 N.N. E. of Charleston. It is connected by the Pedee and its branches with an extensive and fertile back country, but there is a bar at the mouth of Winyaw bay which prevents the entrance of vessels drawing more than 11 feet of water. The population is estimated at 2,000.
Beaufort, on Port Royal island, 73 miles S. W. of Charleston, has a deep and spacious harbor, and contains about 1,000 inhabitants. Cumden, the capital of Kershaw district, is on the E. side of the Wateree, 35 miles N. E. of Columbia. It is regularly laid out, and contains about 200 houses. The river is navigable to