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Divisions.) Virginia is divided into 102 counties.
Counties. Pop. Slaves Counties. Pop. .
Slaves in 1820. in 1820.
in 1820. in 1820. Accomack, 15,966
8,490 4.612 Albemarle, 19,750 10,659 | Mason,
4,868 593 Amelia, 11,104 7,400 ! Matthews, 6,920
3,186 Amherst, 10,423 5,577 | Mecklenburg, 19,786 11,402 Augusta, 16,742 3,512 Middlesex, 4,057 2,166 Bath,
5,237 1,202 Monongalia, 11,060 375 Bedford, 19,305 5,177 Monroe,
6,620 501 Berkeley, 11,211 1,898 Montgomery, 8,733 1,255 Botetourt, 13,589 2,806 | Morgan,
6,631 383 | Nansemond, 10,494 4,526 Brunswick, 16,687
10,081 | Nelson,
10,137 5,660 Buckingham, 17,569
9,939 | New Kent, 6,630 3,759 Cabell, 4,789 392 Nicholas,
48 Campbell, 16,569 7,445 Norfolk, 15,478 5,924 Caroline, 18,008 10,999 Northampton, 7,705 3,323 Charles city, 5,255 2,967 Northumberland, 8,016 3,268 Charlotte, 13,290 8,124 Nottoway, 9,658 6,676 Chesterfield, 18,003 9,513 | Ohio,
409 Culpeper, 20,944 9,468 Orange,
12,913 7,518 Cumberland, 11,023 6,813 Patrick,
5,089 1,213 Dinwiddie, 13,792 7,751 Pendleton, 4,846 Elizabeth city, 3,789 1,643 | Pittsylvania, 21,323
9,909 6,046 Powhatan, 8,292 5,476 Fairfax, 11,404 4,673 | Preston,
80 Fauquier, 23, 103 11,167 Prince Edward, 12,577
7,616 Fluvanna, 6,704 3,206 Princess Anne, 8,768 3,705 Franklin, 12,017 3,747 Prince William, 9,419 4,380 Frederick, 24,706 7,179 Prince George, 8,030 4,323 Giles, 4,521 307 Randolph, 3,357
131 Gloucester, 9,678 5,208 | Richmond, 5,706 2,664 Goochland,
10,007 5,526 Rockbridge, 11,945 2,612 Grayson, 5,598 345 Rockingham,
1,871 Greenbrier, 7,041 786 Russel,
5,536 526 Greensville, 6,858 4,512 Scott,
4,263 258 Halifax, 19,060 9,882 Shenandoah, 18,926 1,901 Hampshire, 10,889 1,609 Southampton, 14,170 6,737 Hanover, 15,267 8,756 Spottsylvania, 14,254 7,724 Hardy,
9,517 4,368 Harrison, 10,932 569 | Surry,
6,594 3,340 Henrico, 11,600 5,417 Sussex,
11,884 7,045 Henry, 5,624 2,178 Tazwell,
463 Isle of Wight, 10,139 4,297 | Tyler,
100 James city,
3,161 1,677 | Warwick, 1,608 954 Jefferson, 13,087 4,132 Washington, 12,444 1,908 Kenawha, 6,399 1,073 Westmoreland, 6,901 3,393 King and Queen, 11,798 6,041 Wood,
5,860 852 King George, 6,116 3,504 Wythe,
9,692 1,533 King William, 9,697 6,010 | York,
4,384 2,165 Lancaster,
5,517 2,944 Richmond, city, 12,067 4,387 Lee,
366 Williamsburg, city, 1,402 783 Lewis,
4,247 115 Petersburg, town, 6,690 2,428 Loudoun, 22,702 5,729 Norfolk, borough, 8,478 3,261 Louisa,
13,746 7,560 Lunenburg, 10,662 -6,663 Total, 1,065,366 425,153
Mountains.] The Alleghany mountains pass through the westero part of the state from S. W. to N. E. dividing the waters which flow east into Chesapeake bay from those which flow west into the Ohio. The Blue ridge is east of the Alleghavy range, and runs parallel with it, dividing the state into two parts nearly equal Near the southern line of the state it beods westward, and unites with the Alleghany range. Its loftiest summits are the peaks of Otter, in Bedford county, the highest of which is 3,103 feet above the level of the sea, and is considered the most elevated point of land in Virginia. East of the Blue ridge, and parallel with it, at the distance of about 30 miles, is the South mountain. Between the Alleghany ridge and the Ohio there are also several ranges, irregular in their course, and less accurately known. The longest and most convected of these is the Laurel ridge. All these ranges continue their course : in a northeasterly direction into Pennsylvania and Maryland. The Cumberland mountains form part of the boundary between Virginia and Kentucky.
Rivers.] The Ohio forms the boundary between Virginia and the state of Ohio. Its principal tributaries from this state are, 1. The Big Sandy, which forms part of the boundary between Virginia and Kentucky. 2. The Great Kenhawa, which rises in the western part of North Carolina, in the Alleghany mountains ; and running north and northwest, joins the Ohio at Poiot Pleasant. About 100 miles from its mouth are the Great Falls, where the river descends perpendicularly 50 feet. The principal branch of the Kenhawa is Greenbrier river, which joins it 10 or 50 miles above the falls 3. The Little Kenhawa, whicls joins the Ohio a little below Mariella, in the state of Ohio.
The Potomac rises in the Alleghany mountains, and during its whole course is the boundary between Virginia and Maryland. It falls into Chesapeake bay between Point Lookout and Smith's point by a mouth 7} miles wide, after a course of more ihan 500 miles. It is navigable for ships of the greatest burdeo, 300 miles, to the city of Wasbington, 3 miles below the head of the tide Above that city there are numerous falls and rapids, which obstrict ihe navigation, the river descending more than 1000 feet in a di-tance of 200 miles. Canals have been dug around many of these falls, so that boats can now ascend above the mouth of the Shenandoah, 80 miles from the city of Washington. The Shenandnuh is the principal tributary of the Potomac. li rises in Augusta county, near the centre of the state, and running in a N. E. direction, through a fertile country along the foot of the west. ern declivity of the Blue ridge, joins the Potomac, after a course of about 200 miles, at Harper's ferry. Immediately after the junction of the Shenandoah, ihe Potomac bursis brough the Blue ridge, presenting a scene which bas been celebrated for its grandeur and magnificence.
The Rappahannock rises in the Blue ridge, and running in a S. E. direction abou 130 miles, enters Chesapeake bay 30 miles below the mouth of the Potomac. It is navigable for vessels draw
ing 10 feet of water to Fredericksburgh, 110 miles from its mouth. York river is formed hy the union of the Mattapony and Paminky, and runs in a S. E. direction to Chesapeake bay, which it enters about 30 miles below the mouth of the Rappahannock It is navigable for the largest ships for more than 30 mileg. James river rises in the Alleghany mountains, and after breaking through the Blue ridge, runs in a direction S. of E. and falls into the southern part of Chesapeake bay, after a course or more toap 500 miles. It is navigable for sloops to Richmond, 150 miles from its mouth. At this city the navigation was formerly interrupted by the great falls, which in 7 miles descend 43 feet; but a canal around them is now completed, and the river bas been rendered navigable 230 miles further for boats drawing 12 incbes water. The principal tributary of James river is the Appomattot, which rises in Campbell county, and after an easterly course of 120 miles, joins it at City point. At Petersburgh, 12 miles from its mouth, there are falls; but a capal has been dag around them, which has opened the navigation for 80 miles above that city. Elizabeth river is formed by the union of two branches at Norfolk, near the S. E. corner of the state, and falls into Hampton road, 8 miles below. At flood tide it has 18 feet water to Norfolk.
Face of the Country and Soil.) Virginia may be divided into four zones, essentially differing from each other in soil and aspect of the conntry. The first extending from the sea-coast to the termination of tide water at Fredericksburgh, Richmond, &c. is low and fat, sometimes fenny, sometimes sandy, and on the margios of the rivers composed of a rich loam, covered with a luxuriant and even rank vegetation. This zone has been formed by a comparatively recent alluvion; marine shells and bones are ev. ery where found near the surface of the earth. The second division extends from the head of tide water to the Blue ridge. The surface near tide water is level; higher up the rivers it becomes swelling; and near the mountains often abrupt and broken. The soil is divided into sections, of very unequal quality, parallel to each other, and extending across the state. The parallel of Chesterfield, Henrico, Hanover, &c. is a thin, sandy, and except on the rivers, an unproductive soil. That of Goochland, Cumberland, Prince Edward, Halifax, &c. is generally fertile. Flue vanoa, Buckingham, Campbell, and Pittsylvania, again, are poor; and Culpeper, Orange, Albemarle, Bedford, &c. have a rich, though frequently a siogy and broken soil, on a substratum of tenacious, red colored clay. The scenery of the upper part of this section is highly picturesque and romantic. The third region is the valley between the Blue ridge and Alleghany mollo. tains; a valley, which extends with little interruption, from the Potomac, across the state, to North Carolina and Tennessee; parrower, but of greater length than either of the preceding zones. The soil is a mould, formed on a bed of limestone, which ofieo appears above the surface, in veins parallel to the mountaips, and making every possible angle with the horizon. The
surface of this valley is sometimes broken by sharp and solitary mountains, detached from the general chain, the sides of which, nearly bare, or but thinly covered with blasted pines, form disagreeable objects in the landscape. The bed of ihe valley is fertile, prodacing good crops of Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, buckwheat, hemp, flax, &c. The fourth and last division extends from the Alleghany mountains to the Ohio river, a country wild and broken, in some places fertile, but generally barren
Climate and Productions. The spring is short and inconstant jo Virginia ; the summer long, but not oppressive more than two months. In the low country, the months of August, September and October are unhealthy. Autumn, in the mountains, is the hnest season of the year. In the middle parts of the state constant fires are required during five months ; none at all for five others, and irregularly during the remaining two. The country often suffers from drought in summer and autumn. The staple products of Virginia are wheat, Indian corn and tobacco. Tobacco is raised in much less quantities than formerly, while the cultivation of wheat has greatly increased.
Minerals and Mineral Springs.) Coal of a good quality is found within 20 miles of Richmond on James river. In the valley between the Blue ridge and the Alleghany range there are many inexhaustible mines of iron ore, of a fine quality. In the country west of the Allegbany mountains there are mines of lead, iron, coal and salt. Gypsum of a very good quality and in great abun. dance has also been found in Washington county. There are many mineral springe in Virginia. The hot and warm springs of Bath county, the sweet springs of Monroe, the sulphur springs of Greenbrier and of Montgomery, and the baths of Berkley county are much frequented. Indeed there is scarcely a county beyond the Blue ridge, which does not contain waters strongly impreg. nated with some mineral, besides fime which is common te them all.
Chief Towns.] Richmond, the metropolis of Virginia, is in Henrico county, on the north side of James river, immediately below the falls, and directly opposite Manchester, with which it is connected by two bridges. The situation is healthy, as well as highly picturesque and beautiful. A part of the city is built on the margin of the river; the rest upon Shockoe hill, which overlooks the lower part of the city, and commands an extensive and delightful prospect of the river and adjacent country.
Richmond is finely situated for a commercial and manufacturing town, being at the head of sloop navigation, on the falls of the river, and having an extensive back country, abounding with tobacco, wheat and coal. The canal around the Great falls commences about 7 miles above the city, and the whole descent to the basin on Shockoe bill is 43 feet. The basin is within the city, covering a space of several acres, and around it are coal yards, Jumber houses and landing places for the produce brought down the river. The descent from the basin to tide water is about 0 feet, and is effected by 13 locks. The quantity of tobacco,
wheat, flour and coal brought down the river is immense : the value of the produce exported from Richmond and Manchester beiog estimated at $8,000,000 annually. On the capal are pumerous mill seats and manufacturing establishments.
Among the public buildings are the state house or capitol, the state prison, the Virginia armory and 8 houses of public worship, 2 for Episcopalians, 2 for Methodists, and I each for Presbyterians, Baptisis, Friends and Jews. The growth of Richmond has been remarkably rapid. In 1783 the population was less than 2,000 : in 1800, 5,739 ; in 1810, 9,735, and in 1820, 12,067.
Norfolk is situated near the S. E. corner of the state, in a lot and marshy situation, on the east side of Elizabeth river, just below the confluence of its two branches, and 8 miles above its entrance into Hampton roads. The harbor is safe and commodious, deep enough for the largest vessele, and sufficiently spacious to contain 300 ships. It is defended by several forts; one of which is on Craney island, 5 miles below the town. Norfolk has more foreign commerce than any other place in Virginia, and in 1815 it was the seventh town in the U. States in amount of shipping, the number of tons being 31,628. A canal proceeds from the south branch of Elizabeth river, 9 miles above Norfolk, through Dismal swamp, to Albemarle sound; by means of which the produce of a large section of North Carolina is brought to the Norfolk market
. Population, in 1820, 8.478. Petersburg is situated on the S. E. bank of Appomattox river, just below the falls, 12 miles from its mouth, at ibe head of sloop gavigation, 25 miles S. of Richmond. It carries on a large commerce in tobacco and four, and is the emporium of trade for a considerable district in North Carolina, as well as for the southern part of Virginia. The falls of the river at this place afford fine situations for mills. Population, in 1820, 6.690.
Fredericksburg, one of the most flourishing towns in the state, is regularly laid out on the S. W. bank of Rappahaonock river, 110 miles from its mouth. It is advantageously situated for trade, near the head of oavigation on the Rappahannock, and in the midst of a fertile and well cultivated country. Vessels of 130 tons ascend as far as this place, and large quantities or corn, four, tobacco and other produce are brought from the surrounding country for exportation. The annual value of the exports has been estimated at $4,000,000. The town has rapidly increased within a few years. Population, between 3 and 4,000.
Lynchburg is on the south bank of James river, 20 miles below the falls, at which the river breaks through the Blue ridge. The commerce of the town extends to the western counties of Virginia, and the adjoining parts of Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Carolina. The productions of this fertile and very extensive back country are brought to Lynchburg, aud carried down the river in balteaux to Richmond. The principal articles are tobacco, wheat, flour, hemp and provisions. The town has grown very rapidly. In 1793 it contained only 5 houses ; in 1818, the population was estimated at more than 5,000.