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and after a northerly course discharges itself into Hungry bay pear Sacket's harbor. 2. Oswego river forms the outlet of Oneida take, and is 42 miles long. Its principal tributary is Seneca riter, which issues froa, the north end of Seneca lake, and running east enters Cayuga lake, but almost immediately leaves it again, and after receiving the waters of Capandaigua, Owasco, Skeneateles and Onondaga lakes, discharges itself into the Oswego at Three river point, 24 miles froin lake Ontario. 3. Genesee river rises in Pennsylvania, and running in a northerly direction across the western part of this stale, discharges itself into lake Ootario. At Rochester, a few miles from its mouth, ibere are two falls, one of 96 and the other of 75 feet. About 70 miles above Rochester there are two other falls, only a mile apart, one of which is 60 and the other 90 feet.

Tonnewanta creek rises in Genesee county, and after a westerly course of 90 miles through the Tonnewanta valley, discharges itself into Niagara river about 12 miles from lake Erie. It is a deep sluggisb stream, boatable 30 miles.---The Susquehannah rises in Olsego lake, in the county of the same name, and runs in a suuthwesterly direction into Pennsylvania. Its principal tributaries from this state are, the Chenango, which rises in Madison county, and flowing south through the counties of Chenango and Broome, joins the Susquehannah 18 miles east of Oswego, after a course of 90 miles; and the Tioga, which rises in Pennsylvania, and running N. E. into this state receives the Conhocton at Painted post, and then turning to the S. E. re-enters Pennsylvania, and meets the Susquehannah at Tioga point, 3 miles from the boundary line.

Niagara Falls.] The falls in Niagara river are one of the grandest curiosities on the globe. The river flows from south to Dorth, and is 35 miles long. At its efflux from lake Erie it is three quarters of a mile wide, from 40 10 60 feet deep, and Hows with a current of 7 miles an hour. As it proceeds, the river widens, and embosoms several considerable islands, particularly Grand and Na'y islands, which terminate in beautiful points a mile and a balf above the falls. A little below the termination of these islands, commence the rapids, which extend a mile, to the precipice, in wbich space the river descends 57 feel. At the precipice it is three fourths of a mile wide. Here Goat island divides The river into two channels; and ibe channel between Goat island and the eastero or United States' shore, is also divided by a small island Over the precipice the river fails perpendicularly about 160 feet. Much the greater part of the water passes in the channel between Goat island and the Canada shore, and this fall is called from its shape the Horse-shoe fall. Between Goat island and the small island in the eastern channel, the stream is only 8 or 10 yards wide, forming a beautiful cascade. Between this small island und the United States' shore the sheet of water is broad, and the de. scent is greater by a few feet than at the Horse-shoe fall, but the stream is comparatively shallow.

The falls are seen to advantage from different positions. The best single view is that from the Table rock on the Canada side

of the river ; and the best view of the rapids is from Goat island, which is ingeniously connected by a bridge with the eastern shore. The view from the river below is the most entire. Below the falls the river runs between perpendicular banks, 300 feet high, to Queenstowi, 7 miles; thence to lake Ontario the country is open.

Soil and Productions.] The eastern half of Long island is sandy and barren; the western part is fertile, and in a bigh state of cultivation. The country on the Hudson, below the mouth of the Mohawk, has a good soil, particularly the counties of West Chester and Dutchess, which are under very good cultivation. T'he alluvial fats of Columbia county and some parts of Rensselaer are very extensive and rich. A district west of Albany, comprising several counties, consists of sandy plains interspersed with marshes. The alluvial fals on the Mohawk are extensive and very fertile. The country north of the Mohawk is less accurately known, but many parts of it are fertile, particularly the lands on Black river, which are among the best in the state. The vast elevated plain which covers the western part of the state, and includes the country occupied by the small lakes, has a rich soil, equally well adapted to grain and grass. The alluvial flats are here extensive; those on Genesee river include about 60,000 acres. Wheat is raised in this state in greater abundance than all other grains. Indian corn, rye, oats, fax, and hemp, are also extensively cultivated.

Minerals.] Iron ore is found in many parts of the state of an excellent quality and in inexbaustable quantities. There are indications of the abundant existence of coal in the western parts of the state. Lime, marble, lead, marl, flint, gypsum, slate for building, clays for manufacturing, and ochres of various kinds, have been discovered in great quantities. Salt springs exist in Cayuga, Seneca, Ontario and Genesee counties, but the principal salt works are in Onondaga county, at the village of Salina, situated on the S. E. side of Onondaga lake. Every gallon of water here yields from 16 to 27 ounoes of salt, being much stronger than any other salt springs in the United States. The quantity of salt manufactured in 1811 in Onondaga county was 453,840 bushels, and it may be increased to any extent.

Mineral springs.] The oelebrated mineral springs of Saratoga are spread over a tract of about 12 miles in length in Saratoga county, and are called by a variety of local names. The most noted are those at the villages of Ballston and Saratoga, wbich are superior to any other in America. The names of the principal springs in Saratoga, are Rock spring, Congress spring and Columbia spring. These springs afford relief in many obstinate diseases, and during the summer months, are the resort of the gay and fashionable, as well as of invalids, from all parts of the United States. Large houses of entertainment, with neat bathing houses, are erected for the convenience of visitors.

Chief Towns.] New-YORK, the first commercial city in America, is on Manhattan island, at the confluence of Hudson and East rivers, in lat. 40° 42' N. 90 miles N. E. of Philadelphia and 210 S.

W. of Boston. The island is 15 miles long, and on an average lj broad, and is separated from New Jersey by the Hudson ; from the continental part of New York by Haarlem creek; and from Long islaod, by East river.

The compact part of the city is at the south end of the island, and extends along the Hudson about 2 miles; and from the Battery, in the S. W. corner, along East river, nearly 4 miles. Its cireuit is about 8 miles. The streets of the ancient part, at the south end of the city, are frequently narrow and crooked, but all the nortbern part has been recently laid out, and with much better taste. The principal street is Broadway, which is 80 feet wide, and extends from the Battery in a N. E. direction, through the centre of the city, for three miles. It is generally well built, and a part of it is splendid. The houses in the city generally, were formerly of wood, but these are fast disappearing, and substantial brick houses, with slated roofs, are rising in their place.

Among the pablic buildings the most prominent is the City Hall, which is the most beautiful edifice in the United States. It is 216 feet long, 105 broad, and, including the attic story, 56 high. The front and both ends above the basement story, are built of white marble. The expense was $500,000. It is occupied by the city council in their meetings, and by the different courts of law.-The New York Hospital comprises the Hospital for the reception of the sick and disabled, the lunatic asylum, and the lying in hospital. The annual expenditure is about $10,000. During the year 1819, 1,725 patients were admitted, of whom 1,320 were cored. The Alms House is a plain stone structure recently erected on East river, 2 miles from the City Hall. It is 3 stories high 330 feet long and 50 wide. The expense, including the work house, penitentiary, and other buildings connected with it was $118,791. The number of poor in this institution for the the year 1816 was 1,487 and the expense of the establishment $90,886. The State prison is on the Hudson, at Greenwich, about 1 Aile from the City Hall. It is constructed of free stone. The number of prisoners in 1819 was 604. The original cost of the establishment was $208,846, and large sums have been voted by the legisłature to defray the annual expenses. The New-York Institution is near the City Hall, and its apartments are occupied by t!ie literary and philosophical society; the historical society, which has a library of about 5,000 volumes, and a permanent fund of $12,000; the American academy of Fine Arts, which has a valuable collection of paintings and statues; the Lyceum of patura! history; and the American museum.

Among the other sostitutions are a theatre, Vauxhall and other public gardens, an orphan asylum, an asylum for the deaf and dumb, 11 banks, 11 insurance companies, numerous benevolent and charitable institutions, and 57 houses for public worship, viz. 18 for the different classes of Presbyterians, 12 for Episcopalians, 8 for Methodists, 6 for Baptists, 3 for Friends, 2 for Roman Catholice, and one each for German Lutherans, German Calvinists,

Moravians, Universalists, Jews, seamen, Swedenborgians, and Unitarians.

The Battery is a beautiful open space, containing several acres of ground, at the S. W. point of the city. It commands a fine view of the harbor, with its shipping, islands, and fortifications, and is much frequented by the citizens. The Park is a handsome common, in front of the City Hall, containing 4 acres, and is also a place of fashionable resort. The Elgin Botanic garden is 3 miles from the City Hall, and contains abont 20 acres. It was founded in 1801 by Dr. David Hosack, and was purchased by the state in 1810, for $74,268, and presented to the Medical college.

New-York harbor is a large bay, 9 miles long and 4 broad, which spreads before the city on the south side, having Long island on the east, and Stalen island and New Jersey on the west. On the north it receives the Hudson ; on the N. E. it communicates with Long island sound through East river; on the west with Newark bay, through the Kills; and on the south with the Atlantic ocean through the Narrows. It embosoms several small islands, as Governor's island, Bedlow's island and Ellis's island, near the city of New York, on each of which are fortifications. The harlor is deep enough for the largest vessels, well secured from wind and storms, sufficiently spacious for the most nunerous fleet, and the currents are so rapid, that it is seldom obstructed by ice.

New-York is admirably situated for commerce, on an excellent barbor, at the mouth of a noble river, with an extensive, fertile, and populous back country. It imports most of the goods consumed in the state of New York, the northern half of NewJersey, and the western parts of New-England; and exports the produce of the same section. This city owns more shipping than any other in the Union, and more than half as much as the city of London. The amount of shipping in 1816 was 299,617 tons. The revenue from the customs, collected at this port, is about one fourth of the whole revenge of the United States : in 1815, it was $14,409,790. The revenue of the city for city purposes, for the year ending May 12, 1817, was $483,011.

Few cities in the world have increased so regularly and rapidly as New-York. In 1697, the population was 4,302; in 1756 13,040; in 1790, 33,131 ; in 1800, 60,489 ; in 1810, 96,373; and in 1820, 123,706. The inhabitants are from many different nations. More than one third are of New England origin. After these, the most numerous are the Dutch and Scotch, and then the English, Irish, and French.

ALBANY, the seat of government, and the second city in the state in population, wealth and commerce, is situated on the west bank of the Hudson, 160 miles north of New-York. A large proportion of the houses are built of brick, with slate or tile roofs, and the style of building has yory much improved within a few years. Among the public buildings are a state house, substantialy built of stone, ai an expense of $115,000; an ele

gant academy of red free stone ; a jail; ao almshouse, theatre, anenal and i1 houses for pablic worship. The city is supplied with excellent water from a spring, 3 miles distant, by an aqueduct which conveys

to every house. Albany is finely situated for commerce, at the head of navigation for large sloops on the Iludson; and the canals now in progress will soon connect it with lake Champlain and lake Erie. Several steam boats ply regularly between this city and New-York, and usually perform their passages in about 30 hours. The population of Albany in 1820 was 12,630.

Troy, on the east bank of the Hudson, 6 miles above Albany, is considered the third town in ihe state in commerce and wealth. The city is regularly laid out on a plain, and makes a beautiful appearance. It contains a courthouse, 2 banks, and 5 houses for public worship. Troy is finely situated for a commercial and manufacturing town, being at the head of sloop navigation on the Hudson, and the creeks which here fall into the river affording numerous excellent situations for mills and manufactories. Population, in 1820, 5,264. Lansingburgh is a fourishing town, 3 miles north of Troy, on the same side of the river. Waterford is on the Hudson, at its confluence with the Mohawk, opposite Lansingburgh, with which it is connected by a bridge, 10 miles above Albany. Sandy Hill is a handsome compact village, on the east bank of the Hudson, 52 miles N. of Albany, immediately above Baker's falls, where the water descends 76 feet within 60 rods. Fort Edward is situated a few miles south of Sandy Hiil, on the same side of the Hudson, near the great bend, and at the poiol where the canal from lake Champlain opens into the river. In the old wars it was an important military station, controlling ibe communications between the Hudson, lake Champlain and lake George. Whitehall is a thriving village, situated at the southern extremity of lake Champlain, on both sides of Wood creek, at its entrance into the lake. The canal from lake Champlain to the Hudson commences here, and the trade of a considerable extent of country is concentrated in the village.

Hudson is finely situated 30 miles south of Albany, on the east baok of Hudson river, which is navigable to this place for the largest ships. The site of Hudson is a high point which projects into the river, terminating in a bold cliff, on each side of which are bays of considerable extent. The city is regularly laid out, aod in 1820 contained 5,310 inhabitants. The creeks on the borders of the towo afford fine seats for mills and manufactories, and a few years since, Hudson was regarded as the third town in the state in manufactures and the fourth in commerce. Poughkeepsie stands on the east bank of Hudson river, 85 miles south of Albany and 75 N. of New-York. It is well situated for commerce and manufactures, and in 1820 contained 5,726 inhabitants. Newburgh is on the west bank of the Hudson, 5 miles below Poughkeepsie, and in 1820 contained 5,812 inbabitants.

Schenectady, the seat of Union college, is regularly laid out oo a plaia on the S. E. side of Mohawk river, 15 miles N. W. of Albany.

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