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Roads and bridges.] There are numerous turnpike roads, conpecting the principal towns and intersecting the state in every direction. The most expensive is that from Hartford to NewHaven, which is 34 miles long. The common roads are generally good. The most considerable bridge is that over the Connecticut at Hartford. The bridges on this river are frequently carried away by freshets, especially when the ice breaks up in the spring of the year.

Mineral waters.s There is a mineral spring at Stafford, which is more celebrated than any other in New-England. The waters are efficacious in cases of dropsy, gout, rheumatism, scorbutic, scrotulous and cancerous complaints; and are much resorted to in the summer season.

Manufactures.] lo Connecticut a larger portion of the population are engaged in manufactures than in any other state except Rhode Island. The manufacture of tin into culinary vessels is carried on to a very great extent. The ware, thus made, is taken by pedlars and sold in all parts of the United States, in Florida, Louisiana and Canada. Berlin, 10 miles south of Hartford, is the principal seat of the tin manufacture. In Hamden, which adjoins New-Haven on the north, there is an extensive gun factory, where large quantities of fire arms have been made. Cotton and woollen goods, naiis, glass, hats, buttons, wooden clocks, and inany other articles are among the manufactures.

Commerce.] The principal exports are horses, mules, butter and cheese, cider, Indian corn, beef, pork, &c. The foreign trade is carried on principally with the West Indies ; but the exports in the coasting trade to the Southern states are of more value than those in the foreign trade.


Situation and E.ctent.] New York is bounded N. by Lower Canada; E. by Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut; S. by New Jersey and Pennsylvania ; and W. and N. W. by Upper Canada, from which it is separated by lake Erie, Niagara river, lake Ontario, and the river St. Lawrence. It extends from 40° 35' to 45° N. lat. and from 73° to 79° 55' W. lon. Its length from east to west on the parallel of 42° is 340 miles. The area is estimated al 46,000 square miles or 29,494,720 acres.

Divisions.) The state contains 4 districts, which are divided into 50 counties, and subdivided into towns.

SOUTH DISTRICT. Counties. Towng, Pop. in 1810. Pop. in 1820. Suffolk,

9 21,113 24,272 Queens, 6 19,336 21,519 Kings,

6 8,303 11,187 Richmond, 4 5,347 6,135 New-York, 1 96,373 123,706 Westchester, 21 30,272 32,638

Chief towns.
North Hempstead

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- Ogdensburg



Counties. Towns.
Oneida, 21
Oswego, 12
Madison, 12
Chenango, 17
Onondaga, 12
Broome, 6
Cayuga, 10
Tompkins, 5

Ontario, 35
Steuben, 14
Genesee, 83
Alleghany, 9
Niagara, 17
Cattaraugus, 5
Chatauque, 8

Pop. in 1810. Pop. in 1820.
33,792 50,997


32,208 21,704 31,215 25,987 41,467 8,868 16,507 8,130

14,343 29,843 38,897 16,609 23,619

20,681 7,899 16,971 42,032 88,267

7,246 21,989 12,588 58,098 1,942 9,330 8,971 22,990

4,090 12,568

Chiel towos.

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Face of the Country.) The southeastern angle of the state is mountainous, being traversed by several ridges from New-Jersey. The country dear lake Champlain is billy, and becomes mountainous as you approach the height of land which divides the waters flowing into this lake from those flowing into the St. Lawrence. West of this height of land, a fine country, at first hilly, then level and fertile, extends to the St. Lawrence and lake Ontario. The western part of the state is principally level, except near the Pennsylvania boundary, where it becomes billy and mountainous. From Genessee river, near its mouth, to Lewiston on the Niagara river, there is a remarkable ridge running in a direction from east to west almost the whole distance, whicb is 78 miles. Its general height above the neighboring land is 30 feet ; its width varies considerably, and in some places is not more than 40 yards. Its elevation above the level of lake Ontario is perbaps 160 feet, to which it descends by a gradual slope, and its distance from that water is between 6 and 10 miles. There is every reason to believe that this remarkable ridge was once the margin of lake Ontario. About 20 miles south of this ridge, and parallel with it, there is another, which runs from Genesee river to Black rock on Niagara riyer.' The country between the two ridges is called the Tonnewanta valley, and there is some reason to believe that it was once covered with the waters of lake Erie.

Mountains.] The mountains of New-York are sometimes considered as a continuation of the great Alleghany or Appalachian ranges. Several ridges come from Pennsylvania and New Je-r



sey, and proceeding in a N. E. direction, cross Hudson river between 40 and 60 miles from its mouth, and then passing through Dutchess, Columbia and Rensselaer counties, join the Taghkannuc range on the western border of Massachusetts. At the place where they cross Hudson river they are about 16 miles in width, and are called the Highlands. Several of the summits are here from 1,200 to 1,500 feet high, but there is no obstruction to the Aavigation of the river.

From the Highlands a range proceeds in a northerly direction along the west bank of the Hudson, through the county of Ulster, into Green county, where it is knowo under the name of the Catskill mountains. These mountains are the highest land in the state. Roundtop, the highest summit, according to the measurement of Capt. Partridge, is 3,804 feet above the level of the sea. High peak, the next highest, is 3,718 feet above the sea. These summits are about 20 miles west of the city of Hudson. From the Catskill mountains a ridge of hills proceeds in a N. W. direction across Mohawk river, where it forms the Little Falls; after which it continues its progress, diminishing in altitude, till it crosses the St. Lawrence into Canada.

The mountains in the northern part of the state, which lie around the sources of the Hudson, and form the height of land between the waters of lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence, arę called the Peruvian mountains. The highest part of the range is in Essex county; Whiteface, in the town of Jay, commands a view of Montreal, 80 miles distant, and is supposed to be 3,000 feet above the level of the sea.

Lakes.) Lakes Erie, Ontario, and Champlain lie partly in this state. Lake George is a beautiful lake, 36 miles long and about 2 broad, between Washington and Warren counties. It lies south of lake Champlain, and communicates with it by an outlet 3 miles long, in which distance the water descends nearly 100 feet. The lake is surrounded by high mountains, and is much celebrated for the rom:ntic beauty of its scenery. The water is deep, remarkably transparent, and abounds with the finest fish. Lake George was for a long time conspicuous in the wars of this country, and several memorable battles were fought on its borders.

Oneida lake, which lies chiefly in the county of Oneida, is 20 miles long, and on an average 3 broad. It receives Wood creek at its east ead, and discharges itself through Oswego river into lake Ontario.—There is a chain of small lakes lying south of Seneca river and communicating with it. The following are their Dames, beginning in the east; 1. Onondaga or Salt lake, in the county of the same name, is only 6 miles long and i} broad; but on its borders are the celebrated salt springs, the largest and strongest in America. It discharges itself at its northern extremity into Seneca river. 2. Skeneateles, 15 miles long, also discharges its waters into Seneca river, through an outlet 10 miles long. 3. Owasco lake, in Cayuga county, is 11 miles long and commudicates through Owasco creek with Seneca river. 4. Cayuga lako, lying between Cayuga and Seneca counties, is 40 miles long

It receives the waters of Seneca lake through Seneca river, which enters it at its northern extremity, and soon after issues from it again, forming the outlet of its waters. 5. Seneca lake lies west of Cayoga lake, and nearly parallel with it, at the distance of from 6 to 15 miles. It is 35 miles long and from 2 to 4 broad. It receives the waters of Crooked lake from the west, and discbarges itself at its northern extremity through Seneca river into Cayuga Iake. 6. Crooked lake is about 18 miles long, and communicates through an outlet at its N. E. extremity with Seneca lake. 7. Canandaigua lake is a beautiful collection of water about 14 miles long and on an average one broad. It communicates with Seneca river through Canandaigua river, which issues from the northern extremity of the lake.

Rivers.) Delaware river forms part of the boundary between this state and Pennsylvania. Niagara river connects lake Erie with lake Ontario, and forms part of the western boundary. The St. Lawrence separates New-York from Upper Canada. East river is the name given to a short strait, wbich connects Long-Island sound with New-York harbor.

Hudson river, the great river of this state, and one of the best for navigation in America, rises in the mountainous region letween lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence, and pursuing a southerly course of more than 300 miles, falls into the Atlantic below New-York city. It is navigable for ships to Hudson ; for large sloops to Albany, 160 miles from New-York; and for small sloops to Trov, at the head of the tide, 6 miles further. The passage of this river through the Highlands without any impediment to its navigation is a singular fact in Geography. The Highlands are about 16 miles wide, and are celebrated for their romantic scenery.

The Mohawk, the great western branch of the Hudson, rises in Oneida county, and running south of east, passes by Rome, Utica and Schenectady, and discharges itself into the Hudson through several mouths, between Troy and Waterford, after a course of about 135 miles. The navigation of the river is interrupted by pumerous rapids and falls, the principal of which is the Cahoes, two miles from its mouth. The river, which is here between 300 and 400 yards broad, descends, at high water, in one sheet, to the depth of 70 feet About three fourths of a mile below, a bridge has been thrown across tbe Mohawk, from which the view of the falls is inexpressibly grand.

The principal river which falls into lake Champlain is the Saranac, which discharges itself at Plattsburg, alter a northeasterly course of about 65 miles.

The principal rivers which fall into the St. Lawrence from this state are, the St. Regis, Grass and Racket rivers, all of which discharge themselves near the village of St. Regis, on the northern boundary of the state ; and the Ostegatchie, which empties itself at Ogdensburg after a course of 120 miles.

The following are the principal rivers which fall into lake Ontario. 1. Block river rises in the high lands portheast of Rome,

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