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ripe, it is a favorite resort for parties of pleasure. On the north end of the islanıt are two light-houses, and several houses have been erected by the Humane society, and furnished with conveniences for the relief of distressed mariners.
Nantucket island lies south of the peninsula of cape Cod, near 41° 20' N. lat. and 70° W. lon. It is 15 miles long and contains about 50 square miles. The climate is mild compared with that of the adjacent continent. The soil is light and sandy, but in some parts is rich and productive, particularly in hay. It was formerly well wooded; but there is not now a single free of native growth. The land is chiefly held in common by the inhabitants. All the cows, amounting to about 500 feed together in one herd ; all the sheep, 14,000, in one pasture. The inhabitants are priocipally robust, enterprising seamen, extensively engaged in the whale fishery, and they have the reputation of being the most skil. ful and adventurous seamen in the world. They suffered severely both in the revolutionary and late war, a large portion of their shipping having been captured by the British. Since the peace, however, the whale fishery has revived, and there are now about 100 ships employed in this business. There are 30 spermaceti works on the island, employing a capital of $600,000. Nantucket, the only town, is on the north side of the island. Its harbor is completely safe from all wiods, being almost land-locked, the points at its entrance approaching within a mile of each other. It contains 2 banks ; 2 insurance companies; and 5 houses of public worship, 2 for Priends, 2 for Congregationalists, and one for Methodists. Population, in 1820, 7,266.
Martha's Vineyard lies west of Nantucket. It is 20 miles long, and from 2 to 10 broad. Edgartown, the chief town, contains 1,374 inhabitants. There is a spacious harbor on the porth side of the island, called Holmes' hole, to which vessels bound to the eastward frequently resort, and wait for a wind to enable them to double cape Cod, The Elizabeth islands are small islands, extending in a row, about 18 miles in length, along the south side of Buzzurd's bay.
Situation and Extent.) Rhode Island is hounded N. and E. by Massachusetts ; S. by the Atlantic ; and W. by Connecticut. it extends from 11° 171 to 42° N. lat. and from 71° 6' to 71° 52' W. lon. It is 49 miles long from north 10 south, and on its northern boundary 29 broad. The area is estimated at 1,580 square miles.
Divisons.] The state is divided into Gve counties and 31 towos.
Bays.] Narraganset bay runs from north to south, dividing the state into two parts, and communicates with the ocean between point Judith on the west and point Seaconet on the east. It is about 30 miles long and 15 broad, and embraces several consid. erable islands. The northeast arm of Narraganset bay is called Mount Hope bay; the northwest arm, Greenwich bay; and the northern arm, Providence bay. The principal rivers which fall into it are Providence river from the north, and Taunton river from the northeast. The commissioners who were appointed to examine the coast of the United States, in 1817, were of opinion that this bay presented the best site for a nasal depot in the Un, ion north of Chesapeak bay. It is accessible from the sea at all seasons of the year; it affords capacious harbors, and can be entered from the ocean in a few hours' sail; it is not susceptible of a continued blockade ; nor is it obstructed by ice.
Islands.] Rhode-Island, from which the state takes its dame, is in Narraganset bay. It is 15 miles long and on an average 34 broad, containing about 50 square miles. Its climate is delightful; the summers are remarkably pleasant, and the winters milder than on the continent Travellers have called it the Eden of America. Canonicut is a beautiful island, 7 miles long and 1 broad, lying northwest of Rhode Island. Prudence island lies N. B. of Canonicut. Block-island, 10 miles S.W. of point Judith, is 7 miles long and 4 broad, and contains about 700 inhabitants.
Face of the Country, &c.] The northern part of the state is billy, and has a thin and barren soil ; the rest is chiefly level. The islands and the country bordering on Narraganset bay are very fertile, and celebrated for their fine cattle, their numerous Alocks of sheep, and the abundance and excellence of their butter and cheese. The southwestern part of the state is an excellent grazing country.
Rivers.) The following are the principal rivers. 1. Paretucket river rises in Massachusetts, in Worcester county, and runping in a southeasterly direction falls into Providence river one mile below the town of Providence. There are falls of about 50 feet descent, 4 miles from its mouih. Below the falls the river is called the Seekhonk. 2. Providence river is formed by two small rivers which unite just above Providence. It is navigable to Providence for ships of 900 tons. 3. Pawtuxet river falls into Providence river 5 miles below the town of Providence. It abounds with falls, which furuisb fine situations for mill-seats and manufacturing establishments. There are about 40 cotton fac
tories on this river and its branches. 4. Pawcatrick river waters the S. W. part of the state, and runs into Stonington harbor. In the latter part of its course it is the boundary between this state and Connecticut.
Chief Towns.} Providence, the largest town in the state, and the third in New-England in respect to population, stands on Providence river, just above the mouth of the Seekhonk, 35 miles from the ocean, and 40 S. S. W. of Boston. The town is built on both sides of the river, and the two parts are connected by an elegant bridge. Merchant ships of the largest class ascend to this place. Many of the private houses are handsome buildings, and the appearance of the town has been recently much im. proved by the construction of side walks along the principal streets paved with flag stones. Among the public buildings are the colleges ; 7 banks; and 13 houses of public worship, 4 for Baptists, 3 for Congregationalists, 2 for Methodists, 1 for Episcopalians, 1 for Friends, 1 for Universalists and one for Africans. Several of the churches are elegant edifices.
Providence is one of the wealthiest and most flourishing towns of its size in the United States. The principal source of its pros. perity is the cotton manufacture, which was introduced about 15 years ago, and has increased with astonishing rapidity. There are now more than 100 cotton factories in Rhode-Island and the adjacent parts of Massachusetts and Connecticut, the business of which is transacted principally in Providence. Among the manufacturing establishments within the town are 5 cotton factories, 2 woollen factories, 5 distilleries, 3 rope-walks, and 10 jeweller's shops, where jewelry is manufactured principally for exportation. The commerce of the town has increased with its manu. factures. The amount of shipping in 1819 was 19,000 tops, of which about 5,000 were employed in the East-India trade, and 5,000 or 6,000 in the coasting trade with the southern states, connected principally with the cotton business. Ten or twelve ves. sels are constantly employed in the exportation of cotton goods. In September, 1815, the town suffered severely from a tremen. dous gale, wbich forced the water in the river many feet above the highest tides, and deluged the town, destroying houses and shipping to an amount estimated at $1,500,000. Population, in 1820, 11,767
Newport stands on the S.W. side of Rhode Island, 5 miles from the sea and 30 S. by E. of Providence. The harbor spreads westward before the town, and is one of the finest in the world. It is of a semicircular form, of safe aod easy access, sufficiently capacious to contain a large fleet, and deep enough for vessels of the largest burden. The town is built on a beautiful declivity, rising gradually from the harbor, and presents a fine view as you approach it from the water. The beauty of its situation and the salubrity of its climate have made it a place of fashionable resort from the Southerp and Middle states during the summer months. Newport was formerly the first town in the state, but it has now
fallen behind Providence in commerce and population. The number of inhabitants in 1820 was 7,319.
Bristol is on the east side of Narraganset bay, 15 miles S. S. E. of Providence. It has a safe and commodious harbor, and is a place of considerable trade. The amount of shipping owned here in 1815 was 6,944 tons. Population, in 1820, 3,197. Warren is a pleasant town adjoining Bristol on the north. Warwick, on Greenwich bay, 10 miles S. S. W. of Providence, is extensively engaged in the manufacture of cotton goods. It has no less than 15 cotton factories, and in 1820 contained 3,643 inhabitants. Pawtucket village, situated at the falls of Pawtucket river, 4 miles N.E. of Providence, is one of the most flourishing manufacturing villages in the United States.
Education.) Browo university in Providence is one of the most fourishing and respectable literary institutions in the United States. It was originally established at Warren, in 1764, and was removed to Providence in 1770. It has a president, 8 professors, 2 tutors and 160 students. The college library contains about 6,000 volumes, and the society libraries of the students 2,000 or 3,000 more. The philosophical apparatus is extensive and complete. There are two college edifices of brick, containing rooms for 200 students. They are pleasantly situated on an eminence, and command an extensive and variegated prospect. It is required that the president and a majority of the trustees of this university should be of the Baptist denomination.
Common schools are not supported by law in Rhode-Island as in the other New England states. Academies, however, are established in all the principal towns, and private schools are maintained during the winter months in almost every part of the state.
Population.] The population in 1790 was 68,835; in 1800, 69,122 ; in 1810, 76,931 ; in 1820, 83,059, or 53 for each square mile. . In Charlestown, on the southern shore of the state, are the remains of the once famous Narraganset tribe of Indians. They are now reduced to about 100 souls, and are a miserable, degraded race of beings.
Religion.] The Baptists are the most numerous denomination of Christians. They have 57 congregations ; the Friends, 18; Congregationalists, 11 ; Episcopalians, 5; Moravians, 1; Jews, I.
Government.] The constitution of the state is the charter granted to the colony by Charles II. in 1663. The legislative power is vested in a General Assembly consisting of two branches, ibe Senate and House of Representatives. The Senate consists of ten members, and the House of Representatives of two deputies irom each town, with the exception of Providence, Portsmouth, Warwick and Newport; the three first of which are entitled to four each, and the last to six. The Representatives are chosen semi-annually. The executive power is vested in a Governor, or, in case of his death, in a Lieut. Governor, both of whom have
seats in the Senate. The possession of a freehold estate is a pe cessary qualification of a voter.
Manufactures and Commerce.] In no state in the Union is so large a proportion of the population and capital employed in manufactures as in Rhode-Island. The principal article is cotton goods, which are manufactured in large quantities in Providence and the vicinity. There are now more than 90 cotton mills in the state, many of which are extensive establishments. The exports are fish, beef, pork, cattle, lumber, &c. Cotton goods and other manufactured articles are also transported in considerable quantities to the Southern states. In 1819 there were 33 banks in this state, of which 7 were at Providence, 5 at Newport, and 5 at Bristol.
Situation and Extent.) Connecticut is bounded N. by Massachusetts ; E. by Rhode Island ; S. by Long Island sound; and W. by New-York. It extends from 41° to 42° 2' N. lat. and from 71° 29' to 73° 24' W. lon. It is 72 miles long on the northern boundary and 45 on the eastern. The area is estimated at 4,674
Divisions. The state is divided into 8 counties and 122 towns.
The four first oamed counties border on Long Island sound from east to west ; the four last border on Massachusetts from west to east. Hartford and Middlesex counties are intersected by CoQnecticut river.
Face of the Country.] The face of the country is greatly diversified by bills and vallies. The hills are generally of a moderate size, and occur in quick succession, presenting to the traveller a beautiful and constantly varying prospect. There are several ranges of mountains which come from Massachusetts, and traversing the state from north to south terminate near Loug-Island sound. Beginning in the east, the first is the Lyme range,