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Newburyport, the third town in the state in population and commerce, is situated on the south bank of Merrimack river, 3 miles from its mouth, and 24 miles north of Salem. It is one of the handsomest towns in the United States, the site being a beautiful declivity, the houses neatly built, and the streets wide and intersecting each other nearly at right angles. Among the public buildings are 2 banks; and 7 houses for public worship, 3 for Congregationalists, 2 for Presbyterians, i for Episcopalians and I for Baptists.
In 1815 Newburyport was the 10th lown in the United States in amount of shipping. The number of tons was 24,922, employed partly in the coasting trade and fisheries and partly in the trade to the West Indies, Europe and the East Indies. The town is well situated for ship building, having the advantage of receiving lumber from the interior by Merrimack river. The harbor is deep, safe and capacious, but difficult to enter. The town suffered severely by the restrictions on commerce previous to the late war, and by fire in 1811. It has not yet fully recovered from these misfortunes. Population in 1810, 7,634 ; in 1820, 6852.
Gloucester is situated on the peninsula of Cape Ann, at the northern extremity of Massachusetts bay, 16 miles N. E. of Salem. It is one of the most considerable fishing towns in the Commonwealth. The amount of shipping owned here in 1815 was 11,080 tons. Population in 1820, 6,384. On the S. E. side of the town is Thatcher's island, on which are two light-houses.
Beverly lies directly north of Salem, and is connected with it by a bridge 1,500 feet in length. It has considerable trade, and the inhabitants are extensively engaged in the fisheries. Population, in 1820, 4,283.
Marblehead is on a peninsula, 18 miles N. E: of Boston and 4: S. E. of Salem. It is more extensively engaged in the bank fish eries than any other town in the United States. In 1818 there were 80 vessels employed from this port in the fishery of the Grand Bank, manned by 760 men. The whole amount of shipping, in 1815, was 15,655 tons. Population in 1820, 5,630.
Lynn lies on the coast, 6 miles S. W. of Salem and 9 N. E. of Boston. It is famous for the manufacture of ladies' shoes. No less than a million pair were made here in 1811. They are sent in large quantities to the southern states and the West Indies. Population, in 1820, 4,515. Lynn Beach is regarded as a curiosity. It connects the peninsula of Nahant with the main land, and is a favorite place of resort for parties of pleasure from Boston, Salem and Marblehead.
Charlestown is beautifully situated on a peninsula formed by Mystic and Charles rivers, which unite immediately below in Boston harbor. A bridge across Charles river connects the town with Boston, and two others across Mystic river connect it with Malden, and with Chelsea. There is also a bridge across a bay of Charles river, on the west side of the town, connecting it with Cambridge. Among the public buildings are the state prison,
the Massachusetts Insane Hospital, an almshouse, town house ; and 5 houses for public worship, 2 for Congregationalists, 1 for Baptists, 1 for Universalists and 1 for Methodists
. A navy yard of the United States occupies the S. E. part of the town. It consists of about 60 acres of land, on which are erected a marine hospital, a spacious ware house, an arsenal, and house for the accomodation of the superintendant, all of brick; and an immense wooden edifices under which the largest vessels of war are built. The celebrated battle of “ Breed's hill,” commonly, but incorrectly called “Bunker hill battle,” was fought in this town, Juoe 17, 1775. The population of Charlestown in 1820 was 6,591.
Plymouth is on the coast 36 miles S. S. E. of Boston. It is the oldest town in New-England. The first settlers landed here on the 22d of December 1620. A part of the rock on which the pilgrims laoded bas been removed to the centre of the town, and the anniversary of their landing is still celebrated. The harbor of Plymouth is spacious but shallow. The amount of shipping in 1815, was 18,875 tons. Population in 1820, 4,384.
Provincetown is situated at the extremity of thc peninsula of cape Cod, 60 miles S. E. of Boston by water, 116 by laod. Its harbor, which is one of the best in the state, opens to the southward, and has depth of water for any ships. The houses are one story high and set on piles, that the driving sanda may pass uoder them, otherwise they would be buried. The inhabitants derive their subsistence from the prosecution of the fisheries, and are dependent on Boston and on the towns in the vicinity for every vegetable production. Population in 1820, 1,225.
New Bedford is 52 miles south of Boston, on the estuary of a small river which flows into Buzzard's bay. It has a safe and commodious harbor. The inhabitants are extensively engaged in the whale fishery. In 181? more than 20 vessels were employed in the whale fishery and many more in the Cod fishery, coasting trade, and foreign trade. The whole amonnt of shipping, in 1818, was 23,712 tons. Population, in 1820, 3,947. Taunton is a pieasant and flourishing town on the west side of Taunton river, 36 miles south of Boston. Population, in 1820, 4,520.
Worcester, the capital of Worcester county, is a pleasant and Aourishing town 40 miles west of Boston. Population in 1820, 2,962. In 1819 a handsome and commodious building was erected here for the reception of the library and cabinet of the American Antiquarian society. The library consists of nearly 6,000 volumes, many of them rare and valuable works, and the cabinet is respectable.
Springfield stapıls on the east hank of Connecticut river, 87 miles west of Bo-ton. It has several flourishing manufactu: ing establishments, and carries on an extensive inland trade. Population, in 1820, 3,914. The principal armory of the United States is in this town. The situation of the arrgory is remarkably pleasant and healthy, being a perfectly level elevated plat, about half a mile east of the village. The buildings are arranged
on a large square, and consist of one brick edifice 204 feet by 32, 2 stories high, occupied by lock filers, stockers and finishers; a brick forging shop, 150 feet by 32; a brick building 60 feet by 32, 2 stories high, the second story forming a large and spacious hall levoted to religious worship; a brick building 100 feet by 40, aod 2 stories high,used as a depository of arms; and numerous smaller stores and shops.- The water works are situated on Mill river, about 1 mile south of the armory, and comprise 5 workshops, 28 forges, 10 trip-hammers and 18 water wheels, exhibiting the greatest assemblage of mills, and other water works, to be found in the state. In the whole establishment are employed from 240 to 250 workmen, who complete, on an av. erage, about 45 muskets daily, and the numher may be increased to almost any extent. Froin 1795 to December 1817 128,559 moskets were made here.
Northampton is situated in the midst of a beautiful country, on the west bank of Connecticut river, 18 miles north of Springfield. It contained in 1820, 2,854 inbabitants. The prospect from Mount Holyoke in the immediate vicinity is one of the finest and most extensive in New England.
The principal towns in Berkshire county are Stockbridge and Lenox on the Hooestennuc; Pittsfield, 12 miles north of Stockbridge, and Williamstown, the seat of Williams' college, in the N. W. corner of the state.
Education Massachusetts is highly distinguished for her literary institutions. There is a University at Cambridge, a college at Williamstown, a collegiate institution at Amherst, and a 1 heological seminary at Andover; besides numerous flourishing academies.
Horvard college, now the University in Cambridge, 3 miles W. N. W. of Boston, is the oldest and most wealthy literary institution in the United States. It was founded in 1638, in less than 20 years after the first settlement of New-England. It's officers in 1821 were a president, 20 professors, 5 tutors, a proctor and a regent. The Library is the largest in America, containing 25,000 volumes. The philosophical and chemical apparatus are complete. There is a valuable cabinet of minerals belonging to the university; an excellent anatomical museum ; and a botanic garden ,containing 8 acres, and furnished with an extensive collection of trees, shrubs and plants, both native and foreign.
The college buildings consist of the University hall, which is an elegant stone edifice containing the chapel, dining halls and lecture rooms ; Harvard hall, containing the library, philosophical apparatus, museum, &c. 4 spacious brick edifices, containing rooms for students; and several other buildings, for the accommodation of the president, professors and students. An astronomical observatory is about to be erected on an expensive scale.
A law school, a medical school, and a theological seminary form part of the University. The whole number of students in 1821 was 374; of whom 29 were theological students, 13 law
students 53 medical students, and 277 undergraduates. The whole number who completed their education here from the establishment of the institution to the year 1821 was 4,622, a greater number than at any other college in the country.
Williams' college in Williamstown was incorporated in 1793. Its officers in 1821 were a president, 2 professors and 2 tuvors. It has a respectable library, a valuable philosophical and cheinical apparatus and at present about 50 students. The income of the charity funds is sufficient to pay the term bills of 25 students, and half of this is alike applicable to all indigent young men of merit, whether designed for the Christian ministry or not. The expenses of living at Williamstown are very moderate. Good hoard may be had for a dollar a week, and the best wood is sold for one dollar fifty cents a cord.
The Collegiate institution at Amherst, near Northampton, was established in 1821. It has a president, 3 professors, one tutor and 59 students. The library belonging to the institution contains 900 volumes, and the society libraries bave about 400
The charity funds are large, and the expense of living very moderate.
The Theological seminary at Andover, 20 miles north of Boston, was founded in 1808 and has been richly endowed entirely by private bounty. The whole amount of what has been contributed for permanent use in this seminary, including the permanent funds, library and public buildings, is more than three hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and this has been contributed almost entirely from six families. In 1822 the officers were 4 professors and the number of students was 132. The whole number who have completed their education here is 312. The library contains about 5,000 volumes. The buildings are on a lofty eminence and command an extensive prospect. They consist of an elegant brick edifice, containing the chapel, library and lecture rooms; 2 spacinus brick edifices, containing rooms for the accommodation of 128 students ; and houses for each of the professors and the steward. A majority of the students are supported in whole or in part by charity.
Phillips' academy, also in Andover, is the most flourishing academy in the state. It was founded in 1778 by the Hon. Samauel Phillips, Esq. of Andover, and his brother, the Hon. John Phillips L. L. D. of Exeter. Its officers are a principal, 3 assistants, a teacher of sacred music and a writing master. The number of students in 1822 was 130, all of whom were pursuing the study of the learned languages. The institution is accommodated with a large aod commodious brick building, 30 feet by 40, erected in 1818, on a range with the buildings of the Theological seminary. This academy and the Theological seminary are under the same Board of Trustees.
Population.] The population, in 1790, was 378,787 ; in 1800, 422,845 ; in 1810, 472,010 and in 1820, 523,287. It has on an average 72 persons to a square mile, and is the most thickly set tled state in the Union.
Religion. The Congregationalists are much more numerous than any other denomination of Christians. In 1817 they had 366 congregations; the Baptists, 91 ; Friends, 32 ; Episcopalians, 14 ; Universalists, 11, Presbyterians, 8. There are also a few Methodists and Roman Catholics.
Government.] The Legislative power is vested in a General court, consisting of a Sepate and House of Representatives, both chosen annually by the people. The Senate consists of 40 mem. ber, chosen by districts. The Representatives are chosen by towns; each town having 150 rateable polls sends one Representative, and another for every additional 223 polls. The executive power is vested in a Governor, Lieut. Governor and a Council of 9 members. The two first are chosen by the people annually. The Council is chosen by the Legislature out of the 40 returned as Senators; and if they decline, from the mass of the people. The judicial power is vested in a Supreme conrt and several inferior courts, and the judges hold their offices during good behavior.
Roads.] The state is intersected in almost every direction by excellent turnpikes which centre in the capital. The turnpike from Boston to Newburyport, 33 miles, cost $400,000; and that from Boston to Salein, 13 miles, more than $200,000. The road from Boston to Providence, 40 miles, and from Boston to Worcester, 37 miles, are of the same expensive construction.
Manufactures. Massachusetts is the third state in the Union in amount of manufactures. The value in 1810 was estimated at $21,895,528. The principal articles are cotton goods, boots and shoes, ardent spirits, leather, cordage, wrought and cast iron, pails, straw bonnets, window glass and other glass ware.
Fisheries.] Massachusetts is more extensively engaged in the fisheries than any other state in the Union. In many populous towns on the sea-coast
, a large proportion of the inhabitants derive their subsistence entirely from this employment. The cod fishery is prosecuted to a great extent from Marblehead, and the wbale fishery from Nantucket and New-Bedford.
Commerce.] The principal exports are fish, beef, lumber, pork, ardent spirits, whale oil and various manufactnres. The principal market for the western part of the state is New-York ; for the country near Connecticut river, Hartford; for the towns' Dear Rhode-Island, Providence ; for the rest of the state, Boston, Salem and Newburyport. Boston is also the market for large sections of Vermont and New-Hampshire. In amount of shipping Massachusetts is the first state in the Union. In 1815, before Maine was separated, the number of tons was 452,273, which was ahout one third of the whole shipping of the United States.
Islands.) Plum island, which extends along the coast from Newburyport in a southerly direction, to Ipswich, is nine milex long and one broad, and is separated from the main land by a parrow sound, over which a bridge has been built. The island consists principally of sand blown into heaps, and crowned with basbes bearing the beach plum. In summer, when piume are