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stepping-stones and recommendations to the honors and profits of the republic. By a strict and impartial application of this policy the proportion between consumers and producers will be preserved, and a just and salutary balance of power and interests attained and established.

Hence, if I am rightly informed of the fact just stated, the settlers who devote themselves to agricultural pursuits are not generally possessed of the intelligence or pecuniary resources necessary for a successful cultivation of the soil, and consequently must content themselves, for some time at least, with merely producing enough to supply their own immediate and most urgent wants. It is but right, however, to give them time and a fair chance to prove themselves other than mere consumers of the little they manage to produce. Very probably, when the channels of trade shall have been appropriated and exhausted by the few who have got the start, and are in quiet possession of the harvest, the farming and planting interests may be guided into the way of progress and popularity, and in due course of time, and by dint of perseverance, supplies produced, steady, abundant, and good enough to warrant exportation and secure a profitable market. But when we know that few or no horses or cattle are indigenous to the neighborhood, there being but one or two of the former in Monrovia, and those poor and languishing, and the latter brought from the interior by the natives, we are forced to confess an apprehension that unless a way and the means be found and applied of stocking the country with both, the agriculture of the colony must either be at a stand-still or take the backward track. Beside, there are no wind or water-mills in the settlement, it being found cheaper, it is said, to employ hand-labor, the natives working for very low wages, and glad to get occupation on any conditions. So that, while manual labor is so easily procured and so economical, it is not to be supposed that the Liberians will employ mechanical or artificial aid, or go to work themselves; and therefore will their progress and success in these respects be slight or next to nothing.

Necessity is the mother of invention, and in their case will it hold good, that the absence of stimulant and pressure, the more available, less costly, and easier method of calling native labor into requisition, will either preclude or keep back the introduction, or at least improvements and general use, of those artificial aids and ameliorations to which industry, the arts, agriculture and mechanics owe their existence and prosperity in other civilized nations. It is but natural, and what might be expected, that persons recently emerged from bondage, having, for the most part, past half of the usual length of man's existence in a state of dependence and subjection, which precluded the exercise of the faculties of prudence and forethought, should find their new position one of trial and difficulty. So that if when thrown upon their own resources, and destined to make their bread by the sweat of their brows,'it is not at all surprising that many of them should be found wanting,' and devoid of that energy, self-reliance and intelligence so necessary to progress and success. Whether new wants, the necessity of exertion, and the prospect of securing for themselves and their descendants the rewards of industry and independence, will stimulate them to activity and perseverance, a longer time than the twenty-seven years of the existence of the colony is needed. Therefore we should not be too impatient, but hope for the best, while preparing our minds for a more distant and less flattering result than enthusiastic friends may anticipate and desire.

To afford well-founded promises and hopes of future progress and usefulness, the rulers of the new republic should, in my opinion, so shape their measures and apply their means and resources as to elicit from the cultivation of the soil sufficient, at least, to nourish and support the people, without depending, as is now the case, for flour, coffee, bacon, etc., upon foreign countries. The soil, climate, cheapness of labor, and number of agriculturists, warrant the belief that this independence of foreign supplies can be effected in a reasonable time, and by reasonable exertion. And in thus fostering the farming interests, and encouraging and providing for domestic manufactures, as far as circumstances will permit, the commercial and trading branches need not be neglected or overlooked. Of course much of the public favor and attention is and will be given to these important branches of national wealth and power; but in doing this, care must be taken so to balance the exports and imports as not to allow foreign traders to drain the community of money, and to keep them dependent upon their supplies for support. By consuming less of the luxuries of other countries, and depending more upon rice, corn-meal, cassada, sweet potatoes, and the other numerous artificial and natural productions of the soil, which are generally delightful and healthy food; by introducing horses and mules for agricultural and other purposes, which by proper food and care might be kept alive and thriving; by turning their serious and persevering attention to the raising and improvement of sheep, swine, cattle, and other live stock; and still farther, by adopting and carrying into execution some efficient plan for establishing and improving their internal communications and means of transportation by land and water, these people may ultimately succeed in securing for themselves and their children that blessing of real independence which, so long as they do not produce sufficient for their own consumption, and must therefore rely upon others to furnish to them, they can neither anticipate nor deserve.

The political existence which they have just begun, and the new duties, wants, responsibilities and interests which must grow out of so interesting a movement, will require all the attention, skill and devotion of those in whom the Republic of Liberia confides for weal or wo. For one, I trust they will not be found wanting, and that the highest wishes and hopes of their best friends may be fully realized.


SHREWD men, in sooth, these new reformers are !
Each week-day is a Sabbath, they declare:
A christian theory! the unchristian fact is,
Each Sabbath is a week day in their practice!

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The remarks we propose to offer in this paper will have reference chiefly to the characteristics of the descendants of the Pilgrims, and their action on social life.

That unconquerable zeal and enthusiasm which entered so largely into the character of the first settlers, and which animated their longings for civil and religious freedom, prepared the foundation on which has arisen that marvellous creation, the New England of to-day.

Although begun in weakness, it was raised in power, and its superstructure, which Time is continually enlarging and perfecting, has now attained to the simplicity of strength; and so long as its great central column of Truth and Justice shall remain erect, no human power is likely to undermine or overthrow it.

The historic annals of the christian world may be sought in vain for a richer chapter of events, for a series of higher or more devoted daring, for results more ennobling, or of means more wisely exerted, for a high and noble purpose. Encompassed with difficulties as imminent as crusader ever met, the first settlers were compelled to think. To live and not die, was a great motive. Thought and action were thus early married, and the union has become closer by age. Continuous labor did effect for the physical, what an unfaltering trust in a good Provi

'A HISTORY OF THE Town of Duxbury, (Mass.,) with Genealogical Registers. By JUSTIN WINSOR. Boston: CROSBY AND NICHOLS.

DENCE did for the spiritual ; and at that momentous period they buckled on the industrial armor, which to-day is as bright as ever. .

They avowed principles which they defended with an unwavering faith, and to avenge what they deemed the insults of monarchical power and intolerance, they sought this remote and forbidding wilderness, confronting unimagined dangers, and submitting with comparative serenity to the martyr's death, that they might construct, in their own way, a tabernacle for their harassed consciences. Difficulties only nerved their arm, and with the sword of the spirit they turned away the edge of the tomahawk and scalping-knife; and while their bosoms were heaving with the freshness and fulness of the Church's life, it was not long before their adventurous footsteps resounded throughout the mother-land, and were • answered with a deep God-speed to the giants gone on pilgrimage.

If we would compare the aspect of that region which was their cradle with that which is now the home of their descendants, the contrast would astonish as much as that of tropical and polar vegetation.

Wander where we may in the melodious summer months, and the rapturous delight that steals over the senses prodigally attests a power, which, by interrogating aright the God of Nature and Duty, has moulded into forms the most engaging, and to uses the most beneficent, what was once unseemly, unfruitful and sad.

As one cycle of time has succeeded another, the inheritors of the Puritan blood have filled them with action and identified them with progress. That which the discontents of the old world are now hazarding their lives to secure is in the possession of every New Eng. lander ; viz., substantial existence; and toward which the eye of hope is turned from many a suffering, desponding realm.

In taking even a cursory view of New England society, we naturally recur to modes of thought, motive and action, by which all communities are more or less distinguished. We think it will be admitted that the requirements of the age have been more eminently met here than in any other portion of the republic; for every year almost, for the last half century, has constituted an era in advancement; and we apprehend that on no spot of earth of similar extent can be found so much of available humanity, or in other words, capital applicable in the widest sense to whatever tends to the embellishment of personal existence or the increase and maintenance of public virtue and credit.

One of the most striking features of this people is the well-being and well-doing that prevail every where, and which is the legitimate offspring of character. Private character is the commanding, controlling power, in all communities, for by the ordination of nature man must chiefly act in it. It is the secondary atmosphere of earth, and according to its purity, so is the public health weak or strong. Religious austerity, untiring energy and unquenchable enthusiasm, were the elements in which the Puritan fathers lived and died, and never was an inheritance transmitted so charged with life. It is exceedingly doubtful whether under any other auspices a community could have been so formed at all.

The engrafting of more liberal views on the old stock has produced VOL. XXXV. .

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