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with that confidence that I do, for the blessings of the Lords upon the undertaking; but all these divine principles should arise from persuasion, and be adopted from choice; should be exhibited to the Indians more by example than by precept; and should be laid before them in proportion as they may be able to bear or comprehend them; carefully avoiding the zeal of the Jesuit Dobrizhoffer; who viewed civilization as completed, when an Indian consented to be baptised; as well as the other extreme of these who regard religion as a mere political system, not only overlooking, but disregarding the blessed effects of the Holy Spirit on the heart, and the precepts of the Lord and Saviour on the life and conduct. Deeply impressed with the immense importance of the subject, I submit the preceding suggestions to your Lordship’s consideration, with a hope and confidence, that to the many great and benevolent acts which bave already distinguished the happy reign of our present gracious Sovereign, will be added the glory of rescuing from impending extermination the Aborigines of his Majesty's vast possessions in America. My solicitude is, awfully increased, as the time is fast approaching, wben, in the opinion of men best acquainted with the present state of the Indian population, this achievement, so congenial to the feelings of his Majesty and to that exalted benevolence which pervades the British empire, will be for ever lost; while the mournful reflection, that the prosperity of the British nation has been increased by the possessions of those forlorn children of the forest, whose wrongs and sufferings we have so long disregarded and neglected, will alone remain.

I have the honour to remain
Your Lordship's obedient humble Servant,

JAMES BUCHANAN.
New York, November 1, 1824.

193

Extract from Jefferson's Notes on Virginia: The following extract from “ Jefferson's notes on the State of Virginia” baving with other interesting matter been omitted in the London Edition, I avail myself of the opportunity afforded by the publication of the work in this City, to add the testimony of that eminent Statesman, to those already adduced in proof of the capacity of the Indians; and as the most conducive evi. dence in favour of the experiment I have recommended, I feel truly fortunate in being able also, to introduce herein an extract from President Monroe's Message, delivered to Congress now assembled (December 1824) -supported therefore by the concurring testimony of such eminent characters as Governor Clinton, President Monroe, and Ex-President Jefferson, whose stations have afforded the best means of forming a correct judgment as to the Indians, I am cheered with the hope that the objections of interested individuals to any attempt being made in accordance with the plan suggested would be outweighed by such authority.

“Of their bravery and address in War we have multiplied proofs, because we have been the subjects on which they were exercised. Of their eminence in oratory, we have fewer examples, because it is displayed chiefly in their own Councils. Some we have, however, of very superior lustre.

I may challenge the whole orations of Demosthenes and Cicero, and of any more eminent orator, (if Europe has furnished more eminent,) to produce a single passage superior to the speech of Logan, a Mingo Chief, to Lord Dunmore, when Governor of this state ;* and as a testimony of their talents in this line, I beg leave to introduce it, first stating the incidents necessary for understanding it.

In the Spring of the year 1774, a robbery was committed by some Indians on certain Land Adventurers on the river Ohio. The whites in that quarter, according to their custom, undertook to punish this outrage

• Virginia,

in a summary way. Captain Michael Cresap, and a certain Daniel Greathouse, leading on these parties, surprised at different times, travelling and bunting parties of the Indians, having their Women and Children with them, inurdered many. Among these, were unfortunately the family of Logan; a Chief, celebrated in peace and war, and long distinguished as the friend of the whites. This unworthy return provoked bis vengeance. He accordingly signalized himself in the war which ensued. In the Autumn of the same year, a decisive battle was foughtattbe mouth of the great Kan. haway, between the collected forces of tbe Sbawanese, Mingoes and Delawares, anda detachmentoftbeVirginia Militia. The Indians were defeated and sued for peace.

Logan however disdained to be seen among the suppliants. But least the sincerity of a Treaty should be disturbed from which so distinguished a Chief absented himself, be sent by a messenger the following speech, to be delivered to Lord Dupmore.

“I appeal to any white inan to say, if ever be entered Logan's Cabin bungry, and he gave bim not meat: if ever he came cold and naked, and he clothed him not. During the course of the last long and bloody war, Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my love for the whites, that my countrymen pointed as they passed and said, “ Logan is tbe friend of the White Men." I had even thought to have lived with you but for the injuries of one man, Colonel CRESAP, the last Spring in cold blood and unprovoked, murdered all the relations of Logan, not even sparing my Women and Children. THERE RUNS NOT A DROP OF MY BLOOD IN THE VEINS OF ANY LIVING CREATURE.

This called on me for revenge, I have sought it: I have killed many. I bave glutted my vengeance; for my country I rejoice at the beams of peace.

But do not barbour a thought that mine is the JOY OF FEAR. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn on bis heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for Logan? Not one!!”

Extract from President Monroe's Message. 155 “Our relations with the Indian tribes, within our liinits, have not been materially changed during the year. The hostile disposition evinced by certain tribes, on the Missouri, during the last year, still continues, and has extended, in some degree, to those on the upa per Mississippi, and the upper Lakes. Several parties of our citizens bave been plandered and murdered, by those tribes. In order to establish relations of friend. ship with them, Congress at the last session made an appropriation for treaties with them, and for the employment of a suitable military escort to accompany and attend the Commissioners at the places appointed for the negotiations. This object has not been effected. The season was too far advanced when the appropriation was made, and the distance too great to permit: but measures have been taken, and all the preparations will be completed, to accomplish it at an early period in the next season.

“ Believing that the hostility of the tribes, particularly on the upper Mississippi and the Lakes, is in no small degree, owing to the wars which are carried on between the tribes residing in that quarter, measures have been taken to bring about a general peace among them, which, if successful, will not only tend to the security of our citizens, but be of great advantage to the Indians themselves. With the exception of the tribes referred to, our relations with all the others are on the most friendly footing; and it affords me great satisfaction to add, that they are making steady advances in civilization, and the improvement of their condition. Many of the tribes have already made great progress in the arts of civilized life. This desirable result has been brought about by the humane and persevering policy of the government, and particularly by ineans of the appropriation for the civilization of the Indians. There have been established, under the provisions of this act, thirty-two schools, containing nine hundred and sixteen scholars, who are well instructed in several branches of literature, and likewise in agriculture and the ordinary arts of life.

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156 Extract from President Monroe's Message.

The condition of the Aborigines within our limits, and especially those who are within the limits of any of the states, merits likewise particular attention. Ek perience bas shown, that unless the tribes be civilized, they can never be incorporated into our system in any form whatever. It has likewise shewn, that in the regular augmentation of our population, with the extension of our settlements, their situation till become deplorable, if their extinction is not mendeed, Some well digested plan, which will rescue them from such calamities, is due to their rights, to the rights, of humanity, and to the honour of the nation. Their civili. zation is indispensable to their safety, and this can be accomplished only by degrees. The process must commence with the infant state, through whom some effect may be wrought on the parental. Difficulties of the most serious character present themselves to the attainment of this very desirable result, on the territory on which they now reside. To remove them from it by force, even with a view to their own security and happiness, would be revolting to humanity, and utterly unjustifiable. Between the limits of our present States and Territories, and the Rocky Mountain, and Mexico, there is a vast Territory to which they might be invited, with inducements which might be success: ful. It is thought, if that Territory should be divided into districts, by previous agreement with the tribes now residing there, and civil governments be established in each, with schools for every branch of instruction in literature, and in tbe arts of civilized life, that all the tribes now within our liinits might gradually be drawn there. The execution of this plan would necessarily be attended with expense, and that not inconsiderable, but it is doubted whether any other can be devised which would be less liable to that objection, or more likely to succeed.

THE END,

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