Future Spacecraft Propulsion Systems: Enabling Technologies for Space Exploration

Portada
Springer Science & Business Media, 20 mar. 2009 - 560 páginas

In this second edition of Future Spacecraft Propulsion Systems, the authors demonstrate the need to break free from the old established concepts of expendable rockets, using chemical propulsion, and to develop new breeds of launch vehicle capable of both launching payloads into orbit at a dramatically reduced cost and for sustained operations in low-Earth orbit. The next steps to establishing a permanent ‘presence’ in the Solar System beyond Earth are the commercialisation of sustained operations on the Moon and the development of advanced nuclear or high-energy space propulsion systems for Solar System exploration out to the boundary of interstellar space.

In the future, high-energy particle research facilities may one day yield a very high-energy propulsion system that will take us to the nearby stars, or even beyond. Space is not quiet: it is a continuous series of nuclear explosions that provide the material for new star systems to form and provide the challenge to explore. This book provides an assessment of the industrial capability required to construct and operate the necessary spacecraft. Time and distance communication and control limitations impose robotic constraints. Space environments restrict human sustained presence and put high demands on electronic, control and materials systems.

This comprehensive and authoritative book puts spacecraft propulsion systems in perspective, from earth orbit launchers to astronomical/space exploration vehicles. It includes new material on fusion propulsion, new figures and updates and expands the information given in the first edition.

 

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Índice

Introduction
1
Overview
11
111 Historical developments
12
12 THE CHALLENGE OF FLYING TO SPACE
13
13 OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
15
14 OPERATIONAL SPACE DISTANCES SPEED AND TIMES
18
15 IMPLIED PROPULSION PERFORMANCE
23
16 PROPULSION CONCEPTS AVAILABLE FOR SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION
28
NUCLEAR ENERGY
288
73 LIMITS OF CHEMICAL PROPULSION AND ALTERNATIVES
292
731 Isp and energy sources
293
732 The need for nuclear highenergy space propulsion
296
BASIC CHOICES
297
741 Shielding
300
A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
307
CURRENT SCENARIOS
314

17 BIBLIOGRAPHY
34
Our progress appears to be impeded
35
22 EARLY PROGRESS IN SPACE
36
23 HISTORICAL ANALOGUES
41
24 EVOLUTION OF SPACE LAUNCHERS FROM BALLISTIC MISSILES
43
25 CONFLICTS BETWEEN EXPENDABLE ROCKETS AND REUSABLE AIRBREATHERS
52
26 COMMERCIAL NEAREARTH LAUNCHERS ENABLE THE FIRST STEP
59
a necessary second step
63
the next step to establishing a Solar System presence
65
expanding our knowledge to nearby Galactic space
66
Commercial nearEarth space launcher a perspective
69
31 ENERGY PROPELLANTS AND PROPULSION REQUIREMENTS
73
32 ENERGY REQUIREMENTS TO CHANGE ORBITAL ALTITUDE
75
33 OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS ANTICIPATED FOR FUTURE MISSIONS
78
34 CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS
80
35 TAKEOFF AND LANDING MODE
93
36 AVAILABLE SOLUTION SPACE
97
37 BIBLIOGRAPHY
103
Commercial nearEarth launcher propulsion
105
41 PROPULSION SYSTEM ALTERNATIVES
106
42 PROPULSION SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
108
43 AIRFLOW ENERGY ENTERING THE ENGINE
109
44 INTERNAL FLOW ENERGY LOSSES
113
45 SPECTRUM OF AIRBREATHING OPERATION
120
46 DESIGN SPACE AVAILABLEINTERACTION OF PROPULSION AND MATERIALSSTRUCTURES
122
47 MAJOR SEQUENCE OF PROPULSION CYCLES
127
48 ROCKETDERIVED PROPULSION
132
49 AIRBREATHING ROCKET PROPULSION
135
410 THERMALLY INTEGRATED COMBINED CYCLE PROPULSION
138
411 ENGINE THERMAL INTEGRATION
141
412 TOTAL SYSTEM THERMAL INTEGRATION
142
413 THERMALLY INTEGRATED ENRICHED AIR COMBINED CYCLE PROPULSION
147
414 COMPARISON OF CONTINUOUS OPERATION CYCLES
150
415 CONCLUSIONS WITH RESPECT TO CONTINUOUS CYCLES
156
416 PULSE DETONATION ENGINES
158
4162 Pulse detonation engine performance
159
417 CONCLUSIONS WITH RESPECT TO PULSE DETONATION CYCLES
165
418 COMPARISON OF CONTINUOUS OPERATION AND PULSED CYCLES
166
419 LAUNCHER SIZING WITH DIFFERENT PROPULSION SYSTEMS
170
420 STRUCTURAL CONCEPT AND STRUCTURAL INDEX ISTR
172
421 SIZING RESULTS FOR CONTINUOUS AND PULSE DETONATION ENGINES
174
422 OPERATIONAL CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS SSTO AND TSTO
179
423 EMERGING PROPULSION SYSTEM CONCEPTS IN DEVELOPMENT
185
424 AEROSPIKE NOZZLE
195
425 ORBITEC VORTEX ROCKET ENGINE
196
4251 Vortex hybrid rocket engine VHRE
197
4252 Stoichiometric combustion rocket engine SCORE
199
4253 Cryogenic hybrid rocket engine technology
200
Earth orbit onorbit operations in nearEarth orbit a necessary second step
208
51 ENERGY REQUIREMENTS
212
52 LAUNCHER PROPULSION SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
216
522 Geostationary orbit satellites sizes and mass
220
53 MANEUVER BETWEEN LEO AND GEO CHANGE IN ALTITUDE AT SAME ORBITAL INCLINATION
221
531 Energy requirements altitude change
223
533 Propellant delivery ratio for altitude change
228
54 CHANGES IN ORBITAL INCLINATION
230
541 Energy requirements for orbital inclination change
231
542 Mass ratio required for orbital inclination change
234
543 Propellant delivery ratio for orbital inclination change
237
55 REPRESENTATIVE SPACE TRANSFER VEHICLES
240
56 OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
242
561 Missions per propellant delivery
243
562 Orbital structures
244
563 Orbital constellations
245
564 Docking with space facilities and the International Space Station
247
565 Emergency rescue vehicle with capability to land within continental United States
252
58 BIBLIOGRAPHY
253
EarthMoon system establishing a Solar System presence
255
61 EARTHMOON CHARACTERISTICS
256
62 REQUIREMENTS TO TRAVEL TO THE MOON
259
621 Sustained operation lunar trajectories
262
622 Launching from the Moon surface
263
63 HISTORY
268
632 USA exploration history
269
633 India exploration history
270
641 Prior orbital stations
271
643 Natural orbital station
274
65 MOON BASE FUNCTIONS
277
652 Lunar exploration
278
653 Manufacturing and production site
280
Exploration of our Solar System
283
BASIC TECHNOLOGY
322
78 SOLID CORE NTR
323
79 PARTICLE BED REACTOR NTR
327
710 CERMET TECHNOLOGY FOR NTR
329
712 GAS CORE NTR
332
713 C RUBBIAS ENGINE
335
714 CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT NTR PROPULSION
339
715 NUCLEAR ELECTRIC PROPULSION
340
716 NUCLEAR ARCJET ROCKETS
341
717 NUCLEAR ELECTRIC ROCKETS
342
718 ELECTROSTATIC ION THRUSTERS
343
719 MPD THRUSTERS
348
720 HYBRIDCOMBINED NTRNER ENGINES
351
721 INDUCTIVELY HEATED NTR
353
722 VASIMR VARIABLE SPECIFIC IMPULSE MAGNETOPLASMA DYNAMIC ROCKET
354
723 COMBINING CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKETS
359
724 CONCLUSIONS
361
725 BIBLIOGRAPHY
364
Stellar and interstellar precursor missions
375
811 Quasiinterstellar destinations
377
812 Times and distance
381
82 THE QUESTION OF Isp THRUST AND POWER FOR QUASIINTERSTELLAR AND STELLAR MISSIONS
383
83 TRAVELING AT RELATIVISTIC SPEEDS
387
84 POWER SOURCES FOR QUASIINTERSTELLAR AND STELLAR PROPULSION
390
85 FUSION AND PROPULSION
391
851 Mission length with Isp possible with fusion propulsion
393
FUELS AND THEIR KINETICS
395
87 FUSION STRATEGIES
398
88 FUSION PROPULSION REACTOR CONCEPTS
400
89 MCF REACTORS
401
810 MIRROR MCF ROCKETS
404
8101 Tokamak MCF rockets
406
the dense plasma focus DPF rocket
408
8103 Shielding
409
8104 Direct thermal MCF vs electric MCF rockets
411
811 FUSION PROPULSIONINERTIAL CONFINEMENT
413
8111 Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion
419
A COMPARISON
420
CAN WE REACH STARS?
428
814 BIBLIOGRAPHY
430
View to the future and exploration of our Galaxy
437
91 ISSUES IN DEVELOPING NEAR AND FARGALACTIC SPACE EXPLORATION
439
92 BLACK HOLES AND GALACTIC TRAVEL
447
IS IT REQUIRED?
453
94 CONCLUSIONS
458
Nuclear propulsionrisks and dose assessment A1 INTRODUCTION
462
A22 Beta decay
464
A23 Gamma rays
465
A32 Halflife s
466
A35 Effective dose E Sv
468
A37 Dose commitment Sv
469
A42 Stochastic effects
470
A421 Radiationinduced cancer
471
A5 SOURCES OF RADIATION EXPOSURE
473
A52 Medical radiation exposure
476
A53 Exposure from atmospheric nuclear testing
477
A54 Exposure from nuclear power production
478
A55 Exposure from major accidents
479
A56 Occupational exposure
480
A58 Comparison of exposures
483
A6 CONCLUSIONS
484
Assessment of open magnetic fusion for space propulsion F Romanelli1 C Bruno and G Regnoli
487
GENERAL ISSUES
490
B21 Application of fusion for space propulsion
492
B22 Achievement of selfsustained conditions
493
B23 Design of a generic fusion propulsion system
495
B24 Mass budget
497
B25 Specific power
500
B26 Fusion power density
502
summary
503
B31 Classification and present status of open magnetic field configurations
504
B32 Mirror configurations
505
B33 Fieldreversed configurations
517
B34 Spheromaks
526
B35 Levitated dipole
530
B41 Technology
532
B42 Specific design studies
534
B6 CONCLUSIONS
536
B7 REFERENCES
538
Index
543
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