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Bazil Hall, Royal Navy, Author of "A Voyage to Loo Choo." 2 vols. post 8vo. Third Edition. £11s. boards.
Discourses, selected from the Manuscripts of the late Robert Boog, D D. Minister of the Abbey Parish of Paisley. Svo. 12s. boards.
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The Leith and London Smack and Steam-Yacht Guide: comprehending a Copious Topographical description of the Coast between London, Leith, and Aberdeen; a Correct Table of Distances from Point to Point; and an Appendix, containing many necessary Lists: forming at once an agrecable and useful Companion to the Voyage between these ports. 12mo. 5s. boards.
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"The Editor has obtained the advantage of consulting several of the original letters of Dean Swift, and even adding to the number two or three not hitherto published, under the following singular circumstances:-These valuable documents were in possession of the late Theophilus Swift, Esq., who dying in furnished lodgings in London, his papers appear to have fallen into the hands of persons totally incapable of estimating their value. Many, indeed by far the greater part, were treated as ordinary waste paper, and the rest were saved from the same fate by Mr Smith, a gentleman of taste and liberality, who was much grieved and surprised at the condition in which he discovered the correspondence of Swift and of Pope, and several of the miscellaneous Poems of the former. Several of these are still in the Editor's hands, being confided to him by the liberality of Mr Smith, now absent on the Continent. There can be no question of their originality, but they do not contain much that has not been already published. What additions Mr Smith's papers have afforded to this Second Edition of the Dean of St. Patrick's Works are acknowledged where these are inserted."—Preface to the Second Edition.
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FRANCE. In the Chamber of Peers, the French Ministry has again been in a minority. It was on a proposition for allowing the proceedings in the Chambers to be reported in the Journals. The partisans of the disgraced minister, Chateaubriand, exult in this, and anticipate more serious defeats. The ex-minister keeps no sort of terms with his late colleagues. He makes daily revelations of the sytem of Government pursued for the last two years in France. He declares that the Ministers have purchased most of the Journals, violated the spirit and the letter of the charter, as well as the rights of the people, in the last elections,
and that their acts were so repugnant to his elevated mind, that if he did not resign, it was because "he knew that he formed the moral strength of the Government, and feared the effects of a division between the Royalists!" This self-knowledge is a proof of singular modesty on the part of the Noble Peer; and his late colleagues are certainly much to blame to have so easily parted with their "moral strength." There is, however, still much strength of some kind or other in the following remarks, which they make through the medium of the Quotidienne, upon his conduct. "If he disapproved so deeply of the ensemble of his colleague's opera
tions, he was in total opposition to them. He had then but one course to follow, and that course was rigorously pointed out by duty. He was to protest in the Council, and if his protest occasioned no change of policy, to retire." The French people, it may be remarked, take little in. terest in this party war, and appear to be perfectly indifferent as to whether M. de Villele keeps his place or not. In the Chamber of Deputies, the accounts of the expenditure of the French army in Spain have been discussed. The contract made with the Intendant General, M. Ouvrard, was particularly remarked upon; M. de Villele admitted the burdensome nature of this bargain, but observed, that the Government were compelled to accede to the terms of Ouvrard for the supply of the army; and contended, that the complete manner in which the contract had been performed by the Intendant-General, had greatly facilitated the termination of the campaign. It is calculated that M. Ouvrard made a profit of nearly a million sterling, during the six months' campaign in the Peninsula.
SPAIN. The news from Spain of late is only a repetition of what has been already repeated twenty times-the hatred of the French, and the desire to get rid of them, among the monks and the military
-the crowded prisons-and the distress of the provinces from scarcity. Ferdinand amuses himself with making promotions in his guards, and attending the proces sions of the church. He returned with the Queen and the Princesses, from the summer palace at Aranjuez to the capital, on the 19th June. Their Majesties, during the whole journey, passed between files of French and Spanish troops. Before hazarding his royal person among his subjects at Madrid, however, he deemed it expedient to issue a decree, commanding all those who had not been resident in it for the last six years, employed in trade or a known occupation, to depart from it forthwith, as they could not in any respect be considered citizens; and after he had done this, suspended the execution of the measure, from the apprehensions of what might be its consequences. The evil results of such a system of governing do not require to be pointed
fant Don Carlos by the title of Charles V. The difference of the sway which the brothers would exercise must be so very trifling, that we hardly think it worth the choice of the Constitutionalists. Charles V. could not devote himself with more mischievous zeal to the ruin and degradation of the kingdom; certainly he could not manifest a more unrelenting hatred to the Liberals. The bad faith with which the amnesty is executed, has compelled those who previously anticipated no mo. lestation to seek refuge at Gibraltar. King Ferdinand found himself so overpowered by applications from persons whose coming within its operation was disputed, that he gave all such persons a public notice thenceforth, to apply to the tribunals, not to him.
Ferdinand was no sooner returned to Madrid, than he issued orders for the installation of the Juntas of Purification. The Constitutionalists thus continue to suffer his persecution, though we learn that, to a body of them, who had returned from France, he is indebted for the capture of General Capape, who was traversing the country, proclaiming the In
PORTUGAL. The King of Portugal, in addition to his proclamation for the convocation of the ancient Cortes of the kingdom, has published an amnesty for all political offenders from 1817, to the end of July 1821. Those who have been banished, are allowed to return home, and those who have been condemned to any other punishments, will have their sentences immediately annulled. The widows, descendants, and collateral relations of those who have suffered capital punishments, may have the judgments reversed, and succeed to the property, of whatever description. This amnesty is not marred by a single exception, and must, in conjunction with the other recent Acts of John VI., produce great satisfaction among his subjects. The military orders issued during the usurpation of Miguel have been rescinded. Some of the General Officers, who made themselves very conspicuous under the Constitutional system, have been dismissed from the army.
Notwithstanding these popular measures, however, and which the King has adopted since freed from the trammels of his wife and son, it appears, that both he and his Ministers are in the most perilous alarm from the Portuguese army, and the faction to whom it has been subservient; a faction composed of a set of fanatics, not more averse to constitutional freedom, than hostile to the rights, property, and even lives, of those whom they oppose. His Majesty has, in consequence, applied to the British Government for the aid of 6000 troops, in order to keep his own soldiers in subjection. The King relies on the assistance of Britain as an old ally; and the questions which are now being discussed in the British Cabinet, are, whether, on the ground of their old alliance, offensive and defensive, they are bound to comply with this request; or setting the question of obligation aside,
whether, in views of general expediency and policy, they are not justified in so doing.
Now that plans for the reduction of national debt are spoken of or carrying into execution in so many countries, his Majesty of Prussia has adopted a course a whimsical one-to effect the same end. Instead of a regularly operating sinking-fund, a lottery is to be drawn twice a-year, to determine what public bonds shall be paid off. The holders of the numbers drawn will then receive the full nominal amount of their principal. The scheme appears to have had a favourable effect on the public securities, which rose to the unprecedented price of 95, before the official publication of the Royal ordinance. His Majesty has also been employed in a less gracious duty, that of repressing the pe tition of his Rhenish subjects. It seems that the communes were in the habit of
ed master of the field of battle, and the Turks had fled in every direction. Altogether, the affairs of the Greeks are going on in the most prosperous style. The military chiefs are submitting to the General Government, and the deliverance of the classical soil is every day rendered less doubtful. The Greeks have made great progress lately in knowledge and literature. Five newspapers are now published in Greece, viz. :-Two at Mis solunghi, one at Hydra, one at Athens, and one at Psara.
joining together to strengthen their representations, which are sometimes laid before the Government " with signatures filling entire sheets of paper." This course has given great offence to his Majesty, who, by a Cabinet order, has forbidden it altogether; in future, each commune is to petition for itself alone.
GREECE. All the accounts, received through various channels, are favourable to the cause of independence in this country. Greek valour has again successfully defended the passes of Thermopylæ. The contest was one of the most obstinate by which even this sanguinary struggle has been distinguished. The Pacha was encamped at Larissa, whence he proceeded to force the passes. The Greeks defended them with the most determined fortitude, and, notwithstanding a series of attacks of the most desperate fury, finally repulsed their assailants with considerable loss. The Pacha fell back upon Larissa, where it was understood he was waiting the arrival of some reinforcements from Romelia. This event is of the highest importance to the Greek cause. Dervish Pacha is not only the Turkish Generalissimo, but confessedly one of the best Captains in the Turkish army. His defeat, therefore, will pro. duce the most decisive effects throughout all the provinces of Greece. In order to ensure the greatest advantages from this repulse, Prince Mavrocordato, the President of the Greek Government, marched with a body of picked troops against the Turks under Omer Vrione. The corps of Constantine Bozzaris have had an engagement with the troops under the Pacha of Scutari. The Greeks were again victorious. Bozzaris remain.
NEW SOUTH WALES.-Improvements of every description are multiplying in this colony; a stage-coach, for instance, with four horses, runs daily between the towns of Sydney and Paramatta, and a handsome two-horse spring caravan, fitted up for passengers, also runs between these places. They were paying so well, that a second caravan was preparing to run between Sydney and Paramatta, a third between Paramatta and Liverpool, and a stage-coach betweeen Paramatta and Windsor, so that travellers could proceed in daily stages to all the well-settled parts of the colony. The outlet of a much larger river than any yet discovered, has lately been found in Moreton Bay, about the latitude of 28. It flows through a rich, well-wooded country; it has usually from three to nine fathoms water; and as it comes from the scuthwest, in the direction of the Macquarrie marshes, it is supposed to be the outlet of the Macquarrie River. The discovery cannot fail to prove of immense advantage to this colony, more especially if it turn out to be the outlet of the Macquarrie.
CAPE COAST.-It now appears, from the dispatches of Major Chisholm, which arrived at Earl Bathurst's office on the 17th June, in charge of Captain Laing of the Royal African Colonial Corps, that the reports of Sir Charles M'Carthy's defeat and death, which reached this country in the beginning of May, were essentially correct, though they did not put us in possession of the particulars of the engagement, or of the previous movements of Sir Charles's army. The dispatches are dated Cape Coast Castle, March 16, and consist of a relation by Major Chisholm of the preparations made for opposing the Ashantees,-of some notice of the views which led to the sending off of two divisions of the army, one for the Assin and the other for
the Akine country, as well as the cir cumstances which occasioned that division which Major Chisholm commanded to be disjoined from the body under Sir Charles, with the exertions made by him to rejoin upon receiving instructions to that effect, and of the usual favourable mention of those officers who by their conduct have merited that distinction. This document was dictated by Major Chisholm from a sick-bed. The account of the engagement is given in a letter to Major Chisholm, from Captain H. J. Ricketts, who was present in it and escaped, which letter is dated Cape Coast, February 26. It is impossible, in our narrow limits, to insert these documents; but indeed they add little to what was previously known. The mischance appears to have been entirely owing to the unaccountable and criminal disobedience of Mr Brandon, the Ordnance Storekeeper, to the repeated orders of the lamented Governor, respecting the supply of ammunition; in consequence of which, that needful article was exhausted almost immediately after the commencement of the engagement. That this officer is himself among the sufferers, hardly qualifies, in any great degree, the bitterness of the indignation which his intolerable negligence excites against him.
UNITED STATES.-The system of restriction in commerce which England has begun to lay aside, other nations appear to be taking up or confirming. The Tariff-Bill, which has for some time been in dependence before the Congress of the United States, has been passed into a law. The Tariff goes so much into detail, that we cannot pretend to analyse it; but the general character is that of a protection to native manufactures, and a discouragement to importation. It amounts to this, -that the Americans are willing to pay dearer for American productions than for English. This would be a wise and politic principle, if their manufactures were in so thriving a state as to afford a prospect of outstripping those of foreign nations, but we suspect that it is far from being the case. The American statesmen wish to anticipate the natural growth of manufactures in their country; and the consequence will probably be, that, nationally speaking, they will pay dearer for manufactured articles than if they had continued to receive them from England.
MEXICO.-An Envoy Extraordinary Don Jose Mariano Michelena) from the Congress of Mexico to the Court of St. James's, has arrived in England from
Vera Cruz. He is, it is said, charged with unlimited powers to enter into a treaty of friendship and alliance with Great Britain. The Valorous also brought dispatches from Mr Licnel Harvey, his Majesty's Commissioner sent to that country, to ascertain whether its govern. ment was in such a condition of permanency as would warrant our Government in acknowledging it as an independent state. It is not known what are the representations made by Mr Harvey, but from all the information obtained, it appears, that, although for a time longer that country may be divided by factious parties or revolutionary movements, it is for ever separated from the mother country. There is not, nor has been for some time, a single soldier of Old Spain in the country. The Castle of Ulloa is still held by a small Royalist force, but it may be easily subdued, if it were at all a conquest of much moment. The Ambassa. dor is come to this country to give our Government the strongest assurances of the determination of his country to maintain its independent state, of its ability to resist all external enemies, and of desire on the part of the present Government to cultivate the most friendly intimacy with Great Britain.
COLOMBIA. By the way of Jamaica a document of considerable importance has been received from Colombia, namely, the message of the Vice-President Santander, sent to the Colombian Congress on the 6th of April. In this pa per we have a general view of the state of the Colombian republic. The Congress is first congratulated on the triumph of the republican arms, and the complete restoration of tranquillity by the establishment of independence. The State of Peru and Mexico is then noticed, and the necessity of sending succours to the former country, for the purpose of wholly clearing the South American Continent of the enemy, is pointed out. The most marked gratitude is expressed to the President of the United States for his declaration in favour of the general inde pendence of America, and his intimation that he would consider any attack against it the same as if directed against the United States. The message alludes to the policy of Britain in the following
"The Executive had directed its relation to Europe, with Great Britain particularly, whose politics appear favourable to the cause of South America, and whose commercial relations have been more extensive and active. The sympathy of the opinion of the British public and its Government inspire the O
Executive with the most flattering hopes. I am sorry that I cannot communicate to you what may be the ultimate resolution of the Government of his Britannic Majesty with respect to the republic. A commission from the English Government is now actually in this capital, from whom we have received satisfactory proofs of the interest with which our State inspires the mind of the magnanimous people of England. The security which it has given us against the ru mour that France will assist in the war which Spain intends to begin anew, to reduce us to her obedience, places us in a situation of not fearing such an occur rence. The Executive, as well as the Republic, have highly estimated their declarations, and I can assure the Congress, that, in the progress of the negociation which may come on the carpet, I will not lose sight of the dignity of the Government, nor of the interests of the Colombian people. If the union of the physical and moral power of the independent States of America, the order and regularity of our association, respect to the law, uniformity of opinion, the progress of learning, and the adherence of the Governinent to the path prescribed by our fundamental laws, ought to weigh in the political balance of nations, we ought to hope, with entire confidence, that neither Great Britain nor the other Powers will disavow the power and moral force which the republic of Colombia has acquired to put herself upon a level with them. I am determined to take advantage of any favourable opportunity to extend our relations with other powers, whose friendship can be of sufficient in terest and utility to the republic."
The other parts of the message relate to the internal affairs of the Republic, and the necessary arrangement of its affairs, greatly deranged by the revolution, and the war consequent on it. The establishing proper seminaries of education seems to be an object in which the Colombian rulers are intent, though at present they rather lack the means of carrying their intentions into effect. Great reforms are meditated also in the administration of justice, the collection of the revenue, and the finance departments of the Republic. To complete this, time will be required, as the new Government has, in many cases, to begin de novo to organize the civil institutions of the country.
favour this, because the great Generals who support the pretensions of Spain there are Constitutionalists, and it would seem these Chiefs were not disinclined to throw off their allegiance to Spain, and maintain their power in Peru. But be fore such a negotiation could be carried into effect, Canterac appears to have got intelligence of a squadron coming to assist him from Spain, and there the matter dropped. A scandalous transaction in the meanwhile changed the state of affairs at Lima; a black regiment, consisting of twelve-hundred men, Buenos Ayrean troops in the Peruvian service, had long been neglected in their pay. This regiment was marched into Callao to garrison the place, and on the 3d of February the men and non-commisioned officers mutinied, secured their officers and the Governor of the Castle, and thus got complete possession of the Fort. The mutineers were headed by a serjeant of their own corps, and their first demand of the Government of Lima was for 100,000 dollars in money, and vessels to convey them to Buenos Ayres. This was refused a negotiation was attempted, but failed; and the insurgents having liberated about ten Spanish officers, a Colonel Casa-Riego took the command, and the Spanish flag was hoisted at the forts on 11th February. All vessels were prohibited from leaving the port, and one or two that escaped during the night were fired at incessantly, until without reach of the batteries. In the meantime, British goods were allowed to be embarked from Callao, on paying a small duty to CasaRiego, though considerable pillage took place, and British vessels remained under the protection of his Majesty's ship Fly in the harbour. The Royalist General Rodil, being at Yea, no great distance from Lima, Casa-Riego sent him a dispatch, informing him of what had taken place, and he having been joined by Gen. Monet, with two thousand men from Jauga, marched on Callao and Lima, and took possession of both on the 27th of February. Previously to this, Admiral Guise, of the Patriot frigate La Prueba, who was blockading Callao, made a gallant attack on the Venganza and another vessel of war in the ports, and in the hands of the insurgents, and he succeeded in entirely destroying both. This event is not considered as likely to operate much in favour of the Royalist cause ultimately, for, to retain possession of the castles, they must weaken their main force, and the fate of the country will not be decided by who has possession of Lima, but by a general engagement.
On the 21st or 22d of February Con
PERU. Some time ago, it was believed, that a cessation of hostilities was upon the point of taking place in Peru. The news of the overthrow of the Constutionalists in Spain was expected to