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to pay Mr. Hutton's expenses back to Cape Coast. The ocoasion of the failure of this expedition, is thus stated :
• The number of horses purchased by Major Peddie amounted nearly to fifty, and the asses to a hundred, besides several camels; the officers and men exceeded' a hundred'; and the property purchased for the use of the expedition, the presents, and all expenses, could not have cost less than £50,000.; so tliat the little good (if any) which has resultede from this expedition, must plainly shew the bad policy of fitting out such large and expensive missions to explore Africa; for what Chief would let such a formidable expedition pass through his territory? The king, of Ashantee, and all the African chiefs that I have cver been acquainted with, would object to it from the fear alone of such a strong party joining their enemies. It was, therefore, not at all to be wondered at that the king of the Foulahs would not allow the expedition to pass through bis territory. Besides, Major Peddie did a very impolitic thing at Senegal, in trying in public how the horses would carry the two fieldpieces, which were intended for the boats after getting to the Niger, as the Noors who were at Senegal, must have noticed it, and, it was most pro. bable, would send word of the fact to the king of Sego and other chiefs in the interior. But as the fate and particulars of this expedition were long ago known, I shall only add, that Major Peddie lost bis lite at Kakundy, in the Rio Nunez; and Captain Campbell, who succeeded him in the command, advanced into the Foulah country, where his haughty conduct obstructed his further progress, and constrained him, amidst a thousand difficulties, to retrace his steps to Kakundy, where the fever. prevented the execution of a plot formed by his soldiers to assassinate him. Lieutenant Stokoe, of the Inconstant frigate, then succeeded to the command; and ihere was a gentleman of the name of Dochord, a surgeon, who was the next officer to Stokoe, and who, I believe, is now in England; but what became of Lieutenant Stokoe I have never heard. Upon the subject of this expedition, experience has convinced me, that such formidable missions will never succeed in exploring Africa, as the natives are too jealous and too much alarmed at such a force. My humble opinion is, that we must either have no appearance of force at all, or else such a force as will surmount every obstacle. pp. 13-15.
We observe that our Author, in his notices respecting the Coast country, refers repeatedly to Mr. Mollien as an authority; in particular as to the remarkable proximity of the sources of the Senegal, the Faleme, the Gambia, and the Rio Grande near Labbe and Teembo. He bears testimony also to the correctness of Mr. Robertson's description of the Coast in his Notes on Africa, and agrees with him as to the great importance of the barbour of Succondee, and of a settlement either at Cape Lahou or Cape Palmas. 'The latter is recommended by that gentlenian as one of the most desirable situations for a European colory on the west coast of Africa, and a valuable link of connexion be tween Sierra Leone and the British possessions on the Gold Coast. But our Author inclines in favour of Cape Lahou, which
is 140 miles further to the East ward, on account of the river, ! which large craft may enter with safety during tlie rains,' and which, the natives say, is a branch of a great river iu the interior; and also, as it would afford an opportunity of opening a cominunication with tbe Buntakoos, a large and powerful nation to the N. W of Ashantee; by whose means we might be able to prevent the king of Ashantee from disturbing our settlements on the Gold Coast. 5. We shall not go into the details connected with the mission, or the disgusting and discreditable disputes between the governor and council, and the Conductor of the Embassy, by wbicb its successful progress was thwarted in every stage, and its ultimate objects in great measure defeated. Our Author's short stay at Coomassie did not enable him to collect much additional information relative to the manners and customs of the Ashantees, of which Mr. Bowdich has given so full a description. The following anecdote from Mr. Hutchinson's diary, is introduced to illustrate the amiable character of the present king, who is represented as courteous and dignified, and more eloquent than any of his counsellors, except Adoosey, the prine minister.
Ilis Majesty, some years ago, took one of Apokoo's daughters 10 wise: she is now one of the finest women iu Coomassie, and must have been a great beauty. It was discovered by the chief eunuch, that she haul intrigued with one of the attendants. It was told the king that one of his wives had proved false. “ Let her die instantly,” said he in a
rage. The slave whispered him, " It is A pokoo's child.” He rose in - silence, and went to the harem, and the culprit being sent fur, the king ?, sturned his head away while he folded his cloth around him, and lifting izethe curtain to let her pass, be exclaimed : “ Go, you are free! your
father was my father; he is my friend, and for his sake I forget you : when you find any man good enough for you, let me know, and I will give him gold." ' p. 316.
The Fantees and the Ashantees, 'though distinct and hostile tribes, appear to be, in fact, branches of the same nation. Tbeir maoners and superstitions are similar, and their meagre language is the same, tbe Fantee being merely a dialect of the Ashantee. The population of the latter country is estimated by Mr. Bowdich at a million ; but Mr. Huttoo thinks that he
greatly overrates it. Fantee, which extends along the coast ed from West to East nearly ninety iniles, being about seventy miles square,
is estimated to contain 40,000 inhabitants. They have liere some idea of a Supreme Being, whom they call Ygung Coumpon, and when they hear thunder, will sometimes reinark that Young Coompon is riding in his carriage. But in the specimens giveni of the language, although boih demon' and
devil'appear, (buinsum and obvinsam, probably the
same word,) yet, neither God, soul, nor spirit occurs': 'there is, however, ghost, saman. The natives of all these countries on the western coast of Africa, are, in fact, idolaters of the lowest description, their worship being literally an adoration of the Principle of Evil under the most appropriate symbols. At Discove in Ahanta, on the Gold Coast, they worship the crocodile.
* Any person,' says Mr. Huitton, going a shore hero, may seç one of these animals at the expense of a fowl and a bottle of liquor, which is given to the feetish man (Tando Cudjoe), who obliged me with a sight of it in the following manner. This fetish man, or priest, took a white fowl, (which colour, it appears, the fowl must be, as the natives have most faith in it,) nod on arriving at the pond near the fort, it was placed near the ground, Tando, Cudjoe making a little noise with his mouth, when the crocodile instantly made its appearance on the opposite side of the pond, and, plunging through the water, cainc very near the spot where we were standing; but as the fowl made its escape into the bush, or forest, the crocodile, instead of following it, pursued me and my companion. Captain Leavens, so closely for a short distance, that had not a small dog been behind me, which it laid hold of and was thus satisfied, the animal would, in another minute, most probably have taken a fancy to one of my legs. The path being narrow, and Captain Leavens before me, I could neither run so fast as I wished, nor turn to the right hand or to the left, on account of the thick underwood which prevailed on both sides of the path.' pp. 41, 2.
Our Author bad nearly paid dear, in this instance, for raisiog the Devil.--At Accra, the hyena is the favourite object of worsbip; in the kingilom of Dahomey, the snake; and vultures all over the coast. The practice of sacrificing human victims on the death of a person of distinction, is equally prevalent, and is attended, in some parts, by circumstances of aggravated bar. barity.
' At Ashantec handreds, sometimes thousands, are sacrificed on the death of a person of distinction, ur' on the commencement of the yam season; at Dahomey, in like manner, at the beginning of
the barvest, sixty-five human beings have been known to be buleher- ed! And these horrid customs are repeated annually, and, sometimes oftener. Similar barbarous customs also prevail at other parts of the coast. In Appollonia, (if we may believe Bosman,) the tenth child is always buried alive; in the Benin country, if twins born, not only the mother but the children also are destroyed; and, if the father should happen to be a priest, he must destroy his own chil- dren.
In the same country, “ A vestal female' is frequently impaled as a : sacrifice to improve the navigation of the river and extend the trade. - »The ceremony is performed with the most barbarous brutality, by
pressing the body on a sharp stake, the esisemities being fastened to two
adjoining posts ; in this state the victim is left to expire. The bustardo, which are very numerous here, sometimes attack the body before ble is extinct."? pp. 86, 7.
The 'extension of our geograpbical knowledge, and the opening of fresh markets for our commerce, are objects whicb-render it highly important to pursue the exploration of Africa, more especially if it can be accomplished by inland navigation. But all ibat has as yet been ascertaines respecting the population, has tended to repel rather than to excite curiosity, displacing the romantic speculations of fancy, by facts of the most mouruful and (humiliatingi kind. There are, however, higher objects, and more efficient inotivos, to prompt to further exertions, than thase which-actuate either the man of science or the commereiald. venturer. When we turn from the petty disputes, and idle negotiations, the wismanagement and the rapacity, the finall advantages of any kind, and the total inefficiency in some respects, of these Colonial settlements, to what our Missionaries have already effected for Western Africa in a few years, and with ineans so inadequate, we cannot but be struck with the contrast. • Missionaries alone,' says Mr. Hutton, will never succeed in
civilizing Africa.' It is well that people are beginning to admit, that Missionaries may be of some use. If Missionaries alone will not doit, it is pretty clear by this time, that only Missionaries will do it; and to them we may look with the greatest confidence for the solution of the grand geographical problems which yet remain to be solved with regard to the unknown Interior of the African Continent. The reproach which long attached to the colonists of Sierra Leone, of having done nothing to enlarge our intercourse with the Interior, has been removed by the recent successful mission of Mr. O'Beirne, Assistant Staff Surgeon, to Almamy, the Mabomedan king of Foutalı Jallon, at-Teembo, with which place a regular intercourse may now be considered as established: while an application to the Sierra Leone Government froin a Heathen prince still further distant,-Dhaa, king of Bambarra, promises to lead to still more important consequences. "The king of Bambarra, who is said to be the most powerful monarch of the Interior, resides at Sego, a town of 30,000 inhabitants, on the Niger; and it is by this route, through Teembo and the amicable territory of Almamy, that a line of intercourse with the Interior will in all probability be opened and maintained with the greatest facility and advantage. *
The fatal results of a long series of adventures, abundantly shew, that neither by force nor by fraud can the work, be suc
• Vide Missionary Register, Jan. 1822, for some highly interesting particulars relating to this subject.
cessfully prosecuted. The Missionary has pursued not only the more honourable, but the safer policy; and well would it have been for the interests of Christianity, bad the deluded Moor and still more benighted Pagan' first become acquainted with the Christian naine througb such a' medium, instead of learning to associate it with the foulest injustice and oppression. It is a melancholy reflection that returns upon us whenever Africa .is named, that that most acéursed traffic, the Slave Trace, not only remains unextinguished, but is even far from being on the decline. It is stated by Sir George Collier to his Report to the Lørds of the Admiralty, that in the last twelve months,' pot less than sixty thousand Africans bave been forced from their
country, principally under the colours of France,' who isen. grossing nearly the whole of the Slave Trade.'
On this atrocious fact we forbear to comment. It is sufficiently well known, how Franee came by this dreadful power of frustrating the hopes of the friends of humanity, when they were looking for the total annibilation of the proscribed traffic. Those who opposed the Abolition in the Senate, were not likely to be very zealous in giving effect to it in the Congress. There is a dark account and a heavy responsibility resting somewhere,
Art. VII. A Key to the Latin Language: embracing the double Object of
speedily qualifying Students to make Latin into English, and English into Latin; and peculiarly useful to young Gentlemen who have neglected or forgotten their juvenile Ittstractions. By John Atkinson,
(of the City Road, London.] 8vo. pp. 107. Price 45. 1821. THE chief portion of this book, and that which is the most
valuable in it, does not materially differ from wbat constitutes the essential parts of otber Latin Graminars. As for the passages which the Author would claim as peculiarly bis own, we are sorry to be unable to concur in the self-gratulations which he has liberally scattered through his preface. He does not appear to have studied very successfully the art of me thod, and we cannot compliment biin on his skill in elucidation. The distribution of clauses, and the punctuation, are frequently careless; by which inattention the Autbor's meaning is, in those instances, exhibited to a disadvantage. The deviations from the common order of Latin Grammars, and which are adopted professedly for the sake of greater simplicity and ease, seem to us rather to produce the effect of obscurity. Such, for example, is the introducing of the First Concord, and other rules of Syntax depending upon it, immediately after the Declensions of Sub. stantives and Adjectives. Some topics are treated largely and usefully; while others, not less important and equally standing in need of illustration, are dismissed with a very disproportionate