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A jolly dame who, not 'Sixty Years since,' kept the on Crummie's ribs with a stick, was her first effort. The principal caravansary at Greenlaw, in Berwickshire, had roaring of the cow brought B., her master, who remonthe honour to receive under her roof a very worthy clergy- strated with his angry neighbour, and received in reply a man, with three sons of the same profession, each having demand for the value of the ale which Crummie had drunk a cure of souls; be it said in passing, none of the reverend up. B. refused payment, and was conveyed before C., party were reckoned powerful in the pulpit. After dinner the bailie or sitting magistrate. He heard the case was over, the worthy senior, in the pride of his heart. patiently; and then demanded of the plaintiff A., whether asked Mrs. Buchan whether she ever had had such a the cow had sat down to her potation, or taken it standing. party in her house before. Here sit I,' he said, 'a placed The plaintiff answered, she had not seen the deed minister of the Kirk of Scotland, and here sit my three committed, but she supposed the cow drank the ale sons, each a placed minister of the same kirk.-Confess, standing on her feet; adding, that had she been near, she Luckie Buchan, you never had such a party in your house would have made her use them to some purpose. The before.' The question was not premised by any invitation bailie, on this admission, solemnly adjudged the cow's to sit down and take a glass of wine or the like, so Mrs. B. drink to be deoch an doruis-a stirrup-cup, for which no answered dryly, Indeed, sir, I cannot just say that ever | charge could be made without violating the ancient I had such a party in my house before, except once in the hospitality of Scotland. forty-five, when I had a Highland piper here, with his three sons, all Highland pipers; and deil a spring they could play amang them.'


Although canting heraldry is generally reprobated, it Note F, p. 27.-KEPT Fools.

seems nevertheless to have been adopted in the arms and I am ignorant how long the ancient and established

mottoes of many honourable families. Thus the motto of custom of keeping fools has been disused in England.

the Vernons, Ver non semper viret, is a perfect pun, and

so is that of the Onslows, Festina lente. The Periissem Swift writes an epitaph on the Earl of Suffolk's fool,

ni periissem of the Anstruthers is liable to a similar Whose name was Dickie Pearce.'

objection. One of that ancient race, finding that an In Scotland the custom subsisted till late in the last

antagonist, with whom he had fixed a friendly meeting, century. At Glammis Castle is preserved the dress of one

was determined to take the opportunity of assassinating of the jesters, very handsome, and ornamented with many

him, prevented the hazard by dashing out his brains with bells. It is not above thirty years since such a character

a battle-axe. Two sturdy arms brandishing such a weapon stood by the sideboard of a nobleman of the first rank

form the usual crest of the family, with the above mottoin Scotland, and occasionally mixed in the conversation,

Periissem ni per-iissem-I had died, unless I had gone till he carried the joke rather too far, in making proposals

through with it. to one of the young ladies of the family, and publishing the banns betwixt her and himself in the public church.

Note K, p. 43.-BLACK-Mail.

Mac-Donald of Barrisdale, one of the very last Highland Note G, p. 29.-PERSECUTION OF EPISCOPAL

gentlemen who carried on the plundering system to any CLERGYMEN.

great extent, was a scholar and a well-bred gentleman. After the Revolution of 1688, and on some occasions He engraved on his broadswords the well-known lineswhen the spirit of the Presbyterians had been unusually animated against their opponents, the Episcopal clergy

Hæc tibi erunt artes-pacisque imponere morem, men, who were chiefly non-jurors, were exposed to be

Parcere subjectis, et debellare superbos. mobbed, as we should now say, or rabbled, as the phrase

Indeed, the levying of black-mail was, before 1745, then went, to expiate their political heresies. But not

practised by several chiefs of very high rank, who, in doing withstanding that the Presbyterians had the persecution

so, contended that they were lending the laws the assistin Charles II, and his brother's time to exasperate them,

ance of their arms and swords, and affording a protection there was little mischief done beyond the kind of petty

which could not be obtained from the magistracy in the violence mentioned in the text.

disturbed state of the country. The author has seen a

memoir of Macpherson of Cluny, chief of that ancient Note H, p. 30.-STIRRUP-Cup.

clan, from which it appears that he levied protectionI may here mention, that the fashion of compotation

money to a very large amount, which was willingly paid

even by some of his most powerful neighbours. A gentle. described in the text, was still occasionally practised in

man of this clan hearing a clergyman hold forth to his Scotland in the author's youth. A company, after having taken leave of their host, often went to finish the evening

congregation on the crime of theft, interrupted the preacher

to assure him, he might leave the enforcement of such at the clachan or village, in womb of tavern. Their

doctrines to Cluny Macpherson, whose broadsword would entertainer always accompanied them to take the stirrup

put a stop to theft sooner than all the sermons of all the cup, which often occasioned a long and late revel. The Poculum Potatorium of the valiant Baron, his

ministers of the synod. blessed Bear, has a prototype at the fine old Castle of Glammis, so rich in memorials of ancient times; it is a

Note L, P. 46.-Rob Roy.' massive beaker of silver, double gilt, moulded into the shape of a lion, and holding about an English pint of An adventure, very similar to what is here stated, actuwine. The form alludes to the family name of Strath ally befel the late Mr. Abercromby of Tullibody, grandmore, which is Lyon, and, when exhibited, the cup must father of the present Lord Abercromby, and father of the necessarily be emptied to the earl's health. The author celebrated Sir Ralph. When this gentleman, who lived to ought perhaps to be ashamed of recording that he has had a very advanced period of life, first settled in Stirlingshire, the honour of swallowing the contents of the Lion; and his cattle were repeatedly driven off by the celebrated Rob the recollection of the feat served to suggest the story of the Roy, or some of his gang; and at length he was obliged, Bear of Bradwardine. In the family of Scott of Thirle after obtaining a proper safe-conduct, to make the Cateran stane (not Thirlestane in the Forest, but the place of the such a visit as that of Waverley to Bane Lane in the text. same name in Roxburghshire) was long preserved a cup Rob received him with much courtesy, and made many of the same kind, in the form of a jackboot. Each guest apologies for the accident, which must have happened, he was obliged to empty this at his departure. If the guest's said, through some mistake. Mr. Abercromby was regaled name was Scott, the necessity was doubly imperative. with collops from two of his own cattle, which were hung

When the landlord of an inn presented his guests with up by the heels in the cavern, and was dismissed in perfect deoch an doruis, that is, the drink at the door, or the safety, after having agreed to pay in future a small sum of stirrup-cup, the draught was not charged in the reckoning. blackmail, in consideration of which Rob Roy not only On this point a learned bailie of the town of Forfar undertook to forbear his herds in future, but to replace any pronounced a very sound judgment.

that should be stolen from him by other freebooters. Mr. A., an ale-wife in Forfar, had brewed her peck of malt,' Abercromby said, Rob Roy affected to consider him as a and set the liquor out of doors to cool; the cow of B., a friend to the Jacobite interest, and a sincere enemy to the neighbour of A., chanced to come by, and seeing the good Union. Neither of these circumstances were true; but beverage, was allured to taste it, and finally to drink it up. the laird thought it quite unnecessary to undeceive his When A. came to take in her liquor, she found the tub Highland host at the risk of bringing on a political dispute empty, and from the cow's staggering and staring, so as in such a situation. This anecdote I received many years to betray her intemperance, she easily divined the mode in | since (about 1792) from the which her browst' had disappeared. To take vengeance man who was concerned in it.

Note M, p. 49.-Kind Gallows of Crieff.

NOTE R, p. 54.-Scotch ABHORRENCE OF PORK. This celebrated gibbet was, in the memory of the last Pork or swine's flesh, in any shape, was, till of late generation, still standing at the western end of the town of years, much abominated by the Scotch, nor is it yet a Crieff, in Perthshire. Why it was called the kind gallows, favourite food amongst them. King Jamie carried this we are unable to inform the reader with certainty; but it prejudice to England, and is known to have abhorred pork is alleged that the Highlanders used to touch their bonnets almost as much as he did tobacco. Ben Jonson has as they passed a place which had been fatal to many of recorded this peculiarity, where the gipsy in a masque, their countrymen, with the ejaculation-'God bless her examining the king's hand, saysnain sel', and the Teil tamn you !' It may therefore have been called kind, as being a sort of native or kindred place

You should, by this line, of doom to those who suffered there, as in fulfilment of a

Love a horse, and a hound, but no part of a swine.'

The Gipsies Metamorphosed. natural destiny.

James's own proposed banquet for the devil was a loin of Note N, p. 50.-CATERANS.

pork and a poll of ling, with a pipe of tobacco for

digestion. The story of the bridegroom carried off by Caterans on his bridal-day, is taken from one which was told to the

Note S, p. 55.--A Scottish Dinner Table. author by the late Laird of MacNab, many years since. Το carry off persons from the Lowlands, and to put them In the number of persons of all ranks who assembled to ransom, was a common practice with the wild High- at the same table, though by no means to discuss the same landers, as it is said to be at the present day with the fare, the Highland chiefs only retained a custom which banditti in the south of Italy. Upon the occasion alluded had been formerly universally observed throughout Scotto, a party of Caterans carried off the bridegroom, and land. I myself,' says the traveller Fynes Morrison, in secreted him in some cave near the mountain of Sche- the end of Queen Elizabeth's reign, the scene being the hallion. The young man caught the small-pox before his Lowlands of Scotland, ' was at a knight's house, who had ransom could be agreed on; and whether it was the fine many servants to attend him, that brought in his meat cool air of the place, or the want of medical attendance, with their heads covered with blue caps, the table being Mac-Nab did not pretend to be positive; but so it was, more than half furnished with great platters of porridge, that the prisoner recovered, his ransom was paid, and he each having a little piece of sodden meat. And when the was restored to his friends and bride, but always con- table was served, the servants did sit down with us; but sidered the Highland robbers as having saved his life by the upper mess, instead of porridge, had a pullet, with their treatment of his malady.

some prunes in the broth.'-Travels, p. 155.

Till within this last century, the farmers, even of a Note O, p. 52.-SALE OF Forfeited ESTATES.

respectable condition, dined with their work-people. The

difference betwixt those of high degree was ascertained by This happened on many occasions. Indeed, it was not the place of the party above or below the salt, or sometimes till after the total destruction of the clan influence, after

by a line drawn with chalk on the dining-table. Lord 1745, that purchasers could be found who offered a fair Lovat, who knew well how to feed the vanity and restrain price for the estates forfeited in 1715, which were then the appetites of his clansmen, allowed each sturdy Fraser brought to sale by the creditors of the York-Buildings who had the slightest pretension to be a Duinhe-wassel, Company, who had purchased the whole, or greater part,

the full honour of the sitting, but, at the same time, took from Government at a very small price. Even so late as care that his young kinsmen did not acquire at his table the period first mentioned, the prejudices of the public in any taste for outlandish luxuries.

His Lordship was favour of the heirs of the forfeited families threw various always ready with some honourable apology why foreign impediments in the way of intending purchasers of such wines and French brandy--delicacies which he conceived property.

might sap the hardy habits of his cousins-should not

circulate past an assigned point on the table. NOTE P, p. 53.-HIGHLAND POLicy.

NOTE T, p. 58.—'CONAN THE JESTER. This sort of political game ascribed to Mac-Ivor was in reality played by several Highland chiefs, the celebrated In the Irish ballads relating to Fion, (the Fingal of Lord Lovat in particular, who used that kind of finesse to Mac-Pherson,) there occurs, as in the primitive poetry the uttermost. The Laird of Mac- was also captain of of most nations, a cycle of heroes, each of whom has some an independent company, but valued the sweets of present distinguishing attribute: upon these qualities and the pay too well to incur the risk of losing them in the Jacobite adventures of those possessing them, many proverbs are

His martial consort raised his clan, and headed it formed which are still current in the Highlands. Among

But the chief himself would have nothing to do other characters, Conan is distinguished as in some with king-making, declaring himself for that monarch, and respects a kind of Thersites, but brave and daring even to no other, who gave the Laird of Mac'half-a-guinea rashness. He had made a vow that he would never take the day, and half-a-guinea the morn.'

a blow without returning it; and having, like other heroes of antiquity, descended to the infernal regions, he received

a cuff from the Arch-fiend, who presided there, which he Note Q, p. 54.-HIGHLAND Discipline.

instantly returned, using the expression in the text. In explanation of the military exercise observed at the Sometimes the proverb is worded thus :-'Claw for claw, Castle of Glennaquoich, the author begs to remark, that

and the devil take the shortest nails, as Conan said to the

devil.' the Highlanders were not only well practised in the use of the broadsword, firelock, and most of the manly sports and trials of strength, common throughout Scotland, but also

NOTE U, p. 59.—'WATERFALL. used a peculiar sort of drill, suited to their own dress and mode of warfare. There were, for instance, different The description of the waterfall mentioned in this modes of disposing the plaid, -one when on a peaceful chapter is taken from that of Ledeard, at the farm so journey, another when danger was apprehended; one way

called on the northern side of Lochard, and near the head of enveloping themselves in it when expecting undisturbed

of the lake, four or five miles from Aberfoyle. It is upon repose, and another which enabled them to start up with

a small scale, but otherwise one of the most exquisite sword and pistol in hand on the slightest alarm.

cascades it is possible to behold. The appearance of Previous to 1720, or thereabout, the belted plaid was

Flora with the harp, as described, has been justly cenuniversally worn, in which the portion which surrounded sured as too theatrical and affected for the lady-like the middle of the wearer, and that which was flung around

simplicity of her character. But something may be his shoulders, were all of the same piece of tartan. In allowed to her French education, in which point and a desperate onset, all was thrown away, and the clan

striking effect always make a considerable object. charged bare beneath the doublet, save for an artificial arrangement of the shirt, which, like that of the Irish, was

Note X, p. 96.---Mac-Farlane's LANTERN. always ample, and for the sporran-mollach, or goat's-skin purse.

The clan of Mac-Farlane, occupying the fastnesses of The manner of handling the pistol and dirk was also the western side of Loch Lomond, were great depredators part of the Highland manual exercise, which the author on the Low Country; and as their excursions were made has seen gone through by men who had learned it in their usually by night, the moon was proverbially called their youth.

lantern. Their celebrated pibroch of Hoggil nam Bo,


in 1745

which is the name of their gathering tune, intimates similar practices,-the sense being

We are bound to drive the bullocks,
All by hollows, hirsts, and hillocks,
Through the sleet and through the rain;
When the moon is beaming low
On frozen lake and hills of snow,
Bold and heartily we go;

Aud all for little gain.


This circumstance, which is historical, as well as the description that precedes it, will remind the reader of the war of La Vendée, in which the royalists, consisting chiefly of insurgent peasantry, attached a prodigious and even superstitious interest to the possession of a piece of brass ordnance, which they called Maria Jeanne.

The Highlanders of an early period were afraid of cannon, with the noise and effect of which they were totally unacquainted. It was by means of three or four small pieces of artillery that the Earls of Huntly and Errol, in James VI.'s time, gained a great victory at Glenlivat, over a numerous Highlazd army commanded by the Earl of Argyle. At the battle of the Bridge of Dee, General Middleton obtained by his artillery a similar success, the Highlanders not being able to stand the discharge of Musket's Mother, which was the name they bestowed on. great guns. In an old ballad on the battle of the Bridge of Dee, these verses occur :

The Highlandmen are pretty men

For handling sword and shield,
But yet they are but simple men

To stand a stricken field.

The Highlandmen are pretty men

For target and claymore, But yet they are but naked men

To face the cannon's roar.

Note Y, p. 96.-CASTLE OF DOUNE. This noble ruin is dear to my recollection, from associations which have been long and painfully broken. It holds a commanding station on the banks of the river Teith, and has been one of the largest castles in Scotland. Murdock, Duke of Albany, the founder of this stately pile, was beheaded on the Castle-hill of Stirling, from which he might see the towers of Doune, the monument of his fallen greatness.

In 1745-6, as stated in the text, a garrison on the part of the Chevalier was put into the castle, then less ruinous than at present. It was commanded by Mr. Stewart of Balloch, as governor for Prince Charles; he was a man of property near Callander. This castle became at that time the actual scene of a romantic escape made by John Home, the author of Douglas, and some other prisoners, who, having been taken at the battle of Falkirk, were confined there by the insurgents. The poet, who had in his own mind a large stock of that romantic and enthusiastic spirit of adventure, which he has described as animating the youthful hero of his drama, devised and undertook the perilous enterprise of escaping from his prison. He in. spired his companions with his sentiments, and when every attempt at open force was deemed hopeless, they resolved to twist their bed-clothes into ropes, and thus to descend. Four persons, with Home himself, reached the ground in safety. But the rope broke with the fifth, who was a tall lusty man. The sixth was Thomas Barrow, a brave young Englishman, a particular friend of Home's. Determined to take the risk, even in such unfavourable circumstances, Barrow committed himself to the broken rope,

slid down on it as far as it could assist him, and then let himself drop. His friends beneath succeeded in breaking his fall. Nevertheless, he dislocated his ankle, and had several of his ribs broken. His companions, however, were able to bear him off in safety.

The Highlanders next morning sought for their prisoners with great activity. An old gentleman told the author he remembered seeing the commander Stewart,

Bloody with spurring, fiery red with haste, riding furiously through the country in quest of the fugitives.

For the cannons roar on a summer night,

Like thunder in the air ;
Was never man in Highland garb

Would face the cannon fair.

But the Highlanders of 1745 had got far beyond the sim. plicity of their forefathers, and showed throughout the whole war how little they dreaded artillery, although the common people still attached some consequence to the possession of the field-piece which led to this disquisition.

Note 2, p. 101.—JACOBITE SENTIMENTS. The Jacobite sentiments were general among the western counties, and in Wales. But although the great families of the Wynnes, the Wyndhams, and others, had come under an actual obligation to join Prince Charles if he should land, they had done so under the express stipu. lation, that he should be assisted by an auxiliary army of French, without which they foresaw the enterprise would be desperate. Wishing well to his cause, therefore, and watching an opportunity to join him, they did not, nevertheless, think themselves bound in honour to do so, as he was only supported by a body of wild mountaineers, speaking an uncouth dialect, and wearing a singular dress. The race up to Derby struck them with more dread than admiration. But it was difficult to say what the effect might have been, had either the battle of Preston or Falkirk being fought and won during the advance into England.

NOTE CC, p. 115.-ANDERSON OF WHITBURGH. The faithful friend who pointed out the pass by which the Highlanders moved from Tranent to Seaton, was Robert Anderson junior, of Whitburgh, a gentleman of property in East Lothian. He had been interrogated by the Lord George Murray concerning the possibility of crossing the uncouth and marshy piece of ground which divided the armies, and which he described as impracticable. When dismissed, he recollected that there was a circuitous path leading eastward through the marsh into the plain, by which the Highlanders might turn the flank of Sir John Cope's position, without being exposed to the enemy's fire. Having mentioned his opinion to Mr. Hepburn of Keith, who instantly saw its importance, he was encouraged by that gentleman to awake Lord George Murray, and com. municate the idea to him Lord George received the information with grateful thanks, and instantly awakened Prince Charles, who was sleeping in the field with a bunch of peas under his head. The Adventurer received with alacrity the news that there was a possibility of bringing an excellently provided army to a decisive battle with his own irregular forces. His joy on the occasion was not very consistent with the charge of cowardice brought against him by Chevalier Johnstone, a discontented follower, whose Memoirs possess at least as much of a romantic as a historical character. Even by the account of the Chevalier himself, the Prince was at the head of the second line of the Highland army during the battle, of which he says, 'It was gained with such rapidity, that in the second line, where I was still by the side of the Prince, we saw no other enemy than those who were lying on the ground killed and wounded, though we were not more than fifty paces behind our first line, running always as fast as we could to overtake them.' This

passage in the Chevalier's Memoirs places the Prince within fifty paces of the heat of the battle, a position which would never have been the choice of one unwilling to take a share of its dangers. Indeed, unless the chiefs had complied with the young Adventurer's proposal to lead the van in person, it does not appear that he could have been deeper in the action.

NOTE AA, p. 102.-Irish OFFICERS. Divisions early showed themselves in the Chevalier's little army, not only amongst the independent chieftains, who were far too proud to brook subjection to each other, but betwixt the Scotch and Charles's governor O'Sullivan, an Irishman by birth, who, with some of his countrymen bred in the Irish Brigade in the service of the King of France, had an influence with the Adventurer, much resented by the Highlanders, who were sensible that their own clans made the chief or rather the only strength of his enterprise. There was a feud, also, between Lord George Murray and James Murray of Broughton, the Prince's secretary, whose disunion greatly embarrassed the affairs of the Adventurer. In general, a thousand different pretensions divided their little army, and finally contributed in no small degree to its overthrow.


The death of this good Christian and gallant man is thus given by his affectionate biographer Dr. Doddridge, from the evidence of eye-witnesses :

"He continued all night under arms, wrapped up in his cloak, and generally sheltered under a rick of barley, which happened to be in the field. About three in the morning he

called his domestic servants to him, of which there were | Perthshire gentleman of high honour and respectability, four in waiting. He dismissed three of them with most one of the handful of cavalry who followed the fortunes of affectionate Christian advice, and such solemn charges re Charles Edward, pursued the fugitive dragoons almost lating to the performance of their duty, and the care of alone till near Saint Clement's Wells, where the efforts of their souls, as seemed plainly to intimate that he appre some of the officers had prevailed on a few of them to make hended it was at least very probable he was taking his last a momentary stand. Perceiving at this moment that they farewell of them. There is great reason to believe that he were pursued by only one man and a couple of servants, spent the little remainder of the time, which could not be they turned upon him and cut him down with their swords. much above an hour, in those devout exercises of soul I remember, when a child, sitting on his grave, where the which had been so long habitual to him, and to which so grass long grew rank and green, distinguishing it from the many circumstances did then concur to call him. The rest of the field. A female of the family then residing at army was alarmed by break of day, by the noise of the Saint Clement's Wells used to tell me the tragedy of which rebels' approach, and the attack was made before sunrise, she had been an eye-witness, and showed me in evidence yet when it was light enough to discern what passed. As one of the silver clasps of the unfortunate gentleman's soon as the enemy came within gun-shot they made a waistcoat. furious fire; and it is said that the dragoons which constituted the left wing immediately fled. The colonel at the beginning of the onset, which in the whole lasted but

Note FF, p. 121.-ANDREA DI FERRARA. a few minutes, received a wound by a bullet in his left The name of Andrea di Ferrara is inscribed on all the breast, which made him give a sudden spring in his saddle; Scottish broadswords which are accounted of peculiar exupon which his servant, who led the horse, would have cellence. Who this artist was, what were his fortunes, and persuaded him to retreat, but he said it was only a wound when he flourished, have hitherto defied the research of in the flesh, and fought on, though he presently after re. antiquaries; only it is in general believed that Andrea di ceived a shot in his right thigh. In the meantime, it was Ferrara was a Spanish or Italian artificer, brought over by discerned that some of the enemy fell by him, and parti James IV. or V. to instruct the Scots in the manufacture cularly one man, who had made him a treacherous visit of sword blades. Most barbarous nations excel in the but a few days before, with great profession of zeal for the fabrication of arms; and the Scots had attained great propresent establishment.

ficiency in forging swords, so early as the field of Pinkie; 'Events of this kind pass in less time than the descrip at which period the historian Patten describes them as 'all tion of them can be written, or than it can be read. The notably broad and thin, universally made to slice, and of colonel was for a few moments supported by his men, and such exceeding good temper, that as I never saw any so particularly by that worthy person Lieutenant-Colonel good, so I think it hard to devise better.'-Account of Whitney, who was shot through the arm here, and a few Somerset's Expedition. months after fell nobly at the battle of Falkirk, and by It may be observed, that the best and most genuine Lieutenant West, a man of distinguished bravery, as also Andrea Ferraras have a crown marked on the blades. by about fifteen dragoons, who stood by him to the last. But, after a faint fire, the regiment in general was seized with a panic; and though their colonel and some other

Note GG, p. 123.-Miss Nairne. gallant officers did what they could to rally them once or The incident here said to have happened to Flora Mactwice, they at last took a precipitate fight. And just in Ivor, actually befell Miss Nairne, a lady with whom the the moment when Colonel Gardiner seemed to be making author had the pleasure of being acquainted. As the Higha pause to deliberate what duty required him to do in such land army rushed into Edinburgh, Miss Nairne, like other circumstances, an accident happened, which must, I think, ladies who approved of their cause, stood waving her handin the judgment of every worthy and generous man, be kerchief from a balcony, when a ball from a Highlander's allowed a sufficient apology for exposing his life to so great musket, which was discharged by accident, grazed her hazard, when his regiment had left him. He saw a party forehead. Thank God,' said she, the instant she recovered, of the foot, who were then bravely fighting near him, and 'that the accident happened to me, whose principles are whom he was ordered to support, had no officer to head known. Had it befallen a Whig they would have said it them; upon which he said eagerly, in the hearing of the was done on purpose. person from whom I had this account, “These brave fellows will be cut to pieces for want of a commander," or words to that effect; which while he was speaking, he rode up to

Note HH, p. 138.-PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. them and cried out, “Fire on, my lads, and fear nothing." The Author of Waverley has been charged with painting But just as the words were out of his mouth, a Highlander the young Adventurer in colours more amiable than his advanced towards him with a scythe fastened to a long character deserved. But having known many individuals pole, with which he gave him so dreadful a wound on his who were near his person, he has been described according right arm, that his sword dropped out of his hand; and at to the light in which those eye-witnesses saw his temper the same time several others coming about him while he and qualifications. Something must be allowed, no doubt, was thus dreadfully entangled with that cruel weapon, he to the natural exaggerations of those who remembered him was dragged off from his horse. The moment he fell, as the bold and adventurous Prince, in whose cause they another Highlander, who, if the king's evidence at Carlisle had braved death and ruin; but is their evidence to give may be credited (as I know not why they should not, place entirely to that of a single malcontent? though the unhappy creature died denying it), was one I have already noticed the imputations thrown by the Mac-Naught, who was executed about a year after, gave Chevalier Johnstone on the Prince's courage. But some him a stroke either with a broadsword or a Lochaber-axe part at least of that gentleman's tale is purely romantic. (for my informant could not exactly distinguish) on the It would not, for instance, be supposed, that at the time hinder part of his head, which was the mortal blow. All I he is favouring us with the h ghly-wrought account of his that his faithful attendant saw further at this time was, amour with the adorable Peggie, the Chevalier Johnstone that as his hat was falling off, he took it in his left hand was a married man, whose grandchild is now alive, or that and waved it as a signal to him to retreat, and added what the whole circumstantial story concerning the outrageous were the last words he ever heard him speak, “Take care vengeance taken by Gordon of Abbachie on a Presbyterian of yourself;" upon which the servant retired.' Some re clergyman, is entirely apocryphal. At the same time it markable Passages in the Life of Colonel James Gardiner, may be admitted, that the Prince, like others of his family, by P. Doddridge, D.D. London, 1747, p. 187.

did not esteem the services done him by his adherents so I may remark on this extract, that it confirms the account highly as he ought. Educated in high ideas of his heredi. given in the text of the resistance offered by some of the tary right, he has been supposed to have held every English infantry. Surprised by a force of a peculiar and exertion and sacrifice made in his cause as too much the unusual description, their opposition could not be long or duty of the person making it, to merit extravagant grati. formidable, especially as they were deserted by the cavalry, tude on his part. Dr. King's evidence (which his leaving and those who undertook to manage the artillery. But the Tacobite interest renders somewhat doubtful) goes to although the affair was soon decided, I have always under strengthen this opinion. stood that many of the infantry showed an inclination to The ingenious editor of Johnstone's Memoirs has quoted do their duty.

a story said to be told by Helvetius, stating that Prince Charles Edward, far from voluntarily embarking on his

daring expedition, was literally bound hand and foot, and Note EE, P. 117.—THE LAIRD OF BALMAWHAPPLE.

to which he seems disposed to yield credit. Now, it being It is scarcely necessary to say that the character of this a fact as well known as any in his history, and, so far as brutal young laird is entirely imaginary. A gentleman, I know, entirely undisputed, that the Prince's personal however, who resembled Balmawhapple in the article of entreaties and urgency positively forced Boisdale and courage only, fell at Preston in the manner described. A Lochiel into insurrection, when they were earnestly desirous

that he would put off his attempt until he could obtain a cartel for the exchange of prisoners taken, and to be taken, sufficient force from France, it will be very difficult to during this war, and to intimate that a refusal would be reconcile his alleged reluctance to undertake the expedic looked upon as a resolution on their part to give no quarter. tion, with his desperately insisting on carrying the rising It was visible a cartel would be of great advantage to the into effect, against the advice and entreaty of his most Prince's affairs; his friends would be more ready to declare powerful and most sage partisans. Surely a man who had for him if they had nothing to fear but the chance of war been carried bound on board the vessel which brought him in the field; and if the court of London refused to settle a to so desperate an enterprise, would have taken the oppor- cartel, the Prince was authorised to treat his prisoners in tunity afforded by the reluctance of his partisans, to return the same manner the Elector of Hanover was determined to France in safety.

to treat such of the Prince's friends as might fall into his It is averred in Johnstone's Memoirs, that Charles hands : it was urged that a few examples would compel Edward left the field of Culloden without doing the utmost the court of London to comply. It was to be presumed to dispute the victory; and, to give the evidence on both that the officers of the English army would make a point sides, there is in existence the more trustworthy testimony of it. They had never engaged in the service, but upon of Lord Elcho, who states, that he himself earnestly such terms as are in use among all civilised nations, and it exhorted the Prince to charge at the head of the left wing, could be no stain upon their honour to lay down their which was entire, and retrieve the day or die with honour. commissions if these terms were not observed, and that And on his counsel being declined, Lord Elcho took leave owing to the obstinacy of their own prince. Though this of him with a bitter execration, swearing he would never scheme was plausible, and represented as very important, look on his face again, and kept his word.

the Prince could never be brought into it; it was below him, On the other hand, it seems to have been the opinion of he said, to make empty threats, and he would never put almost all the other officers, that the day was irretrievably such as those into execution; he would never in cold blood lost, one wing of the Highlanders being entirely routed, take away lives which he had saved in heat of action, at the rest of the army out-numbered, out-flanked, and in a the peril of his own. These were not the only proofs of condition totally hopeless. In this situation of things, the good-nature the Prince gave about this time. Every day Irish officers who surrounded Charles's person interfered produced something new of this kind. These things to force him off the field. A cornet who was close to the softened the rigour of a military government, which was Prince, left a strong attestation, that he had seen Sir only imputed to the necessity of his affairs, and which he Thomas Sheridan seize the bridle of his horse, and turn endeavoured to make as gentle and easy as possible.' him round. There is some discrepancy of evidence; but It has been said, that the Prince sometimes exacted the opinion of Lord Elcho, a man of fiery temper, and more state and ceremonial than seemed to suit his condesperate at the ruin which he beheld impending, cannot dition; but, on the other hand, some strictness of etiquette fairly be taken in prejudice of a character for courage was altogether indispensable where he must otherwise have which is intimated by the nature of the enterprise itself, been exposed to general intrusion. He could also endure, by the Prince's eagerness to fight on all occasions, by his with a good grace, the retorts which his affectation of determination to advance from Derby to London, and by ceremony sometimes exposed him to. It is said, for the presence of mind which he manifested during the example, that Grant of Glenmoriston having made a hasty romantic perils of his escape.

The author is far from march to join Charles, at the head of his clan, rushed into claiming for this unfortunate person the praise due to the Prince's presence at Holyrood with unceremonious splendid talents; but he continues to be of opinion, that haste, without having attended to the duties of the toilet. at the period of his enterprise, he had a mind capable of The Prince received him kindly, but not without a hint facing danger and aspiring to fame.

that a previous interview with the barber might not have That Charles Edward had the advantages of a graceful been wholly unnecessary;

It is not beardless boys, presence, courtesy, and an address and manner becoming answered the displeased chief, who are to do your Royal his station, the author never heard disputed by any who Highness's turn. The Chevalier took the rebuke in good approached his person, nor does he conceive that these part. qualities are over-charged in the present attempt to sketch On the whole, if Prince Charles had concluded his life his portrait. The following extracts corroborative of the soon after his miraculous escape, his character in history general opinion respecting the Prince's amiable disposition, must have stood very high. As it was, his station is are taken from a manuscript account of his romantic amongst those, a certain brilliant portion of whose life expedition, by James Maxwell of Kirkconnel, of which I forms a remarkable contrast to all which precedes, and all possess a copy, by the friendship of J: Menzies, Esq., of which follows it. Pitfoddells. The author, though partial to the Prince, whom he faithfully followed, seems to have been a fair and candid man, and well acquainted with the intrigues among

Note II, p. 141.—The SKIRMISH AT CLIFTON. the Adventurer's council :

The following account of the skirmish at Clifton is ex. Everybody was mightily taken with the Prince's figure tracted from the manuscript Memoirs of Evan Macpherson and personal behaviour. There was but one voice about of Cluny, chief of the clan Macpherson, who had the them. Those whom interest or prejudice made a runaway merit of supporting the principal brunt of that spirited to his cause, could not help acknowledging that they affair. The Memoirs appear to have been composed about wished him well in all other respects, and could hardly 1755, only ten years after the action had taken place. blame him for his present undertaking. Sundry things They were written in France, where that gallant chief had concurred to raise his character to the highest pitch, resided in exile, which accounts for some Gallicisms which besides the greatness of the enterprise, and the conduct occur in the narrative. that had hitherto appeared in the execution of it. There In the Prince's return from Derby back towards Scotwere several instances of good-nature and humanity that land, my Lord George Murray, Lieutenant - General, had made a great impression on people's minds. I shall cheerfully charg'd himself with the command of the rear; confine myself to two or three. Immediately after the a post, which, altho honourable, was attended with great battle, as the Prince was riding along the ground that danger, many difficulties, and no small fatigue; for the Cope's army had occupied a few minutes before, one of the Prince being apprehensive that his retreat to Scotland officers came up to congratulate him, and said, pointing to might be cut off by Marischall Wade, who lay to the the killed, “Sir, there are your enemies at your feet." northward of him with an armie much superior to what The Prince, far from exulting, expressed a great deal of H.R.H. had, while the Duke of Comberland with his compassion for his father's deluded subjects, whom he whole cavalrie followed hard in the rear, was obliged to declared he was heartily sorry to see in that posture. hasten his marches. It was not, therefore, possible for Next day, while the Prince was at Pinkie-house, a citizen the artilirie to march so fast as the Prince's armie, in the of Edinburgh came to make some representation to Secre. depth of winter, extremely bad weather, and the worst tary Murray about the tents that city was ordered to furnish roads in England; so Lord George Murray was obliged against a certain day Murray happened to be out of the often to continue his marches long after it was dark almost way, which the Prince hearing of, called to have the every night, while at the same time he had frequent gentleman brought to him, saying, he would rather allarms and disturbances from the Duke of Comberland's despatch the business, whatever it was, himself, than have advanc'd parties. Towards the evening of the twentie. the gentleman wait ; which he did, by granting everything eight December 1745, the Prince entered the town of that was asked. So much affability in a young prince, Penrith, in the province of Comberland. But as Lord flushed with victory, drew encomiums even from his George Murray could not bring up the artilirie so fast as enemies. But what gave the people the highest idea of he wou'd have wish'd, he was obliged to pass the night six him, was the negative he gave to a thing that very nearly miles short of that town, together with the regiment of concerned his interest, and upon which the success of his MacDonel of Glengarrie, which that day happened to enterprise perhaps depended. It was proposed to send have the arrear guard. The Prince, in order to refresh one of the prisoners to London, to demand of that court a his armie, and to give My Lord George and the artilirie

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