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We heard the teebir; so these Arabs call
8. By heaven, the Moors prevail!-the christians yield!
Is not yon stet à Orelia?-Yes, 'tis mine!-P. 370. Count Julian, the father of the injured Florinda, with the connivance and assistance of Oppas, archbishop of Toledo, invited, in 713, the Saracens into Spain. A considerable army arrived under the command of Tarik, or Tarif, who bequeathed the well-known name of Gibraltar (Gibel al Ta
tiny, opened the tower; and some bold attendants whom he had brought with him entered, although agitated with fear. Having proceeded a good way, they fled back to the entrance, terrified with a frightful vision which they had beheld. The king was greatly moved, and ordered many torches, so contrived that the tempest in the cave could not extinguish them, to be lighted. Then the king the crusades, is the shout of Alla illa Alla, the entered, not without fear, before all the others. Mahommedan confession of faith. It is twice used They discovered, by degrees, a splendid hall, ap-in poetry by my friend Mr. W. Stuart Rose, in parently built in a very sumptuous manner; in the the Romance of Partenopax, and in the Crusade middle stood a bronze statue of very ferocious ap- of St. Lewis. pearance, which held a battle-axe in its hands. With this he struck the floor violently, giving it such heavy blows, that the noise in the cave was occasioned by the motion of the air. The king, greatly affrighted and astonished, began to conjure this terrible vision, promising that he would return without doing any injury in the cave, after he had obtained sight of what was contained in it. The statue ceased to strike the floor, and the king, with his followers, somewhat assured, and reco-rik, or the mountain of Tarik) to the place of his vering their courage, proceeded into the hall; and landing. He was joined by count Julian, ravaged on the left of the statue they found this inscription Andalusia, and took Seville. In 714 they returned on the wall; Unfortunate king, thou hast entered with a still greater force, and Roderick marched here in evil hour.' On the right side of the wall into Andalusia at the head of a great army to give these words were inscribed,By strange nations them battle. The field was chosen near Xeres, thou shalt he dispossessed, and thy subjects foully and Mariana gives the following account of the acdegraded.' On the shoulders of the statue other tion: words were written, which said, 'I call upon the "Both armies being drawn up, the king, acArabs.' And upon his breast was written, 'I do cording to the custom of the Gothic kings when my office. At the entrance of the hall there was they went to battle, appeared in an ivory chariot, placed a round bowl, from which a great noise, clothed in cloth of gold, encouraging his men; Talike the fall of waters, proceeded. They found no rif, on the other side, did the same. The armies, other thing in the hall; and when the king, sor- thus prepared, waited only for the signal to fall rowful and greatly affected, had scarcely turned on, the Goths gave the charge, their drums and about to leave the cavern, the statue again com- trumpets sounding, and the Moors received it with menced its accustomed blows upon the floor. Af- the noise of kettle-drums. Such were the shouts ter they had mutually promised to conceal what and cries on both sides, that the mountains and they had seen, they again closed the tower, and vallies seemed to meet. First they began with blocked up the gate of the cavern with earth, that slings, darts, javelins, and lances, then came to no memory might remain in the world of such a the swords; a long time the battle was dubious, portentous and evil-boding prodigy. The ensuing but the Moors seemed to have the worst, till D midnight they heard great cries and clamour from Oppas, the archbishop, having to that time conthe cave, resounding like the noise of a battle, and cealed his treachery, in the heat of the fight, with the ground shaking with a tremendous roar; the a great body of his followers, went over to the inwhole edifice of the old tower fell to the ground, fidels. He joined count Julian, with whom was a by which they were greatly affrighted, the vision great number of Goths, and both together fell upon which they had beheld appearing to them as a the flank of our army. Our men, terrified with dream. that unparalleled treachery, and tired with fight"The king, having left the tower, ordered wise ing, could no longer sustain that charge, but were men to explain what the inscription signified; and easily put to flight. The king performed the part having consulted upon and studied their meaning, not only of a wise general but of a resolute soldier, they declared that the statue of bronze, with the relieving the weakest, bringing on fresh men in motion which it made with its battle-axe, signified the place of those that were tired, and stopping Time; and that its office, alluded to in the inscrip- those that turned their backs. At length, seeing tion on his breast, was, that he never rests a single no hope left, he alighted out of his chariot for fear moment. The words on the shoulders, 1 call of being taken, and, mounting on a horse, called upon the Arabs,' they expounded that in time Orelia, he withdrew out of the battle. The Goths, Spain would be conquered by the Arabs. The who still stood, missing him, were most part put words upon the left wall signified the destruction to the sword, the rest betook themselves to flight. of king Rodrigo; those on the right, the dreadful The camp was immediately entered, and the bagcalamities which were to fall upon the Spaniards gage taken. What number was killed is not known: and Goths, and that the unfortunate king would I suppose they were so many it was hard to count be dispossessed of all his states. Finally, the let-them; for this single battle robbed Spain of all its ters on the portal indicated, that good would be- glory, and perished the renowned name of tide to the conquerors, and evil to the conquered, the Goths. The king's horse, upper garment, and of which experience proved the truth."-Historia buskins, covered with pearls and precious stones, Verdadeyra del Rey Don Rodrigo. Quinta im- were found on the bank of the river Guadelite, and pression. Madrid, 1654, 4. p. 23. there being no news of him afterwards, it was supposed he was drowned passing the river."-MA RIANA'S History of Spain, book vi, chap. 9.
7. The tecbir war-ery, and the lelies' yell.-P. 370, The teebir (derived from the words Alla acbar,
God is most mighty) was the original war-cry of the Saracens. It is celebrated by Hughes, in the siege of Damascus.
Orelia, the courser of Don Roderick, mentioned is even now enabling them to besiege and retake in the text, and in the above quotation, was cele- the places of strength which had been wrested brated for her speed and form. She is mentioned from them,-is a tale hitherto untold in the revorepeatedly in Spanish romance, and also by Cer-lutionary war. To say that such a people cannot be subdued, would be presumption similar to that of those who protested that Spain could not defend herself for a year, or Portugal for a month; but that a resistance which has been continued for so
9. When for the light bolero ready stand
The Mozo blith, with gay Muchacha met.-P. 371. The bolero is a very light and active dance, much practised by the Spaniards, in which casta-long a space, when the usurper, except during the nets are always used. Mozo and Muchacha are short-lived Austrian campaign, had no other enemies on the continent, should be now less successequivalent to our phrase of lad and lass.
10. While trumpets rang, and heralds cried, “Castile."-ful, when repeated defeats have broken the reputation of the French armies, and when they are likely (it would seem almost in desperation) to seek occupation elsewhere, is a prophecy as improbable as ungracious. And while we are in the humour of severely censuring our allies, gallant and devoted as they have shown themselves in the cause of national liberty, because they may not instantly adopt those measures which we in our wisdom may deem essential to success, it might be well, if we endeavoured first to resolve the previous questions,-1st, Whether we do not at this moment know much less of the Spanish ar
Those who were disposed to believe that mere virtue and energy are able of themselves to work forth the salvation of an oppressed people, sur-ries than of those of Portugal, which were so prised in a moment of confidence, deprived of their promptly condemned as totally inadequate to asofficers, armies, and fortresses, who had every sist in the preservation of their country? 2d, Whemeans of resistance to seek in the very moment when they were to be made use of, and whom the numerous treasons among the higher orders deprived of confidence in their natural leaders, those who entertained this enthusiastic but delusive opinion, may be pardoned for expressing disappointment at the protracted warfare in the peninsula. There are, however, another class of persons, who, having themselves the highest dread or veneration, or something allied to both, for the power of the modern Attila, will nevertheless give the heroical Spaniards little or no credit for the long, stubborn, and unsubdued resistance of three
ther, independently of any right we have to offer more than advice and assistance to our independent allies, we can expect that they should renounce entirely the national pride, which is inseparable from patriotism, and at once condescend not only to be saved by our assistance, but to be saved in our own way? 3d, Whether, if it be an object (as undoubtedly it is a main one,) that the Spanish troops should be trained under British discipline, concert and combination, which is essential to to the flexibility of movement, and power of rapid modern war, such a consummation is likely to be
years to a power before whom their former well-produced by abusing them in newspapers and periodical publications? Lastly, Since the undoubted prepared, well-armed, and numerous adversaries fell in the course of as many months. While these authority of British officers makes us now acgentlemen plead for deference to Buonaparte, and quainted with part of the horrors that attend in
to be too forward to estimate and condemn the
vasion, and which the Providence of God, the valour of our navy, and perhaps the very efforts of these Spaniards, have hitherto diverted from us, it may be modestly questioned whether we ought feeling of temporary stupefaction which they create; lest, in so doing, we should resemble the wor thy clergyman, who, while he had himself never snuffed a candle with his fingers, was disposed severely to criticise the conduct of a martyr who winced a little among his flames.
The heralds at the coronation of a Spanish monarch proclaim his name three times, and repeat three times the word Castilla, Castilla, Castilla; which, with all other ceremonies, was carefully copied in the mock inauguration of Joseph Buonaparte.
11. High blazed the war, and long, and far, and wide.
Respect for his great place and bid the devil Be duly honour'd for his burning throne, it may not be altogether unreasonable to claim some modification of censure upon those who have been long and to a great extent successfully resisting this great enemy of mankind. That the energy of Spain has not uniformly been directed by conduct equal to its vigour, has been too obvious; that her armies, under their complicated disadvantages, have shared the fate of such as were defeated after taking the field with every possible advantage of arms and discipline, is surely not to be wondered at. But that a nation, under the circumstances of repeated discomfiture, internal treason, and the mismanagement incident to a temporary and hastily adopted government, should have wasted, by its stubborn, uniform, and prolonged resistance, myriads after myriads of those soldiers who had overrun the world-that some of its provinces should, like Galicia, after being abandoned by their allies, and overrun by their enemies, have recovered their freedom by their own unassisted exertions; that others, like Catalonia, undismayed by the treason which betrayed some fortresses, and the force which subdued others, should not only have continued their resistance, but have attained over their victorious enemy a superiority, which
Yet, seventeen days after sustaining these extremities, did the heroic inhabitants of Zaragoza continue their defence; nor did they then surrender until their despair had extracted from the French generals a capitulation, more honourable than has been granted to fortresses of the first order.
Who shall venture to refuse the Zaragozans the eulogium conferred upon them by the eloquence of Wordsworth?" Most gloriously have the citizens of Zaragoza proved that the true army of
of warfare the Zaragozans derived a superiority flict, the roof, shattered by repeated bombs, fell from the feeling and principle which inspired in; the few who were not crushed, after a short them, and the cause for which they fought. The pause, which this tremendous shock and their only means of conquering Zaragoza was to destroy own unexpected escape occasioned, renewed the it house by house, and street by street, and upon fight with rekindling fury. fresh parties of the this system of destruction they proceeded. Three enemy poured in; monks, and citizens, and solcompanies of miners and eight companies of sap-diers came to the defence, and the contest was pers carried on this subterraneous war; the Spa- continued upon the ruins, and the bodies of the niards, it is said, attempted to oppose them by dead and the dying." countermines: these were operations to which they were wholly unused, and, according to the French statement, their miners were every day discovered and suffocated. Meantime the bombardment was incessantly kept up. Within the last forty-eight hours,' said Palafox, in a letter to his friend general Doyle, 6000 shells have been thrown in. Two-thirds of the town are in ruins; but we shall perish under the ruins of the remaining third rather than surrender.' In the course of the siege above 17,000 bombs were thrown at the town; the Spain, in a contest of this nature, is the whole stock of powder with which Zaragoza had been people. The same city has also exemplified a stored was exhausted; they had none at last but melancholy, yea, a dismal truth,—yet consolatory what they manufactured day by day; and no other and full of joy,-that when a people are called cannon-balls than those which were shot into the suddenly to fight for their liberty, and are sorely town, and which they collected and fired back pressed upon, their best field of battle is the floors upon the enemy.' upon which their children have played; the chamIn the midst of these horrors and privations, the bers where the family of each man has slept, (his pestilence broke out in Zaragoza. To various own or his neighbour's;) upon or under the roofs causes, enumerated by the annalist, he adds, " scan-by which they have been sheltered; in the gardens tiness of food, crowded quarters, unusual exertion of their recreation; in the street, or in the market of body, anxiety of mind, and the impossibility of place; before the altars of their temples, and among recruiting their exhausted strength by needful rest their congregated dwellings, blazing or uprooted. in a city which was almost incessantly bombarded, and where every hour their sleep was broken by the tremendous explosion of mines. There was now no respite, either by day or night, for this devoted city; even the natural order of light and darkness was destroyed in Zaragoza; by day it was involved in a red sulphureous atmosphere of smoke, which hid the face of heaven; by night the fire of cannons and mortars, and the flames of burning houses, kept it in a state of terrific illumination.
"The government of Spain must never forget Zaragoza, for a moment. Nothing is wanting to produce the same effects every where, but a leading mind, such as that city was blessed with. In the latter contest this has been proved; for Zaragoza contained, at that time, bodies of men from almost all parts of Spain. The narrative of those two sieges should be the manual of every Spaniard. He may add to it the ancient stories of Numantia and Saguntum; let him sleep upon the book as a pillow, and, if he be a devout adherent to the religion of his country, let him wear it in his bosom for his crucifix to rest upon."
13. the vault of destiny.-P. 374. Before finally dismissing the enchanted cavern of Don Roderick, it may be noticed, that the legend occurs in one of Calderon's plays, entitled, La Virgin del Sagrario. The scene opens with the noise of the chase, and Recisundo, a predecessor of Roderick upon the Gothic throne, enters pursuing a stag. The animal assumes the form of
"When once the pestilence had begun, it was impossible to check its progress, or confine it to one quarter of the city. Hospitals were immediately established, there were above thirty of them; as soon as one was destroyed by the bombardment, the patients were removed to another, and thus the infection was carried to every part of Zaragoza. Famine aggravated the evil; the city had probably not been sufficiently provided at the commencement of the siege, and of the provisions which it contained, much was destroyed in the daily ruin which the mines and bombs effected. a man, and defies the king to enter the cave, which Had the Zaragozans and their garrison proceeded forms the bottom of the scene, and engage with according to military rules, they would have sur-him in single combat. The king accepts the chalrendered before the end January; their batte- lenge, and they engage accordingly, but without ries had then been demolished, there were open advantage on either side, which induces the genie breaches in many parts of their weak walls, and to inform Recisundo, that he is not the monarch the enemy were already within the city. On the for whom the adventure of the enchanted cavern 30th above sixty houses were blown up, and the is reserved, and he proceeds to predict the downFrench obtained possession of the monasteries of fall of the Gothic monarchy, and of the christian the Augustines and Les Monicas, which adjoined religion, which shall attend the discovery of its each other, two of the last defensible places left. mysteries. Recisundo, appalled by these propheThe enemy forced their way into the church; eve-cies, orders the cavern to be secured by a gate and ry column, every chapel, every altar, became a bolts of iron. In the second part of the same play point of defence, which was repeatedly attacked, we are informed, that Don Roderick had removed taken, and retaken; the pavement was covered the barrier and transgressed the prohibition of his w.t' blood, the aisles and body of the church ancestor, and had been apprized by the prodigies strewed with the dead, who were trampled under which he discovered of the approaching ruin of bis foot by the combatants. In the midst of this con- kingdom.
14. While downward on the land his legions press, Before them it was rich with vine and flock, And smiled like Eden in her summer dress:
Behind their wasteful march, a reeking wilderness,
I have ventured to apply to the movements of the French army that sublime passage in the prophecies of Joel, which seems applicable to them in more respects than that I have adopted in the text. One would think their ravages, their military appointments, the terror which they spread among invaded nations, their military discipline, their arts of political intrigue and deceit, were distinctly pointed out in the following verses of Scripture:
2. A day of darknesse and of gloominesse, a day of clouds and of thick darknesse, as the morning spread upon the mountains: a great people and a strong, there hath not been ever the like, neither shall be any more after it, even to the years of many generations.
tions, burned by the retreating enemy, and to bury the bodies of their relations whom they had butchered. Is it possible to know such facts without feeling a sort of confidence, that those who so well deserve victory are most likely to attain it?-It is not the least of lord Wellington's military merits, that the slightest disposition towards marauding meets
3. "A fire devoureth before them, and behind them a flame burneth: the land is as the garden immediate punishment. Independently of all moof Eden before them, and behinde them a desolateral obligation, the army which is most orderly in wildernesse, yea, and nothing shall escape them. a friendly country, has always proved most formi4." The appearance of them is as the appear-dable to an armed enemy. ance of horses and as horsemen, so shall they runne.
16. Vainglorious fugitive —P. 374. The French conducted this memorable retreat with much of the fanfarronade proper to their country, by which they attempt to impose upon others, and perhaps upon themselves, a belief that they are triumphing in the very moment of their discomfiture. On the 30th March, 1811, their rearguard was overtaken near Pega by the British cavalry. Being well posted, and conceiving themselves safe from infantry, (who were indeed many miles in the rear,) and from artillery, they indulged themselves in parading their bands of mu"God save the king." sic, and actually performed Their minstrelsy was however deranged by the undesired accompaniment of the British horseartillery, on whose part in the concert they had not calculated. The surprise was sudden, and the rout complete; for the artillery and cavalry did
not break their ranks.
8. "Neither shall one trust another, they shall walk every one in his path: and when they fall upon the sword they shall not be wounded.
9. "They shall run to and fro in the citie: they shall run upon the wall, they shall climbe up upon the houses; they shall enter in at the windows like
10." The earth shall quake before them, the hea-execution upon them for about four miles, pursuvens shall tremble, the sunne and the moon shall ing at the gallop as often as they got beyond the be dark, and the starres shall withdraw their shin-range of the guns.
17. Vainly thy squadrons hide Assuava's plain,
With frantic charge and ten-fold odds, in vain!—P. 374. In the severe action of Fuentes d'Honoro, upon 5th May, 1811, the grand mass of the French cavalry attacked the right of the British position, covered by two guns of the horse-artillery, and two squadrons of cavalry. After suffering considerably from the fire of the guns, which annoyed them in every attempt at formation, the enemy turned their wrath entirely towards them, distributed brandy among their troopers, and advanced to carry the field-pieces with the desperation of drunken fury. They were in no ways checked by the heavy loss which they sustained in this daring attempt, but closed, and fairly mingled with the British cavalry, to whom they bore the proportion of ten to one. Captain Ramsey, (let me be permitted to name a gallant countryman,) who commanded the two guns, dismissed them at the gallop, and, putting himself at the head of the mounted artillerymen, ordered them to fall upon the French, sabrein-hand. This very unexpected conversion of artillerymen into dragoons contributed greatly to the defeat of the enemy, already disconcerted by the reception they had met from the two British squadrons; and the appearance of some small rein
5. "Like the noise of chariots on the tops of mountains shall they leap, like the noise of a flame of fire that devoureth the stubble, as a strong people set in battle array.
6. Before their face shall the people be much pained: all faces shall gather blacknesse.
7. "They shall run like mighty men, they shall climbe the wall like men of warre, and they shall march every one in his wayes, and they shall
In verse 20th also, which announces the retreat of the northern army, described in such dreadful colours, into a "land barren and desolate," and the dishonour with which God afflicted them for having "magnified themselves to do great things," there are particulars not inapplicable to the retreat of Massena; Divine Providence having, in all ages, attached disgrace as the natural punishment of cruelty and presumption.
15. The rudest sentinel, in Britain born,
feet, &c. of the cattle slaughtered for the soldiery; rice, vegetables, and bread, where it could be had, were purchased by the officers. Fifty or sixty starv ing peasants were daily fed at one of these regimental establishments, and carried home the relies to their famished households. The maciated wretches, who could not crawl from weakness, were speedily employed in pruning their vines. While pursuing Masséna, the soldiers evinced the same spirit of humanity, and, in many instances, when reduced themselves to short allowance, from having out-marched their supplies, they shared their pittance with the starving inhabitants who
had ventured back to view the ruins of their habita
Gave his poor crust to feed some wretch forlorn.-P. 374. Even the unexampled gallantry of the British army in the campaign of 1810-11, although they never fought but to conquer, will do them less honour in history than their humanity, attentive to soften to the utmost of their power the horrors which war, in its mildest aspect, must always inflict upon the defenceless inhabitants of the country in which it is waged, and which, on this occasion, were tenfold augmented by the barbarous cruelties of the French. Soup-kitchens were established by subscription among the officers, wherever the troops were quartered for any length of time. The commissaries contributed the heads,
forcements, notwithstanding the immense dispro- state of discipline. In exposing his military repuportion of force, put them to absolute rout. A co-tation to the censure of imprudence from the most lonel or major of their cavalry, and many prisoners, moderate, and all manner of unutterable calumnies (almost all intoxicated,) remained in our posses- from the ignorant and malignant, he placed at stake sion. Those who consider for a moment the dif- the dearest pledge which a military man had to ference of the services, and how much an artille- offer, and nothing but the deepest conviction of the ryman is necessarily and naturally led to identify high and essential importance attached to success How great his own safety and utility with abiding by the tre- can be supposed an adequate motive. mendous implement of war, to the exercise of the chance of miscarriage was supposed, may be which he is chiefly, if not exclusively, trained, will estimated from the general opinion of officers of know how to estimate the presence of mind which unquestioned talents and experience, possessed of commanded so bold a manœuvre, and the steadi- every opportunity of information; how completely the experiment has succeeded, and how much the ness and confidence with which it was executed. spirit and patriotism of our ancient allies had been 18. And what avails thee that, for Cameron slain, underrated, is evident, not only from those victories in which they have borne a distinguished share, but from the liberal and highly honourable manner in which these opinions have been retracted. The success of this plan, with all its important consequences, we owe to the indefatigable exof field-marshal Beresford.
Wild from his plaided ranks the yell was given.
a race renown'd of old,
Whose war-cry oft has waked the battle-swell-P. 375.
The gallant colonel Cameron was wounded mortally during the desperate contest in the streets of the village called Fuentes d'Honoro. He fell at the head of his native highlanders, the 71st and 79th, who raised a dreadful shriek of grief and rage.ertions They charged, with irresistible fury, the finest 20. body of French grenadiers ever seen, being a part of Bonaparte's selected guard. The officer who led the French, a man remarkable for stature and of the warlike family of Graeme, or Graham. They symmetry, was killed on the spot. The French-are said, by tradition, to have descended from the man who stepped out of his rank to take aim at Scottish chief, under whose command his countrycolonel Cameron, was also bayoneted, pierced with men stormed the wall built by the emperor Sevea thousand wounds, and almost torn to pieces by rus between the firths of Forth and Clyde, the the furious highlanders, who, under the command fragments of which are still popularly called of colonel Cadogan, bore the enemy out of the Græme's dyke. Sir John the Græme," the hardy, contested ground at the point of the bayonet. Mas-wight, and wise," is well known as the friend of sena pays my countrymen a singular compliment sir William Wallace. Alderne, Kilsyth, and Tibin his account of the attack and defence of this vil- bermuir, were scenes of the victories of the heroic lage, in which, he says, the British lost many of- marquis of Montrose. The pass of Killy-crankie is famous for the action between king William's ficers, and Scotch. forces and the highlanders in 1689,
19. O who shall grudge him Albuera's bays,
Who brought a race regenerate to the field,
"Where glad Dundee in faint huzzas expired." It is seldom that one line can number so many. heroes, and yet more rare when it can appeal to the glory of a living descendant in support of its ancient renown.
The allusions to the private history and charac
Nothing during the war of Portugal seems, to a distinct observer, more deserving of praise, than the self-devotion of field-marshal Beresford, who was contented to undertake all the hazard of oblo-ter of general Graham may be illustrated by requy which might have been founded upon any mis-ferring to the eloquent and affecting speech of Mr. carriage in the highly important experiment of Sheridan, upon the vote of thanks to the victor of training the Portuguese troops to an improved | Barosa,
The Field of Waterloo:
Though Valois braved young Edward's gentle hand,
They saw their standard fall, and left their monarch bound.-AKENSIDE.
TO HER GRACE THE DUCHESS OF WELLINGTON,
THE FOLLOWING VERSES ARE MOST RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED, BY THE AUTHOR.
THE FIELD OF WATERLOO.
FAIR Brussels, thou art far behind,
Pealed over orchard and canal,
With voice prolonged and measured fall,