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is new. It reads ̓Απολλόδοτος Ασκληπίδου ̓Απόλλωνι Κρατεανῷ χαριστή In the accompanying relief, representing a sacrifice to Apollo, the victim is a bull instead of the usual ram. The word xapioτýplov indicates that this is a thank-offering rather than a propitiation. This inscription is also noticed, B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1906, p. 302.

Zeus Askraios. — In Cl. R. XXI, 1907, pp. 47–48, W. R. PATON publishes a dedication from Myndus by certain Halicarnassians Aù 'Akpaių. This suggests that the Zeus Askraios of Halicarnassus (Apollonius in Westermann, Paradox. Gr. p. 109) should be Zeus Akraios. The same correction of 'Ακραῖος for ̓Ασκραῖος is probable in other passages.

Life in Ancient Cities. In No. 131 of the series Aus Natur und Geisteswelt, E. ZIEBARTH gives a picture of life in the ancient cities as shown by recent excavations, and the study of inscriptions and papyri. In the first chapter the nature of the ancient archives and their value is discussed, and then Thera, Pergamon, Priene, Miletus, the temple of Apollo at Didyma, and the Greek cities in Egypt are described. The book contains brief accounts of discoveries hitherto accessible only in large publications or in scattered reports. (E. ZIEBARTH, Kulturbilder aus griechischen Städten. Leipzig, 1907, B. G. Teubner. 120 pp.; pl.; 22 figs. 12mo. M. 1.25.)

GREECE
ARCHITECTURE

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The Origin of the Greek Temple. — In Z. Ethn. XXXIX, 1907, pp. 57– 79 (15 figs.), P. SARASIN traces the development of the Greek temple from a primitive house raised on piles, such as is common in the Celebes. The peripteros represents the outer row of piles. The naos is formed by walling up the inner columns, as is often done by the Malays. The entablature and pediment are the original dwelling, which has shrunk to a merely ornamental element. The triglyphs occupy the place of windows. The theory is developed in detail for all the architectural elements.

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Parthenon and Opisthodomos. — The double meanings of these two words are discussed by E. PETERSEN in Jb. Arch. I. XXII, 1907, pp. 8–18. He finds that Parthenon, in addition to its application to the whole building, was used specifically of the western enclosed room, and that Opisthodomos, rear building,' was used both for the entire western division of the temple, including enclosed room and open portico, and also for the open western portico alone, when the adjoining room was called Parthenon. The restricted meanings belonged to official language, the less definite uses were popular. Similar uses of the word Tóλs are also differentiated.

Building Material at Delphi. — In Philologus, LXVI, 1907, pp. 260–286, H. POмTOW and R. LEPSIUS publish the results of the examination of 160 specimens of stone from the buildings and monuments of Delphi. Excluded are the local varieties, i.e. limestone from Parnassus and the quarries of St. Elias and a breccia. Lepsius distinguishes five varieties of poros, all from Corinth and Sicyon, three of limestone, and five of marble. Pomtow adds a detailed list, arranged topographically, of the monuments from which the specimens were taken.

SCULPTURE

Primitive Terra-cottas. — In J.H.S. XXVII, 1907, pp. 68-74 (5 figs.), E. S. FORSTER publishes five early terra-cottas, two standing and one seated figure from Boeotia and two equestrian groups from Crete, each of which is noteworthy for some peculiarity. It is evident that religious conservatism required the most primitive type of figure to be used, even after the skill of the artist, as seen in the head and face, was capable of something much more advanced.

Early Types of Greek Sculpture. The representation of the human form in pre-Hellenic and early Hellenic art is discussed by F. POULSEN, in Jb. Arch. I. XXI, 1906, pp. 177-221 (12 figs.). To the first childish conception of a body with arms, legs, and head, there was added, in the desire for realism, the expression of sex and later that of clothing, either by color or plastically, and the wish not to omit either of these details led to strange inconsistencies and perhaps to the effect of transparent drapery. The cylin drical idols, representing women with long robes, belong to the third stage. After the artistic retrogression due to the Dorian migration, the same development took place again, and once more numerous inconsistencies occurred. When the progress toward realism for the second time reached the point of clothing the figure, the artistic appreciation of the superior beauty of the natural form had also developed, and then there came, instead of the childish, unconscious nudity, one that was intentional and artistic. This stage was of course reached at different times by different communities, and tradition had much to do with prolonging the life of the primitive nudity, especially for divinities. Bronze, being less susceptible to color than wood or stone, had to omit or express by graving or raised surfaces what was painted upon the other materials; otherwise material had not much influence on expression. Large plane surfaces with sharp angles, when found in stone, show not an imitation of wood technique but the blocking out of the figure, a stage beyond which the skilled artist would go to the more perfect roundness, and at which the unskilled artist, whether early or provincial, would stop. As to the position of the hands, after the lifeless hanging at the sides was outgrown, they were shown as held in front of the body because this was the most natural way to dispose of them. The earliest expression of the action of the person on the drapery is perhaps found in a female torso in high relief from the Acropolis, where the ends of the sash are parted in front by a hand held before the stomach. The holding up of the skirt at one side by the Acropolis maidens and many other figures was due to the same desire for expression of personality.

The Frieze of the Hecatompedon. — In Sitzb. Mün. Akad. 1906, pp. 143-150, A. FURTWÄNGLER criticises Schrader's theory (A.J.A. X, p. 444) of the Ionic frieze on the Pisistratean Hecatompedon. He argues that there is no evidence for an Ionic frieze on a Doric temple of the sixth century, and that in any case the slabs in the Acropolis Museum are too large for the building. They may have decorated the great altar of Athena. He also combats briefly Jacobsthal's view that the attributes held by two of the Tritopatores (or Typhon) are thunderbolts.

The Group of the Tyrannicides. - A new restoration of the group of Harmodius and Aristogiton has been made in plaster at the Ducal Museum

in Brunswick, under the direction of P. J. MEIER, who describes and justifies it in Röm. Mitt. XX, 1905, pp. 330-347 (pl.; 2 figs.).

The Charioteer of Delphi. — In Ath. Mitt. XXXI, 1906, pp. 421-429, F. VON DUHN suggests that if Washburn's reading of the erased inscription on the base of the charioteer at Delphi (A.J.A. X, pp. 153, 194) is correct, it is probable that the group was originally ordered by Anaxilas of Rhegium, and after his death paid for and dedicated by Polyzalus, brother of Hiero. If this is right, it is almost certain that it is the work of Pythagoras of Rhegium.

A Terra-cotta Statue at Catania. — In R. Ét. Anc. IX, 1907, pp. 121– 131 (2 pls.), W. DEONNA publishes the terra-cotta statue of a woman in the museum at Catania. Its origin is uncertain, but it is probably an original work of the first quarter of the fifth century B.C. It derives additional importance from the rarity of large terra-cotta statues of this period, though specimens from the sixth and fourth centuries are fairly numerous.

Calamis. The elder and younger Calamis are discussed in Abh. Sächs. Ges. XXV, No. 4, by F. STUDNICZKA, who accepts in general Reisch's view (A.J.A. XI, p. 216), but differs widely from him in the distribution of the recorded works between the two sculptors. To the younger Calamis are assigned the Erinys at Athens, possibly the Asclepius at Sicyon, and certainly the Sosandra. This famous statue is probably the original of the numerous statuettes and reliefs representing a dancer wrapped in a mantle which also covers her head. The elder sculptor was probably a Boeotian, a pupil of Onatas, and active from about 470-440 B.C. To him are assigned, in addition to the works given by Reisch, the Nike at Olympia, the statues of Hermione and Alcmene, the Aphrodite dedicated on the Acropolis by Callias, the quadriga, whose driver was probably by the elder Praxiteles, and which seems to have been later placed on the great pedestal before the Propylaea in honor of Agrippa, the Apollo Alexicacus in Athens, whose surname only is due to the plague, and the Hermes and Dionysus at Tanagra. Extant works by him cannot with certainty be identified. Possibly the Apollo in the Museo delle Therme at Rome is a copy of the Alexicacus, and if so the "Demeter" of Cherchel may be the Aphrodite. (E. STUDNICZKA, Kalamis, ein Beitrag zur griechischen Kunstgeschichte. Leipzig, 1907, B. G. Teubner. 104 pp.; 13 pls.; 19 figs. 8vo. M 7.20.)

Leda and the Swan. In B. Mus. F. A. V, 1907, p. 15 (fig.), S. N. D(EANE) publishes with brief comment the marble group of Leda and the Swan in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts (A.J.A. IX, p. 367). It is a work of the end of the fifth century by a somewhat unskilful sculptor.

The Pseliumene of Praxiteles. -In R. Arch. IX, 1907, pp. 69-74, F. POULSEN explains that a véλtov is a single ring, whether large or small, and more especially a bracelet, while a necklace is ordinarily a σтрETTÓν, composed of several κpíκo. The Pseliumene of Praxiteles was therefore probably putting on a bracelet, not a necklace. In the "Venus Montalvo" (published by Milani, Strena Helbigiana, p. 188; now in America, see A.J.A. IX, p. 375), Poulsen sees a later adaptation of the motive of the Pseliumene, though the "Venus Montalvo" is taking off, not putting on, her bracelet.

The Tegean Sculptures of Scopas. -In Sitzb. Mün. Akad. 1906, pp. 383-388, A. FURTWÄNGLER agrees with E. Gardner that the female head

and torso at Tegea (see A.J.A. X, pp. 445–446) belong to the Atalanta of Scopas. The figures of the east pediment, except the boar, seem to have been of Parian, those of the west, to which the heads in Athens belong, of Doliana marble. The style of the head agrees with the female heads assigned to Scopas in Meisterwerke der griech. Plastik, p. 639.

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The Statue from Subiaco and the Niobid Chiaramonti. In Ausonia, I, 1906, pp. 21-32 (3 figs.), E. BRIZIO argues that the statue of the kneeling youth from Nero's villa at Subiaco represents a Niobid. The base represents rocky ground such as is found on the base of one of the Florentine figures. The moulding on the base is a later addition, made when the statue was separated from the group. A similar treatment of the base is found in the Niobid Chiaramonti. The evidence that this statue was discovered in the Villa Hadriana is very weak, and it is more probable that it came from Subiaco. Both statues are original works of the fourth century, and apparently by Scopas.

A Terra-cotta Head in the Antiquarium in Berlin. -In R. Arch. VIII, 1906, pp. 402–408 (pl.), W. DEONNA publishes and discusses a large (height 0.25 m.) terra-cotta head from Tarentum, now in the Antiquarium in Berlin. It resembles in many respects the "Praying Boy" in Berlin, and is modelled entirely by hand. Its date is the end of the fourth or early in the third century B.C. Other statues of terra-cotta are mentioned, and the group from Civita Vecchia, now in the Villa Giulia, at Rome, is described. These are of the same date. At that time some real artists made terra-cotta statues, as they had also done in the sixth century.

The Maiden from Antium. The statue of a maiden bearing a tray which was found at Antium in 1878 (A.J.A. VIII, p. 307) has been bought by the Italian government and placed in the Museo Nazionale at Rome. The statue is discussed in Boll. Arte, I, 1907, v, pp. 19-23 (2 pls.; 2 figs.), by A. DELLA SETA, who argues that it is probably a temple servant of Apollo, intent upon the care of some sacred objects. The working of the marble shows that it was to be seen from the side. It is probably an early Hellenistic work.

In Nuova Antologia, May 16, 1907, F. PELLATI suggests that the statue represents a Thespiad, and may be the work of Cleomenes, if it is not one of the statues by Praxiteles brought from Corinth by Mummius. It could have been brought to Antium by Claudius or Nero after the burning of the temple of Felicitas. [The statue is published by W. Amelung, in BrunnBruckmann, Denkmäler, II, 583-4, and by Reinach, Répertoire, III, 193, 6.]

The Hero Tì Bλaúrŋ. — Light is thrown on the various statements about the word Blaurη (slipper), as the name of a goddess or heroine (C.I.A. III, 411), of a place in Athens (Hesychius s.v.), and as a designation for a hero (pws 'Aonνnow ó éri Bλaúry, Pollux, Onom. Z, 87) by the discovery on the south slope of the Acropolis of the votive stele with a sandal in relief. (A.J.A. IX, p. 108; XI, p. 217.) It seems likely that there was at this point the shrine of a hero, whose name gave rise to the use of a slipper as his symbol. This would explain the name in Pollux, and also his statement about a shoemaker who dedicated the stone image of a slipper. (C. TSOUNTAS, 'Ep. 'Apx. 1906, pp. 243-248; fig.)

The Dionysus of the Great Frieze at Pergamon. — In R. Arch. VIII, 1906, pp. 409-412, P. DUCATI discusses the figure of Dionysus in the frieze

of the Great Altar at Pergamon, and, by comparing it with the figure on the vase from Kertsch, on which Dionysus is a witness of the strife between Athena and Poseidon, and with other monuments, he reaches the conclusion that it was derived from a representation of the battle of the gods and giants, dating probably from the latter part of the fourth century.

The Trial of Orestes. The various reliefs representing the trial of Orestes are compared by W. AMELUNG in Röm. Mitt. XX, 1905, pp. 289–309 (2 pls.; 4 figs.), with fresh evidence from a New Attic relief, a fragment of which is in the Antiquarium at Rome. Special prominence is given to the interpretation of the Corsini silver cup.

The Reliefs of Apollo Citharoedus. - In considering for a second time (see A.J.A. XI, p. 213) the backgrounds of the reliefs representing Apollo Citharoedus, F. STUDNICZKA admits that the scene, which he interpreted as a view of the Pythium and Olympieum at Athens, may also represent the sanctuary at Delphi; for although the great temple of Apollo was always Doric, it does appear on coins at least as Corinthian, and the reliefs may have used the same liberty. (Jb. Arch. I. XXII, 1907, pp. 6–8; fig.)

A Sarcophagus of the Sidamara Type. — Nine fragments of a very beautiful sarcophagus of Greek marble, now at Doughty Hall, Richmond, England, are published and discussed by J. STRZYGOWSKI in J.H.S. XXVII, 1907, pp. 99-122 (5 pls.; 16 figs.). Single figures of pure fourth century and Praxitelean type stand before niches which are flanked by columns and have the tympanum ornamented with a shell. Such niches, in groups of five, occur notably on the Sidamara and Selefkah sarcophagi at Constantinople, also in Pompeian wall paintings of the fourth style, on the throne of St. Maximian at Ravenna, and in various examples of Christian art. They were originally imitated from the façade of the stage of a theatre, and the earlier examples, especially the sarcophagi, are Syrian. The idea may have originated in Antioch. In Burl. Mag. XI, 1907, pp. 109-111, E. STRONG points out that these sarcophagi and the ivories show a creative power inconsistent with Strzygowski's theory that Hellenism succumbed to Oriental art, which tends to substitute ornament for the human figure.

VASES AND PAINTING

Vases from Crete in the Louvre. - In B.C.H. XXXI, 1907, pp. 115–138 (pl.; 4 figs.), E. POTTIER begins the publication of important additions to the collection in the Louvre since the appearance of his Vases Antiques du Louvre. This article describes four vases from a tomb near Ligortyno in Crete. The first is a rhyton in the form of a bull's head. The others are crateres, one decorated with a design of wild goats on either side of a palm (?) tree with a fish below, another with a large polyp, the third with curved lines. All belong to the later Cretan or Mycenaean period. Much of the article is given to a discussion of the significance of these decorations. The bull, goat, polyp, and fish have originally religious significance, and are reproduced with magical intent. The artistic forms, but not the religious value, are influenced by the Orient. The tendency of these designs is to become decorative, with a reminiscence of the good results such representations may bring to the owners. No extended religious symbolism is to be found in the groupings or decorative developments of these simple elements.

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