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two groups, one existing in the year 1445, and the other made not much earlier than 1513. Do the documents indicate that the group of 1445 was at any time destroyed or removed? Do they indicate the acquisition of a new group at any time near 1513? Is there, in fact, an atom of evidence in the documents to show that the group which we can see to-day in the church of S. Giovanni is not the same group as that for which Monna Bice provided the perpetual lamp?

Let us now assume that the statues of the Visitation of St. Elizabeth of 1445 were the same as those which we may see to-day, what consequences follow? In the first place, the attributions of the group to Fra Paolino (1488-1547) or to Andrea della Robbia (1435-1525) or, as Dr. Bacci would have it, to some still later member of the school like Benedetto Buglioni, fall to the ground. In the second place, the attribution to Luca della Robbia gains in definiteness. It cannot be assigned to the latest period of his life, as is done by Dr. Bode,1 but must be ranked with the earliest of his dated monuments. In an article on the Madonnas of Luca della Robbia, in A.J.A. (First Series), 1894, I attributed this group to Luca, and assigned it to the decade 1430-1440. The document recording Monna Bice's gift seems to prove that the group was in existence at least as early as October, 1445. That it might have been made by Luca della Robbia at this period is rendered almost certain by many analogies with his early works. The kerchief wound about the Virgin's head may be paralleled by that of one of the maidens of the Cantoria (1431-1438), PLATE VII, 2, and by one of the heads from the bronze doors of the Sacristy (1446-1461), PLATE VII, 3. Turbans for men and for boys occur also on Luca della Robbia's reliefs for the Campanile and for the Cantoria. Similar turbans for men and women abound in the works of Ghiberti, who exerted a formative influence on Luca's early works. This use of the kerchief for the Virgin is found in at least one other work by Luca della Robbia, the unglazed, pointed arched relief in the Berlin Museum, but would seem never to have been used by Andrea della Robbia, or by his sons, in any representation of the Virgin.

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1 Florentiner Bildhauer der Renaissance, 1902, p. 189.

The heavy drapery with its massive folds finds its closest analogues in that of the maidens of the Cantoria or that of the candelabra-bearing angels of the Sacristy (1448). It is far removed from the characteristic type of Andrea's draperies, which reveal more of the form beneath and a subtle arrangement of folds designed to charm the spectator. Even the ruffle about the Virgin's neck occurs in one of Luca's earliest Madonnas, in the lunette from S. Piero Buonconsiglio; also in a second lunette recently acquired by the Berlin Museum (PLATE VII, 1). If we turn from the accidents of dress to the type of head, here again we find not only that shy, maidenly expression characteristic of Luca's early Madonnas, but the high forehead, the waving hair, the blue eyes, the high cheek bones, the strong mouth with the deep furrow on the upper lip. For the kneeling St. Elizabeth, it is not to the Osservanza at Siena nor to La Verna that we must look for close parallels, but to the Resurrection relief in the Florence Cathedral. Here the Apostles adore their risen Lord at the end of His mission with the same absence of self-consciousness with which St. Elizabeth adores Him before His mission began. She is silent, but in a moment she will aloud, cry "Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb."


November, 1906.


of America



THE scores of honeycombed cliffs, hundreds of stone houses, and thousands of cliff dwellings in and near the Pajarito Park section of the Jemez Forest Reserve, afford a field that would give the most zealous archaeologist months of unbounded pleasure and valuable returns for the time spent there. It is not the ruins as an entirety, however, that give me the most pleasure, although my months of continual riding in the discharge of my Forest Service work, almost continually in sight of some ruin, have only made me more enthusiastic in regard to the region; but it is the unusual and unknown points which arouse in me the greatest continual interest.

The district south of the Frijoles Cañon is almost unknown, and Mr. Bandelier and other archaeologists who have been there have by no means exhausted the interest of this remote and not easily traversed region. There are large ruins and scores of points of interest that so far as I know have never even been mentioned.

In this region (which contains the famous painted cave, PLATE VIII, and stone lions) is situated a large white bear, carved from the fairly soft stone (Fig. 1). This animal is certainly as plainly seen as the stone lions and, except for the fact that the head has been broken off and lies on the ground near, is in a state of excellent preservation. The figure was evidently at first well shaped and is even now in such condition that it cannot be mistaken. It is situated in the bottom of a small, almost hidden cañon, and was discovered by the photographer Craycraft of Santa Fé, who took the photographs reproduced here. I have seen the animal from

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the
Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. XI (1907), No. 1.


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