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something complimentary to Swift, which the imitation of the Second Satire does, and that of the first Satire does not. He thought also that the haste and want of finish which Warton and Bowles detected in the piece would be accounted for by Pope's statement. But this judgment is evidently founded on a misconception. It is plain that the poem which Pope sent to Swift with the Epistle to Bathurst was printed for publication, even if it was not published, for Swift

-as we see from Pope's expressions in his letter of Feb. 16, and from what Swift says in his letter to Pope, to which the other is an answer—did not know who had sent it; whereas, if it had been in MS. he could not have doubted. The Imitation of the Second Satire was not published till July, 1734, it is therefore very improbable that it should have been in print early in 1733. Pope does not say in his letter that he intended a compliment to Swift, but merely that Swift would discover the motive of the Imitation in the last twenty lines, meaning the allusion to the poet's zeal for virtue, and to his noble friends. Besides, this would seem to be the Imitation mentioned in a letter to Swift, dated 2nd April, 1733, in which he says: “This week, exercitandi gratia, I have translated, or rather parodied, another Epistle of Horace, in which I introduce you advising me about my expenses, house-keeping, &c."

Warton is right in thinking this Imitation inferior to most of the others, and Johnson's disparaging criticism on this class of Pope's compositions applies justly to Bethel's sermon. Horace's Satire has a dramatic propriety. The luxurious Romans of the day might admire in poetry, while they despised in real life, the “wise saws and rude mother wit” of the rustic Ofella, preserving as these did the flavour of the old Roman simplicity inculcated by Cato the censor. But to suppose that a society, like that of England under George II., which had by no means lost the principle of liberty, and which was working out a new order of taste and refinement, would listen to the common-place moralising of a country gentleman like Bethel, showed a curious absence of Pope's usual shrewdness and judgment.

This criticism, however, does not apply to the latter part of the poem. Here we may doubtless discover the motive of the Imitation. The poet is again on personal ground, and, though we cannot credit him with all the virtue and philosophy that he claims for himself, Roscoe's observations on the pleasing character of the autobiographical allusions are perfectly just.

This Imitation was registered at Stationers' Hall, 3rd July, 1734-5, together with a fresh edition of the preceding Imitation, as follows: “ The First Satire of the Second Book of Horace, Imitated in Dialogue between Alexander Pope of Twickenham in Com : Midd : Esqr., and his learned Councell 4°, and the Second Satire of the Second Book of Horace paraphrased in 4°;" the owner of the copyright being Lawton Gilliver.








WHAT, and how great, the virtue and the art
To live on little with a cheerful heart;
(A doctrine sage, but truly none of mine)
Let's talk, my friends, but talk before we dine.
Not when a gilt buffet's reflected pride
Turns you from sound philosophy aside ;
Not when from plate to plate your eyeballs roll,
And the brain dances to the mantling bowl.

Hear Bethel's sermon, one not versed in schools,
But strong in sense, and wise without the rules.


No address is given to this Satire the Essay on Man as “blameless in any of the editions published Bethel,” and gracefully uses the during Pope's lifetime. The present asthma from which his friend suffered address is one of Warburton's “im. as an illustration of his own moral provements ;' nothing can be more argument. See note to Essay on Man, absurd than making Bethel listen Book IV., ver. 122. In a letter to to his own sermon. The poem is Allen, he says : “I have known and not an Epistle but a Satire. Hugh esteemed him (Bethel) for every moral Bethel owned an estate in York- virtue these twenty years and more. shire of £2000 a-year. He was one He has all the charity without any of of Pope's earliest friends, and re- the weakness of -- ; and, I firmly ceived from the poet a copy of the believe, never said a thing he did not first edition of his works published in think, nor a thing he did not tell.” 1717, with a complimentary Latin He died at Ealing, in Middlesex, on inscription. Pope addresses him in January 16, 1748.



Go, work, hunt, exercise! (he thus began)'
Then scorn a homely dinner, if you can.
Your wine locked up, your butler strolled abroad,
Or fish denied (the river yet unthawed),
If then plain bread and milk will do the feat,
The pleasure lies in you and not the meat.

Preach as I please, I doubt our curious men
Will choose a pheasant still before a hen;
Yet hens of Guinea full as good I hold,
Except you eat the feathers green and gold.
Of carps and mullets why prefer the great,
(Though cut in pieces ere my lord can eat,)
Yet for small turbots such esteem profess?
Because God made these large, the other less.
Oldfield with more than harpy throat endued,”
Cries, “Send me, gods! a whole hog barbecued!”
Oh, blast it, south-winds! till a stench exhale
Rank as the ripeness of a rabbit's tail.
By what criterion do ye eat, d’ye think,
If this is prized for sweetness, that for stink?
When the tired glutton labours through a treat,
He finds no relish in the sweetest meat;
He calls for something bitter, something sour,
And the rich feast concludes extremely poor :*



1 These six following lines are Richard Oldfield was after the publimuch inferior to the original, in cation of this Satire, returned M.P. which the mention of many particular for Windsor by a double return, with exercises gives it a pleasing variety. Lord Vere Beauclerk, who had vacated The sixth and seventh lines in Horace on being made a Lord of the Admi. are nervous and strong. The third ralty. In a very full house the in Pope is languid and wordy, which Ministerial member was seated on the renders, foris est promus. Defendens 27th of November, 1738.-CROKER. and latrantem and caro and pinguem, He is mentioned again in Imitations are all of them very expressive of Horace, Epistle ii. 2, 87. epithets : and the allusion to Socrates' 3 A West Indian term of gluttony; constant exercise, &c., ought not to a hog roasted whole, stuffed with have been omitted.- WARTON.

spice, and basted with Madeira wine. % This eminent glutton ran through -POPE. a fortune of £1500 a-year in the simple 4 Two miserable lines ; which you luxury of good living.–WARTON. would hardly match for poverty in




Cheap eggs, and herbs, and olives still we see ;
Thus much is left of old simplicity!
The robin red-breast till of late had rest,
And children sacred held a martin's nest,
Till beccaficos sold so devilish dear
To one that was, or would have been, a peer.
Let me extol a cat, on oysters fed,
I'll have a party at the Bedford-head;
Or e'en to crack live crawfish recommend ;
I'd never doubt at court to make a friend.

'Tis yet in vain, I own, to keep a pother
About one vice, and fall into the other :
Between excess and famine lies a mean;
Plain, but not sordid ; though not splendid, clean.

Avidien, or his wife (no matter which,
For him you'll call a dog, and her a bitch,)




the most arrant of his Dunces.

It was

a tavern in Southampton WAKEFIELD.

Street, Covent Garden. Pope men? In Halliwell's Popular Rhymes tions it again in the Sober Advice : there is the following from Essex : When sharp with hunger, scorn you to be The robin and the red-breast,

fed, The robin and the wren,

Except on pea-chicks at the Bedford Head? If ye take out o’their nest,

4 Edward Wortley Montagu and Ye'll never thrive agen!

his wife, as appears from a letter of The robin and the red-breast, The martin and the swallow,

Horace Walpole to Sir H. Mann, If ye touch one o' their eggs

dated January 27, 1748. "Old Bad luck will sure to follow.

Avidien is dead-worth half a milAnd there is another country rhyme : lion,” and he explains in a note that The martin and the swallow

the name refers to the Wortley MonAre God Almighty's birds to hollow.

tagues. They are satirised for their in which “to hollow" is believed to avarice in several other passages as be the same as 'to hallow," to hold “Shylock and his wife." See Moral sacred.

Essays, iii. 94, 115, and First ImitaThe robin appears to be sometimes tion of Horace, 103. eaten.' Mr. Hayward, in his Essay on 5 There is no allusion to Avidienus' the Art of Dining, quotes from the wife in the original ; and Pope's interAlmanach des Gourmands : “Cet polation is gross. He might have aimable oisean se mange à la broche learned better of the Tatler, which et en salmi.”

even in its own light style thought 2 The beccafico is one of the that “the feminine gender of dogs rarest of British birds. It is chiefly has so harsh a sound that we know found on the coast of Sussex, near not how to name it.” Tatler, 68.Worthing, where fig trees abound. CROKER. 3 A famous eating-house. - POPE, The point of the couplet, such as it


Sell their presented partridges and fruits,'
And humbly live on rabbits and on roots :
One half-pint bottle serves them both to dine,
And is at once their vinegar and wine.
But on some lucky day (as when they found
A lost bank-bill, or heard their son was drowned),"
At such a feast, old vinegar to spare,
Is what two souls so generous cannot bear:
Oil, though it stink, they drop by drop impart,
But souse the cabbage with a bounteous heart.

He knows to live, who keeps the middle state,
And neither leans on this side nor on that;
Nor stops, for one bad cork, his butler's pay,
Swears, like Albutius, a good cook away;
Nor lets, like Nævius, every error pass,
The musty wine, foul cloth, or greasy glass.

Now hear what blessings temperance can bring :
(Thus said our friend, and what he said I sing :)
First health : the stomach (crammed from every dish,
A tomb of boiled and roast, and flesh and fish,
Where bile, and wind, and phlegm, and acid jar,
And all the man is one intestine war,)
Remembers oft the school-boy's simple fare,
The temperate sleeps, and spirits light as air.

How pale each worshipful and reverend guest
Rise' from a clergy, or a city feast !




is, lies in the fact that Avidienus is
said by Horace to have had the nick-
name of “Canis." Pope suggests that
this may be translated so as to apply
equally well, though for different
reasons, either to Wortley Montagu
or to his wife.

Imitation of Epistle ii.,
Book ii. 234 :

stroke to make Avidien charge his friends for the game which he sent them as presents.

2 Edward Wortley Montagu when a boy ran away to sea three times. It was probably on one of these occasions that the report of his death by drowning reached his parents. See Nichols' Literary Anecdotes, vol. iv. pp. 626-8.

A strange instance of false grammar and false English in using rise for rises. - WARTON.



Warton seems to overlook the fact

All Worldly's hens, nay partridge sold to


It seems almost too extravagant a

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