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vol. 6.]
Massacre of the Mamlúks.

171 to be Emir Hadge, or Prince of Pil- El-hudge, out of Cairo, he gave a pubgrims, which means the escorter of pil- lic notice that his second son, Tóssún grimage ; Selim Bey was to be the Pashá, was to be created general in Governor of Upper Egypt; and Sha- chief of the expedition against " the heen Bey was to be about the northern Anti-Mohammedans,” and therefore all parts of Egypt,” &c. &c.

the military chiefs, including the Beys, This sanguinary triumph was of short of course, were requested to attend the duration. Mohainmed Aly appeared function at the citadel, on Friday in force, and on a treaty being conclu- morning, the 6th Shfar, 1226 of Elded, the jealous Beys separated from Hejiru (22d Fuh. 1811, A.D.) and to each other. Shabeen Bey had bis for- form the procession of his sou to the mer dominions restored to him, but to camp in Berket El-badge. reside with all his suit at Cairo instead 'Every preparation of splendour and of Giza, thus putting himself into the luxury was, naturally, exerted by every power of his enemy. This led to the chief as much as possible, for the hontotal destruction of the Mamluks. our of the Pasha and bis son, particular

• On Shaheen Bey's departing from ly being on a religious enterprise. the other Beys, Ossman Bey Hassan • The intended, but horrid and mournapproached him, put his hand upon bis ful Friday came, when Shabeen Boy shoulders, and said the following words, Elly collected all the Beys under his with his tears flowing down his cheeks: order (except Ahmed Bey, who was

My son Shaheen, you know very then on some business at Dushoor) at well that I was a sincere friend to your his palace ; the whole of whom were father, and then to you ;

I

you the most elegant Circussiuns and Georneither wished lo follow your father's gians, accompanied by their favourite will, nor to listen lo my advice ; you are Mamluks, dressed in the richest uninou going north, and we going south, forms, armed with the most splendid but if you do not repent for what you arms, and mounted on the finest horses ! have done, I shull let you

shave

my

They left their homes, wives, and chilbeard,*

In Sept. 1810, we left the ren, about nine o'clock in the inorning, other Beys at Ckorné, and came to and proceeded on a grand procession Hooh, where my employer, Shabeen through the city to the citadel, as innoBey Elfy, had an interview with Has- cently as so many lumbs to the butchery! san Pashá Arnabott, and the treaties • After they were gone I mounted my were signed.

ass, and went to the citadel. My co• Now Mohammed Aly, being sure of riosity induced me to go to the antithe miserable and weak state of the drawing-rooin of the Pasha's apartments, Beys left in Upper Egypt, sent an ex- where I saw that the door of the drawpedition under the command of his eld- ing room with the shorters of the win-. est son, Ibrákiin Pashá, to drive them dows at the sides were shut up. I conout of the kingdom. He pursued them trived to make my way ibro' the multias far as Ibrim,till they were compelled tude of a mixture of ride troops, (who to take refuge in Dongolá and Núbia. were rather surprised to see me, the only

* Having thus succeeded in clearing Christian there,) till I succeeded in geithe kingdom from the greatest part of ting a position by the side of the winthem, he (Mohammed Aly) turned his dows; but not without being insulied attention to an atrocious plan to extir- several times. However I ventured 10 pate the rest, who had believed his sin- poep through the shutters, where I saw cerity, and were at his mercy.—Wheo Mohuinmed aly, Shuheen Bey Elfy, his first expedition against the Wabha- Hassan Pashá. Takér Pashá, and Ahbies, in 1811, was nearly ready, and med Bey Arnoult

, or the Albanies, conthe troops were encainped at Berket versing together, and smoking their

pipes. A hall of an hour after, the The most indignant act that can be offer- kahkiá Bey was called in, and ordered ed to a chief, or to any respectable Mohamme: to bring the pellice intended for the indan, especially an old man, is that of shaving off his beard after its being groun.

vestment of Mohaoimed Aly's son, to be inspected by Shaheen Bey and the cavalcade began at first with the Janis. others. The pellice was brought and saries, who proceeded on foot from the highly admired by every one of them. court of the castle, followed by the DaI beard the kakbia Bey saying, that its lies. The Albanies cavalry were the value was 25,000 piastres, about 10001. next to them who went out of the casMohammed Aly inquired whether Tós- tle; and the innocent Beys were the sún Pushâ, his son, and every necessary last who preceded the Pasba's son. for the procession, were ready, and ask. More than an hour elapsed till the whole ed the kakhiá Bey is all the military of them left the court of the castle. Mochiefs had come.

He then desired hammed Aly now came out of his apartShaheen Bey to superintend, together ment, accompanied by Hassan Pasba with the kakhia Bey, the arrangements Arnabott only, and went to a small of the procession, and to prepare all the room on the stair-case of the divan, Beys, of whom he was the bead, to pre- looking over the court of the castle. cede immediately before his son and He appeared to me very much agitated, court! Shaheen Bey, of course, on the and in a state of the utmost uneasiness Pasba's request lest the room, and went his eyes and face looked fiercely, and with the bakhiá Bey to the great divan, full of blood -- he was dressed in a blue where all the other Beys and chiefs garment, pink robe, and pink turban : were ; and he began to direct them – he is a well-shaped man, about five how to proceed in the procession with feet six inches high, of light sharp eyes, their respective suites. Meanwhile the apd reddish beard. kakhiá Bey was recalled into the draw- •When the court became less crowding-room again, where, after his arrival, ed, and the cavalcade was yet going out the door and shutters were re-shut up, of the principal entrance, I went through and strict orders given that nobody the ruins at ihe west side of the citadel, should approach the wiodows. by the remains of the ancient building

Mohammed Aly, Hassan Pashá, Ta- called Joseph's ball, which is a short hér Pushá, Ahméd Bey Arnabott, cut, and I came just in contact at the and the kakhiá Bey, remained in a deep top of the descent (the walls of which conversation about an bour, when the were immensely crowded with troops, inhuman and bloody plot was arranged: where is a wooden railed gate made by till this moment, none of them was aware the French,) with the end of the Bey's of Mohammed Aly's atrocious design ! cavalry ; I stopped to see Tóssún Pashá. Even the kakhiá Bey himself, who is passing, intending then to go out of the bis prime minister, knew nothing of it ! east gate, where I had left my servant

After the sanguinary consultation with the ass, and to proceed to see the was over, the kakhiá Bey returned to whole procession through the city. the great divan, where Tóssún Pashá But while standing there, among the was playing and laughing with Sha- soldiery, and when the last, except a heen Bey and the others. He (the few, of the Beys' horsemen had passed, kakbia) desired him to walk to his fath- I saw, to my utmost horror, (oay, not er's

apartments, together with the great myself only, but every one of the crowd, chiefs there. On his arrival in the even Tóssún Pashá himself, saw) the drawing-room, the pellice was put over gate closed, and Ahmed Bey Arnaoott, his shoulders, and he went and kissed running about the walls and screaming his father's band. Terrible exclama- to the troops“ fire ;" who, being pot tions now of prayers for the Sultan and aware of the plot, and seeing that if the Pashá, with cheers of hope for the they had extended their arms with the victory, were heard all over the castle, pistols, they must touch, with the muzwhich was completely crowded with zles, either a head or a part of a human soldiery. The Beys, as well as the body, were rather at a loss where to fire, other chiefs, paid their congratulations and did not fire immediately! Whereto the Pasha and his proclaimed son, upon Ahmed Bey himself took out bis and went to form the procession. The pistol and fired it at one of the Beys;

VOL. 6.]
Dr, Cross on the Foot and Leg.

173 by doing which, a horrible and unfail- brought to Mohammed Aly, then most ing fire was, of course, opened upon cruelly sent to his unhappy wise! Afterthem from every direction. The spec- wards it was skinned, the skin filled up tacle of the poor innocent victims falling with straw, and sent to Constantinople. off their borses from one side and from • The prisoners, or the other Beys, tbe other, was most awful to eve- were taken to the stable under the great ry human sense. The languid scream- divan, and from the back gate were caring of them was most shocking to the ried, like lambs, one after the other, to feelings; and the terror altogether was the ruins by the south wall of the castle, beyond imagination ! The few of where, to the horror of every feeling of them who by chance were not killed or sensibility, they were most inhumanly wounded by the first fire, alighted from beheaded ! their horses, but being so dreadfully Dromedaryers were now dispatched confined withio that narrow passage, with orders from Mohammed Aly to could dot assist themselves at all ; and the governors of every province, to seize when the railed gate was opened, after all the Mamlúks who might be found, the first firing, they ran (as I did my- or have been sent by Shaheen Bey on self) into the castle, seeking for mercy. business, in the villages, and send them But with the utmost degree of atrocity, in chains to Cairo. they were pursued by the soldiery, and • About 200 of these unfortunates were picked up one by one !

collected from the country, and sent to “Shaheen Bey was found among them, Old Cairo, where they likewise were slightly wounded in his head and arm : most barbarously beheaded. The whole he requested the soldiers who took him, number of the poor innocent victims of to carry him to the presence of Moham. this most atrocious and horrible massamed Aly, who, on hearing that Shaheen cre, (of which no human sense could Bey Elfy was still alive, was so brutish form an idea,) was between 6 and 700 ! and barbarous as to order, without hes- • Thus the Mamláks were extirpated itation, his head to be immediately from Egypt, and the house of Elfy exbrought to him ! and all the other Beys tinguished, except Emeen Bey* and who were taken prisoners to be also Ahmed Bey, who by receiving a letter beheaded ! Poor Shaheen Bey was from his wife at Cairo, succeeded io efcarried to the door of the mosque, eastfecting bis escape to Nubia.' of the ruins of Joseph's Hall, and there • One of the slaves who had been with Elfy Bey in ended bis existence. His head was England.

DR. CROSS ON THE FOOT AND LEG.*

Extracted from Blackwood's (Ed.) Magazine. THE Doctor commences bis treatise slightest movement would have been, work, in which he had embodied bis menon “than the seeming trunk of a views of the structure of some of the tree to the more experienced observer, most important parts of the human when it turns suddenly round upon frame, and remarks, that however well him in all the characters and reality of these may be entitled to the first place a crocodile.He then goes on to 90in rank and estimation, without instru- tice, that animal motion differs from ments of locomotion, they would be of all other natural motion in being more no avail to their professor. Motion, complex. be well observes, is a thing so familiar “Unlike the chemical motions ato us, that we are little capable of re- mongst the particles of matter-unlike flecting on its true nature or import- the rushing of the loose element of water ance; and yet, he continues, bad man never before perceived motion, the Foot and Leg; by John Cross, M.D. Glasgow. 1819.

On the Mechanism and Motions of the Human

to its level, or of the looser element of cold-blooded animals all their days, he air to its equilibrium-unlike the sub- has more bumanely and wisely been lime gliding of worlds, these projectiles speculating on the admirable mechaof Deity, through empty woresisting nismo of their frames and motions. space-animal motion is performed by Nothing can be more ingenious than a complicate machinery, which bas to the following passage. work, by its owu exertions, its labo- “ The shape best calculated for morrious and definite way, step by step, ing onward and about is represented by through a resisting medium. This the salmon-long from head to tailanimal machinery is composed of a solid deep from back to breast-narrow from frame-work of various bones, curiously side to side. But how is the animal joined together into one firm moveable with such a shape duly to maintain instrument, upon which is fixed a com- such a critical position, more especially plexture of muscular and tendinous as there is a continual tendency, from ropes, so constituted as to be capable of the preponderancy of the back, to turn drawing in indefinitely various degrees upside down, as it seems in a dead fish of force, velocity, and extent, and so floating in the water. The equality of arranged as to be capable of pulling in the fish to the watar, in point of specific every moveable direction.”

gravity, adds to the difficulty of mainThe truth is that this difference ob- taining the evenly posture. The whole tains between animal motion and all bodily arrangement of the fish, in short, other motion, of whatever kind; for seems to conspire against the posture whatever motion is apparently more which it must and does maintain during complex than animal motion, is in fact lite. What plan does Nature adopt in nothing more than the result and crea- tiis seeming emergency? She just tion of animal motion--and could not avails herself of all these apparent dishave existed, or continue to exist, with- advantages, and turns them io the very out the exertion of man's hands and best account. She furnishes the animal feet. The work of a clock can spin with fins, which it behoves assiduously out motion for a length of time but to ply in resistance to this tendency of can it ever produce so much of the ori- the body to turn upside down. This ginal momentum which sets the mo- is a device that so. combines simplicity tion a-going as would bruise the mi- with utility as to transcend all ordinary nutest fibre of the most airy down ? mechanical contrivances. From the

On the motion of fish the Doctor has simple arrangement of making the back some very interesting remarks, which, heavier than the belly, the fins must we confess, much as we are skilled in labour to sustain the body against a all the mysteries of angling, were quite weight, whose tendency is merely to novel to us. It is wonderful how long turn it upside down, with the same acone may go on hooking trout and tivity and perseverance that are necessary spearing salmon, without taking one to counteract a weight, whose tendency single philosophical view of the na- is to drag the animal to the bottom. tural style of notion practised by these Thus the fish, by keeping the fios in victims of our art and malice. We constant and active play, possesses all think nothing of them, except as things the steadiness that weight can confer catchable, and perhaps as things eat- without the continual disadvantage of able. Indeed it would be a cruel piece sinking. This buoyancy of the lower of mockery in a bloody tormentor, such part of the body virtually constitutes a as Isaac Walton or ourselves, ever to standing, upon which the upper and affect any pleasure in any merely inno- beavier part must be constantly poised; cent kind of contemplation of the so that the fish, though equal in specific “mute children of ocean," as Æschy- gravity to the water, and equally pressed lus calls them. But Dr. Cross, we sup- by it on all sides, has a centre of gravity pose, is no angler, and while others to balance upon a base of support. To have, been in cold blood butchering maintain the equilibrium, and to adjust VOL. 6.]

Dr. Cross on the Foot and Leg.

175

the position of the body to the direction a bigh temperature in the midst of so of the course, is almost the whole duty cold a medium. For enabling them to belonging to those fins that are arranged ascend to the surface for breath, and over the body; while the tail fin is the then to dive into the deep for food, the main instrument of motion of turning tail fins are flattened horizontally, round, and of darting forward. Nay, Comparative anatomists have idly and it is astonishing how long a fish, cropped falsely endeavoured to find an analogy of all the other fins, can balance itself, between the pectoral and abdominal or can recover the balance when lost, fins of cold-blooded fishes, and the fore with the tail fin alone, as if it were para- and hind extremities of quadrupeds. mouot; until by the extraordinary ex- Warm blooded cetaceous animals, ertion, Becessarily called forth, the however, with their four fins, two on animal at length becomes exhausted, by the chest, and two on the tail, are virand bye begins to reel, then fairly turns tually quadrupeds in the midst of the up its belly, and ere long expires. The ocean. The pectoral fins resemble the tail fin, towards which the anatomist anterior extremities of quadrupeds, in finds so much muscle disposed on each function, in situation, and even in strucside, acts at once as helm and paddle. ture; but, as the purpose of Nature is Thus the fish, by striking the tail to the not to satisfy the comparative anatomist, right, wheels to the left; by striking it by carrying out analogies, but to furnish to the left, wheels to the right; and by the animal with organs most suitable striking it doubly to right and left, or to for swimming, so the two tail fins releft and right, darts forward with a ra- semble the posterior extremities of pidity which often escapes the acutest quadrupeds, not 30 much in structure as eye. It is almost incredible how the in function. In the amphibious seal salmon, in prosecuting its instinctive and sea-cow, the two hind extremities, route up fresh-water streams, by a few stretching backwards, and approximallashes with the tail in the pool below, ing toward each other, resemble tail surmounts cascades of remarkable height. fins, and thus form a connecting link It is scarcely requisite to mention, that between the hind extremities of cetaceous the rapidity of swimming is proportion- animals, and of quadrupeds. The al, other circumstances being equal to natural history of cetaceous animals has the size of fish."

been but little studied. What hinders But fishes are not the only tenants their variety and gradation to extend of the deep-there are abundance of upwards to water monkeys, whose animals which make use of the air on shyness arising from superior cunning, the surface of the water, as well as of and whose nimbleness arising from the food that is below-these are whales superior structure, may have enabled -dolphins-sea-unicorns, &c.&c. who them, amid the trackless unfathomable do not breathe water by means of gills, ocean, so to elude human ken, os to but pure air by means of lungs, chest, have hitherto held naturalists sceptical and nostrils, opening at the top of the with regard to the existence and nature head—in the coinmon language of ma- of mermaids. ludeed inan has but a riners, blowing fishes."

scanty knowledge of the inhabitants of “ Enjoying warm blood, a more com- the deep. Of the various aqueous plete circulation, a more vigorous lise, strata, and their appropriate inhabitants, and a more efficient structure, these he knows but lille ; for the tew which, animals prey upon fishes, properly so he entangles and drags up, can give, called, and hold the goveroment of the him but hiile information of the swarmmighty deep by the right of strength, ing multitudes and varieties that are and upon the principle of rapacity. left behind. In the lathomless depths Their blubber, from being lighter than and recesses of the pervading ocean, water, enables them to dispense with miles below the suriare, there may air-bags; and, from being a slow con- dwell numberless creatures which the ductor of heat, enables them to maintain light of day has never reached, and 10

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