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tain two or three plays ; which will tism, who oppose the propagation of be accompanied by prefaces from knowledge and learning. The same the pen of A. G. Schlegel, trans- author has translated into modern lated into Italian, with critical and Greek, and published for the behistorical notes, by M. Leoni. It nefit of his countrymen, Schell's is but just, that while the Italian Elementary Chronology, translated poets form a part of the studies of from the French; and Tenneman's the polite, in all countries, and in our Abridged History of Philosophy, own particularly, our bards should translated from the German. These also become familiar in Italy. We are dedicated to M. Nicolaides, a anticipate much information and Greek merchant, settled at Odessa, pleasure from Mr Schlegel's ac- who has paid the expenses of pub. companiments.
lishing these works for the advantage GREECE.—The progress of that of the rising generation. More than civilization, which is the constant at- three hundred copies of them have tendant or consequence of letters, been given by order of M. Nicocontinues to be rapid. The number of laides, to young students, who have schools of the second order, or Gym- distinguished themselves, by their nasia, augments daily. The princi- promptitude in learning, and by their pal establishments of the kind are at good conduct and fair character. Smyrna, at Kydonios (a small town Letters from Corfu, dated in of eight or ten thousand inhabitants, January last, inform us, that M. opposite the island of Lesbos,) and Gerasimos Pizzamanos, a native of in the island of Chios. A young Cephalonia, and formerly pupil of man, a native of Kydonios, mentioned M. Percier of the French Institution, above, has staid long enough in the and of the French Academy at printing office of M. Didot, at Paris, Rome, has returned from traversing io perfect himself in the art of print- various districts of Greece and Asia ing. A daughter of the Profes. Minor, where he has visited nume. sor of the Gymnasium in that town, rous monuments of antiquity. He named Erianthia, not
is now at Corfu, with his port-folio eighteen years of age, has translated filled with a great number of beautiinto modern Greek, Fenelon's work ful drawings. The Government on the Education of Daughters. confided to him the undertaking of The inhabitants of Chios have held furnishing plans for the palace of the meetings for the purpose of raising Grand Master of the new Order of subscriptions in order to establish a St Michael and St George; and his Public Library
designs having been adopted, he has M. Koumas, Director of the New also been employed to make drawGreek College at Smyrna, arrived ings for a new Grand College, and some time ago at Vienna, for the pur- for other public establishments; in pose of causing several works to be which, no doubt, he will display adprinted. He has already published the ditional proofs of his natural talent, first two volumes of his Course of Phi- cultivated and improved by extenlosophy, composed in modern Greek; sive study and much reflection; and to which is prefixed a letter to M. F. we may again see the Fine Arts Mauros, containing salutary advice of Greece revive, and perhaps estato his compatriots, and exposing the blish themselves, in their native soil. fallacies of those friends to despo
THE FINE ARTS.
A great deal of common.place cant and rewarded, because they illustrate has been both talked and written on and adorn. The spirit of inquiry is the pretended infancy of the Arts of fatal alike to superstition and des. Sculpture and Painting in Great Bri- potism ; while the arts of poetry, tain; and various theories, all of them painting, sculpture, and even archi. unfounded, and many of them absurd tecture, have been employed, to conand nonsensical, have at different secrate and hallow, as it were, the times been invented and put forth to greatest scourges of the human race. account for this supposed anomaly. “ Sint Maecenates non deerunt MaFreedom, it is said, is congenial to rones," said Martial; and the obserthe expansion of the human mind, vation applies felicitously to the point whether in its intellectual or ima. under consideration. The ardent paginative exertions; and it is there. tronage which the Italian Pontiffs fore the more wonderful that in this and nobles extended to the Fine the only free country in Europe, the Arts, rendered excellence in them arts of design should still continue in the certain road to distinction and so depressed and inferior a state. afluence. Need we then wonder, Now, assuming the fact to be as these that as the competition was keen, so theorists suppose it, there will be lit- the results were exquisite ? or that, tle difficulty, we think, in accounting with the refined models of ancient satisfactorily for the alleged inferio- greatness, taste, and genius, lying in rity, in genius and execution, of our profusion around them, the artists native artists.
of Italy should have distanced those In despotic governments, like of every other country in Europe ? those of Rome, Venice, and Genoa, How differently are men circum. where the whole genius of the peo- stanced in a free country like our ple is forced into one channel, and own ? There the paths to eminence, where fortune and eminence can on- to glory, and to riches are innumely be acquired by the chisel or the rable. The bar, the senate, the pencil, it is natural to expect the field ; science, literature, commerce, highest degree of excellence in the agriculture, each presents its apfew departments in which genius can propriate allurements and rewards. either exert its innate energies, or
The national mind, if we may say so, expect a commensurate reward. But is, in some measure, subdivided, and patronage ever follows the bent and each chooses for himself the particu. direction, whether natural or artifi- lar career, in which, from nature or cial, of genius. The same Pontiff adventitious circumstances, he is who caused Tasso be crowned in the most likely to realise the objects of Capitol, consigned Gallileo to the his ambition. Hence but comparadungeons of the Inquisition. The tively few can devote themselves to object of his esteem and regard was the pursuit of the Fine Arts, which, not philosophy but poetry; not the while they require immense labour sober deductions of reason, but the and study, promise only a distant brilliant creations of the fancy. The and precarious reward. But let us former are dangerous, because they look to those arts which are more enlighten; the latter are honoured particularly congenial to a free government-oratory and poetry-and Canova, have not we our Chantrey? then ask ourselves, how much we and if we can produce nothing to are inferior to Italy or any other na- equal the inimitable bas-reliefs of tion? What country in Europe, for Thorwaldson, has not Rome borrowexample, can produce any specimens ed him of Denmark? Have not the of eloquence to be compared with the portraits of our own Lawrence met orations of Burke, Fox, Pitt and She with unqualified admiration even in ridan ? what bar or bench can rival Rome itself? And who but an arrant the judicial exhibitions of Dunning, driveller would pretend to underMansfield, Erskine, or Ellenborough? value the genius of Wilkie or Allan ? what dramas or epics are fitted to We hold that, at this moment, the eclipse the glories of Shakespeare, Fine Arts are in a more promising Spencer and of Milton? These are state in Britain than in any other the imperishable monuments of free country in the world. By the munidom, identified almost with the very ficence and taste of our nobility and physical existence of the old, and gentry, the want of models can no with that of a large portion of the longer be complained of. The works new world.
the great Italian, Spanish, French, But farther, we hold that mere pa- and Flemish Masters have been purtronage will never create absolute ex- chased at whatever price, and freecellence in the Fine Arts. Nor do we ly and liberally exhibited to public believe that all the Leo's and Medi. admiration, and to form and direct ci's of Italy would have ever elicited the public taste. Indigenous genius the genius of Raffaelle, Buonarotti, has been sought out, fostered, patroCorreggio, Da Vinci, Dominichino, nised, and rewarded. A general or the Carracci, but for the mo- love of the arts has increased, is innuments of the free-born genius of creasing, and cannot be diminished. ancient Rome, with which the minds Hence the augmenting number of of these great artists grew up in close the candidates for fame which every and intimate familiarity. These men year's exhibition brings forward; and only caught, reflected from the ruins hence the presage that we draw of of ancient greatness and art, a por. the future ascendancy of this great tion of that diviner mind, the impress country in the Fine Arts,—an ascenof which these monunients still bore, dancy which, in the arts that minister and employed in adorning supersti- to national wealth, comfort, and haption, or enwreathing with flowers piness, she already incontestably enthe fetters of despotism, that art joys. But we must leave these spewhich they had learned amidst the culations, and descend to the less relics of ancient greatness and re- pleasing, but more useful task of renown ; thus, by a strange retribu. cording facts. tion, enshrining in the drapery In the April of this year, an exhiwrought out by the lofty and original bition of the works of the ancient genius of antiquity, the foul and o- masters took place at Edinburgh. dious forms of a dark and remorse- This was the commencement of a less superstition.
new era, and ought to be hailed with But, after all, is the state of the delight and exultation by every lover Fine Arts in our own country so very of art. Among the pictures exbibitdeplorable as some fastidious travel- ed, a very general preference appe led cognoscenti and virtuosi would ed to be given to those of Claude pretend ? If Italy has at present her Lorraine, than which none show a finer mind, or represent the beau ideal the horse. The Sea Storm by Ver. in greater perfection. Next in the net was considered one of the subscale of merit was placed the Fortune limest pieces of that celebrated masof Guido, a duplicate of the celebrated ter. Its materials are taken from picture by the same master in the Va. Italian scenery, the round tower on tican. The Vatican Fortune, however, the left hand being the Tower of is more delicately coloured, and ex- Cecilia Metella near Rome, and the hibits a greater warmth of tint than cliffs beyond it, the rocks of Terrathe picture in this exhibition; but cino. This picture is decidedly suin other respects the two pictures perior to the Storm Piece by the are nearly equal in merit. The Land same author in the Louvre. The Storm by Poussin is a very grand com- cabinet picture of the Madona and position, and seems to have been Child by Correggio was also greatrated very highly by all those who ly admired, even by those who were had not seen his Deluge, perhaps the most conversant with the other chef d'æuvre of that great master, works of that great artist. It ex. the classical purity of whose forms, bibits all his delicacy and softness unrivalled as it confessedly is, he al. of shading; while the countenance ways renders subordinate to the story of the infant displays that heavenly of the picture, in telling which he sweetness of expression which so penever had, and we believe never will culiarly characterises his productions. have any equal. This remark will These were the most remarkable be perfectly intelligible to all those works exhibited on this occasion; and who have seen the great masterpiece we regret that the necessity of comto which we have just alluded. pression forbids us to dwell at great.
Of the works of Hobbema, so lit- er length on the excellencies of this tle known in this country, this ex. delightful collection, than which the hibition contained two, the very Continent could boast of but few, counterparts of those of Claude either of greater extent, or more Lorraine, who threw so exquisite a distinguished merit: in landscapes, glow over every object he repre in particular, it would be difficult in sented. He lived on the skirts of an the same compass to find its equal. old forest, and his best pictures are Sig. Raffaelli has succeeded in a delineation of the different combi- forming at Milan a considerable es. nations which its aged forms exhibit tablishment for executing works in ed. The vigour of his drawing can- Mosaic, especially on a large scale: not, however, be surpassed, and, in at present this establishment is occusome measure, atones for the cold pied in executing a copy of Leoand lowering atmosphere with which nardo da Vinci's famous picture of he delights to invest his subjects. the Last Supper. This Mosaic will Two pictures by Velasquez, the cost 24,000 ducats : it is unquesgreatest ornament of the Spanish tionably one of the largest of its kind; School, were also in this collection, since it measures 30 feet in length, the portrait of the Pope, and a Cava: by 15 feet in height. It is for the lier on horseback. Some defect in Emperor of Austria.-Mosaic is a the position of the legs of the noble kind of work in which, by means of animal on which the cavalier is small pieces of glass, figures and mounted, was pretty generally re- representations of all kinds are promarked by those conversant in the duced. It is the most tedious of different attitudes and positions of operations, but has the advantage of
being indestructible by the air, or by considerable talent, particularly some ordinary accidents. 'It was much fine groups of cattle by De Kay, practised by the ancients; and some in landscape,) in the manner of of their Mosaics, more than two Cuyp. There were also some exthousand years old, yet remain in cellent portraits by Naviz, a pupil good condition.
of David, and by the Chevalier OdeIn the course of the season Mr vaire, and Olls, who have studied Allan produced a picture, the sub- at Rome. ject of which is the celebration of Three beautiful Frescoes of DoMr James Hogg, the Ettrick Shep- minichino have been removed, by an herd's Birth-day; and which dis- Italian artist, from the damp wall of plays his usual felicity in the dispo- the Palace Farnese, where they sition of his lights, and the grouping must have speedily perished, and of his figures. The picture is in- placed upon canvas. Thus saved tended as a good-humoured quiz of from slow, but inevitable destruccertain individuals composing a club tion, they will prove interesting exof some notoriety, called the Edin- amples of the peculiar powers and burgh Dilettanti Society.
advantages of this branch of art. The magnificent collection of pic- At the July Exhibition of the Fine tures, which formed the Cabinet of Arts in Florence, were displayed the late M. Burtin at Brussels, has the Casts of the Marbles which been brought to the hammer. The Lord Elgin brought from the TemDeath of Abel, esteemed the master- ple of Minerva, at Athens, (the Parpiece of Guido, the fine Murillos, thenon), and which now form the and other celebrated pictures, which principal ornament of the National have for some time been exhibited Museum of Britain. These casts by M. Snyeis of Antwerp, have been are a present from the Prince Repurchased by Government, or ra- gent; in return for which, some of ther taken at a valuation, to liqui- the finest statues in the celebrated date a public debt, the proprietor Gallery at Florence are to be mobeing a defaulter in his capacity of delled and sent to his Royal Hightax-gatherer. The magical portrait ness. Among them is the celebrated of Rubens, called the Chapeau de groupe of Niobe and her Children. Paille, which has long been in the pos- The above valuable and advantasession of a private family at Ant- geous exchanges in the Fine Arts werp, has been lately sold for a large have taken place in consequence of sum to a descendant of the painter. the suggestions of the British Envoy,
This is the picture said to have been his Excellency Lord Burghersh. purchased for the Duke of Welling- None of the modern discoveries ton at Aix-la-Chapelle. The mag- of Grecian Sculpture can be consi. nificent Altar-piece, The taking down dered as more important or interest. from the Cross, and other celebrated ing, than that of the Statues, which works of Rubens, now restored to adorned the east and west pediments the Cathedral of Antwerp, have of the Temple of Jupiter Panbellebeen copied by Reinagle, an English nios, in the Island of Ægina. The artist, and the copies are much ad- only two which are of equal consimired even in presence of the ori- deration, the discovery of the Niobe ginals.
and her Children, in Rome, in 1583, The Exhibition of the Works of and more recently, of The Muses, in the modern Flemish Artists displayed the Villa Hadriana, occurred at pe