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Midsummer of the present year ;
The fall of prices had not yet opebut before the end of it, prices were rated materially upon the wages of considerably lower, with a tendency country labour, though, towards the to sink still farther. Yet butcher- end of the year, want of employmeat was higher in proportion than ment began to be felt in some places, corn, the usual quantity of stock not farmers being no longer able to conhaving been reared in 1816 and 1817; duct their works of improvement and, perhaps from the scarcity of with the same spirit as formerly. their 'food in these two years, a
The state of the corn trade of greater number of cattle and sheep Britain, for the three years ending was then forced into the market. with 1819, is exhibited in the folThe retail price ranged between 6d. lowing Abstract, which is taken from and 8d. per pound. Wool fell a
Wool fell a. official documents : bout a third below the price of 1818, but not below the average of a few years proceeding.
Thus, the excess of the imports ters, and the yearly excess 2,156,407 into Britain in these three years, quarters. It must be attended to, was 9,172,775 quarters, or at the however, that nearly all the wheat rate of 3,057,591; quarters yearly. imported in 1819, and a great part But, independent of the trade with of the other kinds of grain, did not Ireland, which cannot be viewed in come into the market, the ports haany other light than the trade be- ving been shut at different periods tween England and Scotland, or be against the importation of foreign tween the several districts of either, grain, except for the warehouse. the excess was 6,469,221 quar,
II. COMMERCIAL REPORT.
Although general complaints of sure in recording the progressive the lowness of wages, and bankrupt. revival of British trade and commerce cies, the result chiefly of excessive during the whole of this year. Dis. adventure and speculation, were by contents and disturbances of rather no means unfrequent, we have plea an alarming character prevailed, it is true, in many of the manufactur. in 1818, it increased to 47,232: the ing districts, such as at Manchester, returns for 1819 have not yet reached Leeds, Huddersfield, Glasgow, Pais- us; but, from many circumstances, ley, and Greenock; but these, we we have reason to believe that the have reason to believe, were created increase in that year, as compared more by the arts and designs of a with the preceding, has been still few desperate demagogues, than by greater than that of 1818, as conthe pressure of the times, or the trasted with 1817. The joint imwant of employment. Wages, it is ports from the East Indies for 1817 admitted, were still low, but the in- and 1818 amounted to 9504 packages. dustrious and peaceable had work By a published statement now in abundance, and there was every before us, it would appear that appearance of a gradual increase in trade, at the Port of Leith, has likethe demand for our manufactured wise made considerable advances. goods, which would have been ne. The increase of foreign trade at that cessarily followed by a corresponding port in 1818, as compared with amelioration of the condition both 1817, was one hundred and fifty. of the manufacturer and the
opera. seven vessels inwards, and eightytive. That, for several years prior four outwards ; that of the coasting to this, the labouring classes had trade, two hundred and thirty-nine been subjected to the severest priva- vessels inwards, and two hundred tions and distress, is matter of the and seventy-six outwards. utmost notoriety. But a reaction From the southern parts of Enghad apparently commenced. The land the accounts are equally fa. continental nations, the purchasers vourable. Two years ago the ironof our surplus manufactures, were works were at a complete stand, and slowly but effectually recovering those employed in them reduced to from the hardships entailed by a the greatest distress; whereas at preruinous and long.protracted war: sent they are hardly able to execute and as their condition was bettered, the numerous orders they have receive the demand for the produce of Bri- ed. The price of the manufactured tish industry began to increase. commodity still continues low, as Our cottons and our hardware, al. was indeed to be expected; but if ways in request, began once more the workmen have not high, or even to bring remunerating prices. In comfortable wages, they have em. Manchester, Leeds, and Glasgow the ployment and bread, with the progood effects of this change soon be- spect of a speedy addition to their gan to be apparent. Workmen were comforts and enjoyments. in full employ, and wages were some- During the first five or six months what improved, with the agreeable of the year, sugars, coffee, and oprospect of their making still farther ther colonial produce, except cotadvances. This was particularly ton, continued rather heavy, and dethe case in Glasgow. In 1816, the clined considerably in price. Atotal number of cotton packages bout the middle of June, sugars sudimported into that place was so low denly rose in price, but towards the as 41,918; in 1817, the number had end of the month fell again to the augmented to 50, 170; and in 1819, former rate. A government conit amounted to no less than 62,145. tract in the same month for 80,000 By the impulse given to manufac- gallons of rum, caused a considerturing industry, the consumption in able advancenient in the price of 1817 amounted to 46,507 packages: that commodity; which, however,
was reduced by the subsequent ar- ment by the necessity of the case, rival of very extensive consignments. no less than by every principle of eTowards the close of this month the conomical science. Had the system demand for coffee was very animat. of 1797 been much longer adhered ed, and the prices for some time im- to, there can be no doubt that every proved considerably : the market thing like a measure of value would had been previously in a very fluc. have gradually vanished. The detuating and unsettled state. Soon preciation of paper would have proafter, the price declined to the form- gressively increased; prices would er rate. In August, both at London have continued to rise ; one class of and the outports, the demand for the community would have been encotton was brisk and extensive. riched, and all others ruined; conVery considerable sales, for home tracts would have been only so many consumption, were effected both at pieces of waste paper ; gold and silGlasgow and Liverpool.
ver would have completely disappearmount of cotton imported from the ed from circulation; and the Bank of beginning of the year till September, England would have in a little time has been, Bengal 58,479 bales, absorbed into itself the whole wealth Surat, 27,549 ; Madras, 4599; Bour. and property of the kingdom. This bon, 515; Brazil, 9028; American, state of things was not to be endured; 2599; West India islands, 3775; and and a return to the old standard had Smyrna, 298. The accounts from therefore become indispensable. But the East Indies state British goods the malignant effects ascribed to this to be in considerable demand in Ben- measure could not, even if real, be gal.
sensibly felt during the year the hisIn the course of the two last months tory of which we have to record. In of the year, a considerable rise took December 1818, the bank issues, place in the prices of sugars, caused, which a year before had amounted no doubt, in part, if not altogether, to L. 29,210,035, were reduced to by recent intelligence of a destruc- L.26,487,859 ; which is somewhat tive hurricane in the West Indies. more than the quantity of paper in The demand for cotton, previously circulation in June 1816; and the on the rise, continued to augment resolutions of the Lords expressly in consequence of the news of the provided, that the operations of the failure of the cotton crop in the bank, in calling in a portion of their East Indies. The result has been paper currency, should be gradual, that prices have risen considerably. not violent. The effect of these opeThe price of rum continued unalter- rations, therefore, could not be very ed.
sensibly felt at the period of which The check given to the issues of we write, except by speculators, and paper by the resolutions adopted by persons without capital, to whose the House of Lords on the 21st of projects, we grant, the measure neMay, and which subsequently led to cessarily proved fatal. All this is prothe enactment of what has been calle ved by the state of our exports and ed Mr Peel's bill, gave rise to much imports for the year 1819. needless and ignorant clamour; for The following account of the total although that measure could not fail real, or declared value of the proto have a powerful effect upon prices, duce and manufactures of the united to give a severe blow to speculation, kingdom, exported from Great Briand to advantage greatly the public tain, during each of the three years creditor, it was forced upon Parlia. ending on the 5th of January 1819, will give our readers a better idea possibly be accomplished by obserof the gradual improvement of our vations of a general character : com merce and industry than could 1817. 1818.
from Great Britain to all parts of the world.
L.12,287,274. An Account of the Total Value of all Articles imported into Great Britain
during each of the three years ending on the 5th of January 1819, as calculated at the official rates of valuation.
1819. Foreign and Colonial Mer.
L. 26,406,634 L.29,962,915 L.35,880,983 chandise, Produce of Ireland and the L. 3,698,931 1.. 4,002,318 L. 4,276,654
Isle of Man,
L. 30,105,565 L.33,965,231 L. 40,157,637 Hence it appears that the produce consumption appear to have receiand manufactures of the United King. ved nearly a
ved nearly a commensurate indom, exported during the year end
There can be little doubt, ing on the 5th of January 1819, ex- we think, that our capital, science, ceeded the manufactures exported machinery, and enterprise will render during the year ending on the same this prosperous commencement proday of January 1818, by no less a sum gressive; and that the demand for than L.5,277,507 ; and that the im- the products of British labour will ports of the former exceed those of augment in proportion as the nations the latter by L.6,192,406. If this be of the Continent recover from the not symptomatic of improvement in miseries and sufferings to which they our commerce and national industry, were so long subjected, and as they we know not what is. The powers advance in wealth and knowledge. of production and the powers of We subjoin a Table, shewing the Prices of Bullion per ounce during
the year 1819.
L.O 5 51L.O 5 51
5 9 0 5 7
0 5 5
0 5 29 5
0 5 5
er or on aren
0 5 2 0 5 0 0 5
3 17 10
Under this head we mean to con- clusion in some cases, air, exercise, fine ourselves to a simple detail of a and society in others, with mild and few of the more prominent facts, re- humane treatment in all, afford the lative to public health, furnished by only prospect of eradicating this, the the different medical reporters for greatest, evil with which human na. the year, without indulging in any ture is afflicted. Every separate case speculative remarks on à subject should in fact be made a separate which professional men are alone study, and the regimen judiciously competent to handle in a proper and carefully adapted to the condi
tion, habits, and previous life of each A Committee of the House of individual patient. Experience has Commons were lately engaged in an happily proved, that there are cominvestigation of the causes and cure paratively few cases so settled and of insanity, a malady which has, for malignant in their character as not some time past, been on the increase in time to yield to the constant and in this country; but no satisfactory unwearied observance of this, the information, we regret to say, was only system, which reason, religion elicited by a long and arduous in- and humanity alike unite to recomquiry. Of the practitioners and o- mend. ther persons connected with the re- In the course of the month of ceptacles for persons labouring un. March, scarlatina, in every variety der mental infirmity, scarcely two of form, and in every degree of viruwere agreed, either in their mode of lence, was epidemically prevalent in accounting for the disease, or in the London and its vicinity. It would treatment proper to be prescribed; also appear, by the Report of the one recommending purgatives, ano. Dispensary of the New Town of Ether vomiting, a third tonics, a fourth dinburgh, for the quarter ending on phlebotomy, and a fifth mercurials the 1st of this month, that fevers and alteratives. With one class, the were as prevalent as in the quarter cold, and with another, the hot bath ending on the 1st of December prewas the favourite remedy: and while ceding ; while the whole number of a few derided all medical interference cases had been increased by 374. in cases of mental sickness, by far the The proportion.of fevers to other greater number held, that, in propi. complaints had therefore diminishtious circumstances, no disease what. ed. On the 1st of December it was ever can resist the powers of medi- as 1 to 9; on the 1st of March it cine, properly applied. Amidst such was as 1 to 10.9. The greatest ex. a number of conflicting statements ertions have been made by the Maand opinions, it was hardly to be ex. nagers of the Royal Infirmary of pected that the Committee could Edinburgh, to accommodate all the arrive at any definite or very impor. fever patients who applied there, and tant conclusions.
It would seem,
we understand that the number of however, from the documents pub- such patients who applied there and Jished relative to the course of regis at Queensberry House averaged amen pursued at the Retreat at York, bove 160 in the month, for several and other places conducted upon the months prior to March. Contagion same enlightened principles, that sc- has been stated to be the exciting