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recommended by Dr Franklin and Mr Ferguson, by which they will go longer without winding up, and continue in action whilst winding.

A variety of other premiums were adjudged, the principal of which was a gold medal to Mr J. Young, for his improved method of collecting British opium. Mr Y. has proved that this valuable medicine may be collected in this country, with sufficient profit to induce the agriculturist to cultivate the poppy for this purpose, as well as to extract oil from its seeds.

and other noxious vegetables. The author then proceeds to detail a number of facts and experiments, in confirmation of these propositions, in the order of their enunciation.

At the same meeting a paper by Dr W. Howison, entitled, " An Account of several of the most important Culinary Vegetables of the interior of the Russian Empire," &c. was read. The first of these which the author treats of is the Russian Cucumber, a vegetable consumed in great quantities by the native Russians, as well as foreigners settled in the country, and which, he tells us, differs in many respects from the cu

CALEDONIAN HORTICULTURAL So- cumber of Great Britain, being small

CIETY.

Fewer premiums were distributed this year than in some of the preceding years; and the papers read to the society were in a great measure destitute of interest. Our notice of them therefore will be very concise.

On the 4th of March a paper from S. Parkes, Esq. London, entitled, "On the Employment of common Salt for the purposes of Horticulture," was read by the Secretary Mr Neill. After some preliminary observations on the progress of horticulture among different nations, the author proceeded to discuss the several branches of his subject in the following order: 1. That common salt, when applied in due proportions, has the effect of promoting the health and growth of vegetables: 2. That it has the property of rendering fruit trees and esculent plants unfit for the food or the habitation of worms and insects: 3. That common salt is one of the most efficacious substances that can be employed in a garden for the destruction of worms and insects: And, 4. That common salt may, with material advantage, be used for the destruction of weeds

er in size, yet containing a great quantity of juice and pulpy matter. The second is the Moscow early yellow turnip, produced in great abundance in Moscow and the Crimea. The third is the Narva yellow turnip, used in considerable quantity as an article of food by the Russian peasantry in the governments of the interior. The fourth is the variegated cabbage, brought by Krusenstern, the Russian circumnavigator, from the islands of the South Sea, and since his time cultivated in Russia. The fifth and sixth are the large black and the large white Russian raddish. The seventh and eighth are two species of water melon, natives of the coasts of the Black Sea; and the others consist of two kinds of celery, the bulbous-rooted and the rothen or red; a peculiar species of mustard from Russian Tartary, the seeds of which were brought from Sarepta, near the Chinese wall; and a peculiar species of onion from Chinese tartary.

On the 2d of September, a paper by Dr W. Howison was read, ențitled, "An Account of the Russian Chiccory Plant, and of the Artificial Coffee prepared in great quantity, over that country, from its roots, as

well as from the roots of common dandelion."

On the 2d of December a letter from Mr J. Dick to the Secretary was read, "On the advantage of grafting the Ribston Pippin on the more healthy Apple-Trees." It appears from the remarks of Mr D., that the ribston pippin in general produces strong wood, which however is often not ripened on standard trees, and is therefore ready to canker; and that those kinds of fruit trees, which have not their wood well ripened in the autumn, never produce fruit so well as those the wood of which attains maturity. The method proposed to remedy this evil is simply to procure some paradise pippin apples that have been wrought upon good crab stocks, by grafting the ribston pippin on which, it is enabled to make much finer wood, to ripen its wood, and to produce fruit abundantly either upon standard or espalier trees.

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ceased to take any interest or concern in that important branch of national industry; but at the general meeting in January, the society voted a piece of plate to Mr J. Mackenzie, of Richmond Place, Edinburgh, who had been formerly engaged in the fishery, for useful information furnished by him to the society, particularly in regard to the advantages that would result from employing large boats, and which had enabled the society to recommend the

measure.

It had been for some time well known to the society, not only that large tracts of land adjoining the sea on the northern coast of Scotland

had been covered and destroyed by drifted sands, but that, in some instances, such land had, by proper management, been reclaimed; as, for example, by Mr Young of Inverugie, on the coast of Morayshire. Their attention, however, was more particularly drawn to this subject, at the anniversary meeting this year, by Mr Macleod of Harris, who suggested the propriety of the society's offering premiums for successful experiments of this description in the Hebrides, including the coasts of Orkney and Shetland, where the injury was known to be most extensive. Premiums were accordingly offered for reclaiming land from drift sand in these districts; and they learn with pleasure, that experiments are in consequence making, which there is every reason to hope will be attended with success, and merit the encouragement held out by the society.

At the same meeting the society voted a premium of twelve guineas to Andrew Hislop, smith at Fountainhall, for constructing a bridge of malleable iron over the water of Gala, being the first bridge of this description erected in Scotland, which was attended with very small expense.

James Grant, Esq. of Corrymony, advocate, having published a very learned and ingenious treatise, entitled, "Thoughts on the Origin and Descent of the Gael," in which the author has thrown much light upon points connected with the history, manners, and language of the Gael, the society, at the anniversary meet. ing in January, voted its gold medal to Mr Grant as a mark of the society's approbation of the work; and at the subsequent meeting in July, the sum of ten guineas was voted to the Reverend A. Macdonald of Crieff, for having executed a translation of Ossian's poem, called Fingal, into Latin hexameter verse.

Besides a regular correspondence with the Highland Society of London, upon matters connected with Celtic literature and antiquities, the society has recently established communications on these subjects with the Royal Antiquarian Society of France, and the Cambrian Society. Particular mention is also made of the translation of Paradise Lost into the ancient British or Welsh language, by Mr Owen Pughe; of the treatise on the origin of ancient names in mythology, topography, history, &c. by Mr Dyer of Exeter; and of the translation of the poems of Ossian into the German language, by Dr C. W. Ahlwardt of Leipsig.

The society farther, at the anniversary meeting in January, on the motion of the Earl of Elgin and Kincardine, passed a resolution, recommending to its members a subscription for erecting a monument to the memory of our illustrious countrymen King Robert Bruce, whose remains had been recently discovered in the Abbey Church of Dunfermline.

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WHICH HAS SO LONG DESOLATED

AFRICA, degraded Europe, and AFFLICTED HUMANITY *. The Thirteenth Report of this most philanthropic Institution is now before us; and it is with the deepest sorrow we observe, that, notwithstanding the exertions, sacrifices, and example of this country,-notwithstanding the general abhorrence and execration which have been poured out against this murderous traffic, from one end of Europe to the other, notwithstanding the solemn declaration of the Congress of Vienna, of date the 8th of February 1815,-notwithstanding the highly commendable exertions of our Statesmen and Plenipotentiaries on that, and every subsequent occasion, where they could prudently interfere, down to the present time, so little progress has been made in putting an efficient stop to the trade in slaves, that, by the miserable subterfuges, the insincerity, and falsehood of foreign courts, the intentions of this country have been, in a great measure, rendered abortive, and a gainful and active commerce in human flesh, is carried on, chiefly under Spanish, Portuguese, and French flags, along the whole

The words of Mr Clarkson, the celebrated advocate of the abolition, in a pamphlet distributed to their Imperial and Royal Majestics, and their Representatives, at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, and certainly one of the most eloquent pieces of reasoning we have ever had the happiness to meet with,

coast of Africa, not immediately under the influence of the British Governments. A fact so afflicting to the friends of humanity in every country, deserves to be made as manifest, as the foul stain it inflicts on the national honour of those countries, which, in the face of the most deliberate declarations and solemn treaties, have winked at, or secretly encouraged this abominable traffic, is deep, fearful, and indelible. For this purpose, and under the conviction that the truth only requires to be known, to induce the friends of humanity (happily neither few nor powerless) to unite, heart, hand, and purse, in putting a period to the most crying evil of our age, we shall proceed to lay before our readers as full a statement of the facts which have been properly ascertained and authenticated, as our limits, and the multifarious character of the subjects we have to record, will possibly permit.

The narrative of the report commences by stating the proceedings, for the further abolition of the Slave Trade, instituted in pursuance of the additional article of the treaty, of November 1815, between the Allies and France. In December 1817, the Plenipotentiaries of Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia, held a conference in London upon this subject; at which Lord Castlereagh presented the two Conventions recently concluded with Portugal and Spain. At this conference a note was presented by the Portuguese Minister, stating that the King of Portugal, not having signed the additional article of the treaty of Paris, did not consider himself bound to take any part in these conferences, and that he would only do so upon the condition that due regard should be had to the interests, the customs, and even the prejudices of the sub

jects of those powers which still per mit this traffic; that each power having an inherent right to decree the final abolition at the period it might judge most expedient, that period should be fixed by mutual negociation; and that the general negociation which might ensue, should in no way prejudice the stipulation contained in the fourth article of the treaty between the King of Portugal and his Britannic Majesty, in which it is provided that the period of the final cessation of this traffic in the Portuguese dominions should be determined by a separate treaty between these powers. These conditions being complied with, a second conference took place in London in February 1818, at which Lord Castlereagh read a note, containing a proposition for the more effectual abolition of the slave trade, already rendered illegal by treaty. The following are the prominent topics contained in this important document :-That since the restoration of peace, a considerable revival of the slave trade had taken place on the coast of Africa to the north of the Line:-That the trade thus carried on was marked with increased horrors from the inhuman practice of crowding slaves on board vessels better adapted to escape from cruizers than to import human beings:-That as Africa had advanced in commercial prosperity as the Slave Trade had been suppressed, so, with its revival, every prospect of improvement appeared to vanish :That the British Government had made considerable exertions to check the growing evil; but that since the return of peace and the restoration of the French and Dutch settlements on that coast, the trade in slaves had greatly increased:-That, with a view to avoid giving umbrage to friendly powers, the British Government had, in 1816, abandoned the bellige

rent right of search:-That it was, however, proved beyond the possibility of doubt, that unless the right to visit vessels should be established, the illicit traffic would, in time of peace, not only subsist, but increase, from the system of obtaining fraudulent papers and concealing ownership:-That even if the traffic were to be universally abolished, and a single state should refuse to submit its flag to the visitation of vessels of other states, slave-traders would still have the means of eluding detection :-That since it had been unlawful for him to appear north of the Line, the Portuguese slave-trader had concealed himself under the Spanish flag:--That whilst the flags of France, Holland, and the United States are not included in the system established by the conventions with Spain and Portugal, the effect must be to vary the character of the fraud, rather than to suppress the mischief:-That the Congress of Vienna declared, in the face of all mankind, that this traffic should cease, and that the law of the abolition is nothing in itself unless the contraband slave trade shall be suppressed by a combined system, a measure which they owed it to themselves to unite their earnest endeavours to accomplish. For this purpose it is proposed, that all the other maritime powers should be invited to give their accession to the following general provisions: 1. An engagement not only to declare the importation of slaves illegal, but to constitute trafficking in slaves a criminal act, to be punished by an acknowledged principle of international law: 2. An engagement mutually to concede the right of search to their respective ships of war: And, 3. The adoption of the minor regulations contained in the Conventions with Spain and Portugal, with such modifications as might appear calculated

to obviate abuse, and render the system more unobjectionable as a general law.

His Lordship then went into some details, as to how a species of police might be organised to give greater effect to a principle recommended at once by every rule of justice, Christianity, and humanity; and upon these grounds invited the different Plenipotentiaries to solicit, without delay, from their respective sovereigns, the authority necessary to carry this object into effect. This was accordingly done, yet no answer was received from them previous to the Congress at Aix-la-Chapelle.

In the month of June Lord Castlereagh addressed a letter to Mr Rush, the American Minister in London, stating, that after the 30th of May 1820, no flag could legally cover this detested,traffic; inclosing copies of the treaties with Spain and Portugal, for the total or partial abolition of the slave trade; and earnestly begging him to submit these documents to the consideration of the President of the United States. To this request Mr Rush readily assented.

Previous to the meeting of the Congress at Aix-la-Chapelle, the Directors of the African Institution had received from the coast of Africa the most authentic information of the increased and increasing extent of the slave trade. This information was embodied in a very able and eloquent pamphlet by Mr Clarkson, one of the directors, and so deservedly celebrated for his unceasing labours in the cause of the oppressed Africans, together with a comprehensive view of the measures which had been hitherto adopted, and distributed to the Allied Sovereigns assembled in congress. In due time the subject came under the consideration of those August Potentates and their Ministers; and the result

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