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May 7.-The“ Description of the are two very remarkable arched rocks: Valley of the Ligovca," by the Hon. one of the openings is about 60 feet Mr Strangways, was read. The river high, and between 50 and 60 feet Ligovca, or Doordorovca, issues from wide. It is formed in a basaltic rock, the lake Doordoroff, fifteen miles to resting on green sand, and does not the south-west of St Petersburgh. At contain any fossils. a short distance from this lake, it is June 4. —The reading of Mr Tayexpanded into a second, and finally lor's paper, “On the smelting of Tindischarges itself into the Gulf of Fin. ores in Cornwall and Devonshire,” beland, through a marsh which is daily gun at last, was concluded at the preincreasing in extent. In the upper sent meeting. The author observes, part of its course the bed of the river. that tin-ore is found in two states, in is composed of limestone; but when veins accompanied by other metals, it leaves the second lake it passes into or in detached fragments dispersed a channel of blue clay, and its banks through alluvial matter: these are reare covered with an accumulation of spectively known by the names of gravel. The heights on the west side mine-tin and stream.tin. Mine-tin is of the valley consist of limestone. first subjected to the process of dress. The lower beds of limestone pass in- ing, by which a considerable part of to upper strata of green schist, and the extraneous minerals, as well as the as they approach the schist they ac- earthy matrix, is separated. The mequire a green colour. The fossils of tal produced from this kind of ore is the limestone are principally ortho- called block-tin, and is less pure than ceratites, and trilobites.

that from stream-tin, in consequence An extract of a letter from Mr D. of some remains of other metallic Scott, was then read. It contained substances, of which it is very difficult an account of some marine remains, entirely to deprive it. Stream-tin that had been laid bare by the river has no other metallic ore mixed with Brahmaputra, near the north-east it, except occasionally a little hæmafrontier of Bengal. The Garton hills, titic iron. This furnishes the grainwhich are in the vicinity of the Brah- tin of commerce. In dressing minemaputra, are of two formations; the tin it is necessary to have it very first, which occasionally rise to the minutely pulverised, in consequence height of from 2000 to 3000 feet, con. of its being so intimately dispersed sist of granite, with veins of quartz through the matrix, a large part of and felspar; the second, which rest which, from the great specific gravity upon these, seem to have been depo- of the ore, may be removed by wash. sited from water, as their strata are ing. It is then smelted in the comnearly horizontal. It is under or mon reverberatory furnace, mixed through one of these latter that the with Welsh culm and lime, and expo. bed of shells appears to extend. sed to a very strong heat, so as to re

May 21.- A paper by the Right duce the whole to a state of perfect Hon. Lord Crompton was read, enti- fusion. As tin-ore consists merely tled, “ A Description of the Rocks of an oxide mixed with a quantity of which occur along a portion of the extraneous matter, the only objects south coast of the Isle of Mull.” to be attended to in smelting are to These are what are called the Carsey reduce the earthy matter to a state Rocks. The shore is composed of of perfect fusion, to which the lime basaltic columns, which rise in some contributes, and to remove the oxy. places to the height of 500 feet. There gen, which is effected by the coal.

The produce of the smelting furnace The society's gold medal was adis considerably impure, and the me- judged to Mr Hardy, for his inverted tal afterwards goes through the pro• pendulum, an instrument which the cess of refining, which consists eg. celebrated Captain Kater had presentially in fusing the tin at a low viously made known to the public, by heat, insufficient to melt the other a paper in the transactions of the metals with which it is mixed. When Royal Society of London, entitled sufficiently pure, it is cast into moulds “ An Account of Experiments for and sold under the name of block-tin. determining the length of the PenThe reduction of grain-tin proceeds dulum vibrating Seconds, in the la. upon a different principle. After being titude of London.” In conducting dressed, it is carried to what is called these experiments, Captain K. is said the blowing-house, in which the metal to have derived advantage from Mr is reduced in a blast furnace by means Hardy's instrument, “ in proving the of charcoal. The blast furnace con- stability of the support for his pen. sists of a cylinder of iron standing on dulum.” Whether this be correct, its end, into the upper part of which we cannot say, as we have not had the ore and charcoal are thrown ; the access to the original paper in the blast is admitted by a hole near the transactions of the Royal Society ; bottom, and the metal, as it is reduced, but in a very ingenious and able arflows out at another hole on the op- ticle on Captain K.'s experiments on posite side. The metal obtained from the pendulum, in the number of the these furnaces is farther purified by Edinburgh Review for September having pieces of charcoal soaked in 1818, no mention whatever is made water thrown into it while melted. of Mr Hardy's instrument, the whole The water is thus rapidly volatilized; credit of the invention of the converand, as it appears, by the agitation tible pendulum being ascribed to it occasions, all the impurities are Captain K., who is said to have first carried to the surface, where they are reduced to practice the theorem foreasily removed.

merly demonstrated by Huygens, June 18.—Some additional remarks that the centres of suspension and by Mr De La Beche, on the Fossil oscillation are reciprocally converanimal called ichthyosaurus, con- tible. cluded the business of the season; The Society awarded the silver the society not meeting again till No- medal and ten guineas to Mr A. Bell, vember.

for his invention of a new Chuck to the Lathe.

Mr T. Taylor's Repeating Alarum,

for which the sum of fifteen guineas Society FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT was awarded, has been found of great

OF ARTS, MANUFACTURES AND service in the Royal Observatory, in COMMERCE.

giving the astronomer timely warn

ing of the passage of certain stars, Since the commencement of the either by day or night, and thereby session in November last, this society affording him opportunities of making has been occupied in adjudging re. observations which might otherwise wards for various useful improve. be lost. ments in the arts and manufactures ; The Society voted its silver Isis a few of which we shall now briefly medal to Mr Fayrer for his improvenotice.

ment on the three-wheeled clocks,


recommended by Dr Franklin and and other noxious vegetables. The Mr Ferguson, by which they will go author then proceeds to detail a numlonger without winding up, and con- ber of facts and experiments, in con. tinue in action whilst winding. firmation of these propositions, in the

A variety of other premiums were order of their enunciation. adjudged, the principal of which was At the same meeting a paper by a gold medal to Mr J. Young, for his Dr W. Howison, entitled, “i An Acimproved method of collecting British count of several of the most imporopium. Mr Y. has proved that this tant Culinary Vegetables of the invaluable medicine may be collect. terior of the Russian Empire," &c. ed in this country, with sufficient pro- was read. The first of these which fit to induce the agriculturist to cul. the author treats of is the Russian tivate the poppy for this purpose, as Cucumber, a vegetable consumed in well as to extract oil from its seeds. great quantities by the native Rus

sians, as well as foreigners settled in the country, and which, he tells us,

differs in many respects from the cu. CALEDONIAN HORTICULTURAL So- cumber of Great Britain, being small.

er in size, yet containing a great quan

tity of juice and pulpy matter. The Fewer premiums were distributed second is the Moscow early yellow this year than in some of the preced- turnip, produced in great abundance ing years; and the papers read to the in Moscow and the Crimea. The society were in a great measure de- third is the Narva yellow turnip, used stitute of interest. Our notice of them in considerable quantity as an article therefore will be very concise. of food by the Russian peasantry in

On the 4th of March a paper from the governments of the interior. The S. Parkes, Esq. London, entitled, fourth is the variegated cabbage, “On the Employment of common brought by Krusenstern, the Russian Salt for the purposes of Horticul. circumnavigator, from the islands of ture,” was read by the Secretary Mr the South Sea, and since his time culNeill. After some preliminary ob- tivated in Russia. The fifth and sixth servations on the progress of horti- are the large black and the large culture among different nations, the white Russian raddish. The seventh author proceeded to discuss the seve, and eighth are two species of water ral branches of his subject in the fol. melon, natives of the coasts of the lowing order : 1. That common salt, Black Sea ; and the others consist of when applied in due proportions, has two kinds of celery, the bulbous-rootthe effect of promoting the health ed and the rothen or red ; a peculiar and growth of vegetables : 2. That it species of mustard from Russian Tarhas the property of rendering fruit tary, the seeds of which were brought trees and esculent plants unfit for 'from Sarepta, near the Chinese wall; the food or the habitation of worms and a peculiar species of onion from and insects : 3. That common salt is Chinese tartary. one of the most efficacious substan

On the 2d of September, a paper ces that can be employed in a garden by Dr W. Howison was read, enţi. for the destruction of worms and in- tled, “ An Account of the Russian sects : And, 4. That common salt Chiccory Plant, and of the Artificial may, with material advantage, be Coffee prepared in great quantity, used for the destruction of weeds over that country, from its roots, as

well as from the roots of common ceased to take any interest or condandelion."

cern in that important branch of naOn the 2d of December a letter tional industry; but at the general from Mr J. Dick to the Secretary was meeting in January, the society voread, “ On the advantage of graft. ted a piece of plate to Mr J. Macing the Ribston Pippin on the more kenzie, of Richmond Place, Edinhealthy Apple-Trees." It appears burgh, who had been formerly engafrom the remarks of Mr D., that thierib- ged in the fishery, for useful inforston pippin in general produces strong mation furnished by him to the sowood, which however is often not ciety, particularly in regard to the ripened on standard trees, and is there. advantages that would result from fore ready to canker; and that those employing large boats, and which had kinds of fruit trees, which have not enabled the society to recommend the their wood well ripened in the autumn, measure. never produce fruit so well as those It had been for some time well the wood of which attains maturity. known to the society, not only that The method proposed to remedy this large tracts of land adjoining the sea evil is simply to procure some para

on the northern coast of Scotland dise pippin apples that have been had been covered and destroyed by wrought upon good crab stocks, by drifted sands, but that, in some ingrafting the ribston pippin on which, stances, such land had, by proper mait is enabled to make much finer nagement, been reclaimed; as, for exwood, to ripen its wood, and to pro- ample, by Mr Young of Inverugie, on duce fruit abundantly either upon the coast of Morayshire. Their atstandard or espalier trees.

tention, however, was more particularly drawn to this subject, at the anniversary meeting this year, by Mr

Macleod of Harris, who suggested HIGHLAND Society or SCOTLAND. the propriety of the society's offering

premiums for successful experiments The general anniversary meeting of this description in the Hebrides, of the Highland Society of Scotland including the coasts of Orkney and was held at Edinburgh on the 12th Shetland, where the injury was known of January 1819, when a number of to be most extensive. Premiums noblemen and gentlemen were duly were accordingly offered for reclaimelected members.

ing land from drift sand in these disThe improvement of the Scotch tricts ; and they learn with pleasure, fisheries was one of the most impor- that experiments are in consequence tant objects originally embraced by making, which there is every reason the society; and from the adoption to hope will be attended with sucof the suggestion of the society, that cess, and merit the encouragement a special board should be constituted held out by the society. at Edinburgh, for the superinten- At the same meeting the society dance and management of the white voted a premium of twelve guineas herring fishery, and for the introduc- to Andrew Hislop, smith at Fountion in that fishery of large boats, much tainhall, for constructing a bridge of benefit has confessedly been derived. malleable iron over the water of Gala, Since the institution of this board, being the first bridge of this descriphowever, the Highland Society of tion erected in Scotland, which was Scotland has, in a great measure, attended with very small expense.

James Grant, Esq. of Corrymony, AFRICAN INSTITUTION, advocate, having published a very learned and ingenious treatise, en- Since the bill for the abolition of titled, “ Thoughts on the Origin and the Slave Trade was passed, twelve Descent of the Gael,” in which the years have now elapsed; and the author has thrown much light upon African Institution, which dates its points connected with the history, commencement soon after that me. manners, and language of the Gael, morable event, has been steadily and the society, at the anniversary meet. zealously labouring in the cause of ing in January, voted its gold medal African civilization, and putting in to Mr Grant as a mark of the so- requisition every possible expedient ciety's approbation of the work; and which promised to facilitate the acat the subsequent meeting in July, tual extinction of the horrid traffic the sum of ten guineas was voted to in human flesh, “ THAT SCOURGE the Reverend A. Macdonald of Crieff, WHICH HAS SO LONG DESOLATED for having executed a translation of AFRICA, DEGRADED Europe, AND Ossian's poem, called Fingal, into AFFLICTED HUMANITY *. The ThirLatin hexameter verse.

teenth Report of this most philan. Besides a regular correspondence thropic Institution is now before us; with the Highland Society of Lon- and it is with the deepest sorrow we don, upon matters connected with observe, that, notwithstanding the Celtic literature and antiquities, the exertions, sacrifices, and example of society has recently established com. this country,—notwithstanding the munications on these subjects with general abhorrence and execration the Royal Antiquarian Society of which have been poured out against France, and the Cambrian Society. this murderous traffic, from one end Particular mention is also made of of Europe to the other,--notwiththe translation of Paradise Lost into standing the solemn declaration of the ancient British or Welsh lan- the Congress of Vienna, of date the guage, by Mr Owen Pughe; of the 8th of February 1815,-notwithstandtreatise on the origin of ancient ing the highly commendable exernames in mythology, topography, tions of our Statesmen and Plenipohistory, &c. by Mr Dyer of Exeter; tentiaries on that, and every subseand of the translation of the poems quent occasion, where they could of Ossian into the German language, prudently interfere, down to the preby Dr C. W. Ahlwardt of Leipsig. sent time,-so little progress has

The society farther, at the anniver- been made in putting an efficient stop sary meeting in January, on the mo- to the trade in slaves, that, by the tion of the Earl of Elgin and Kincar- miserable subterfuges, the insinceridine, passed a resolution, recommend- ty, and falsehood of foreign courts, ing to its members a subscription for the intentions of this country have erecting a monument to the memory been, in a great measure, rendered of our illustrious countrymen King abortive, and a gainful and active Robert Bruce, whose remains had commerce in human flesh, is carried been recently discovered in the Ab- on, chiefly under Spanish, Portuguese, bey Church of Dunfermline. and French flags, along the whole

The words of Mr Clarkson, the celebrated advocate of the abolition, in a pamphlet distributed to their Imperial and Royal Majestics, and their Representatives, at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, and certainly one of the most eloquent pieces of reasoning wc bave ever had the happiness to meet with,

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