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end pouring into the liquor a certain quantity of barytes, and causing a current of carbonic acid gas to pass over it, if there is an excess of this; WERNERIAN Society of Edinthen, by pouring upon it sulphuric acid, the barytes is thrown down, and the new acid obtained, which The business of this season was comis dried under the receiver of an air. menced by Professor Jameson, who pump by sulphuric acid. The greater on the 9th of January read the first number of the salts which it forms, part of an account of the Geognostic with earthy or metallic bases, are Structure of the Grampians. soluble and crystallize. The hypo- Jan. 23.-Dr Hibbert read to the sulphites of barytes and lime are un- society his observations on the Straalterable in air. The suberic acid tification of the Shetland Islands. and chlorine do not decompose the
Feb. 6.-Professor Jameson conhyposulphite of barytes. This new tinued his Mineralogical Account of acid is composed of two proportions the Range of the Grampian Mounof sulphur and five of oxygen. tains, illustrating his descriptions by
Messrs Dulong and Petit have numerous sections of the country. presented the continuation of their Feb. 20.-Dr Hibbert read the seresearches on heat. By means of cond part of his account of the Geoga very simple instrument of their nosy of the Shetland Islands, consistown invention, they have made nu. ing chiefly of Observations on the merous experiments, and obtained Relations of the Quartz and Sandseveral very important results re- stone of the western parts of the specting the capacity of bodies for country. caloric. One of the most important March 6.-Mr Campbell of Carof these is, that, from the proportion brook read a paper on the Gradations of the atoms of which a body is com- in the scale of Being, and particularposed, its capacity for heat may be ly on the Living Principle. After rededuced, and vice versa. It appears marking, the chain of connection also, from their experiments, that which binds the whole of creation, the quantity of heat disengaged in material and intellectual, together, chemical combinations, does not de. Mr C. stated, that he limited his abpend on the capacity of the body for stract to the material division of the heat; and, therefore, that the ordi- scale, and to the consideration of the nary theory must be rejected. characters which distinguish the Li
A sum of money having been ano- ving Principle from organization and nymously transmitted to the Insti- instinct. The first principle, which he tute, for the purpose of founding a pointed out as affecting the individual prize in physiology, a gold medal of particles of matter, which lie at the 440 francs' value will be given to bottom of the scale, and dependent on the author of the printed work or gravity, was Aggregation. To that manuscript sent to them before the succeeds Stratification, the regularity 1st of December 1819, which shall of which he referred to the agency of be considered as having contributed Almighty Power. The next point in most to promote the progress of ex- the scale, and a principle more precise perimenial physiology.
in its operation, was Crystallization ; from the consideration of which the quthor proceeded to Organisation, in his gret that our limits restrain us from opinions respecting which he differed giving a more detailed abstract of from Drs Thomson and Barclay. He this very learned and ingenious pamaintained that the Living Principle per, to which we refer the reader cannot be the soul, because plants, who is desirous of further informawhich have no souls, have unques. tion. tionably the living principle. The April 3.-The Secretary read a structure is the organisation ; the li- communication from Captain Scoresving principle is something else. From by, on the means of overcoming some organisation, which is a lower point of the difficulties that obstruct disco. in the scale, we ascend to the living veries in the Arctic Seas; and Dr principle, or vis vitae. The author's Hibbert gave a description of the observations, however, being rather sienite district of Shetland, in conof a negative than a positive kind, it tinuation of his general account of does not very clearly appear what are the Geognosy of these islands. his views on this curious, difficult, April 10.-Dr Hibbert gave an acand, we fear, inexplicable subject. count of the granite and sandstone
March 20.- Professor Jameson read districts of Shetland; and completed a communication from Dr Brewster, his view of the Geognosy of these on the optical properties of minerals. islands by some remarks on Papa Dr B. stated, that in a very extensive Stour. examination of the optical constitu- April 24.-The Secretary read a tion of minerals and artificial crys. communication from Mr Stewart, tals, he was led to ascertain their containing remarks on the germinanumber of axes of double refraction, tion of some kinds of cryptogamous and that he had proceeded only a plants, and a list of some of the short way in the inquiry when it be- rarer cryptogamous plants which came obvious, that a very unequivo. have been lately found in the neighcal connection existed between the bourhood of Edinburgh : likewise a form of the primitive nucleus and description, illustrated by drawings, their number of axes of double re- of the fossil remains of a cetaceous fraction. Every new experiment animal found in slate clay near Whitadded to the truth and generality of by, by the Reverend G. Young. this result; and when he had exa- May 1.- The Secretary read a pamined the greater number of those per entitled, “ Account of some fosbodies whose primitive nucleus was sil remains of the beaver ( Castor Fiknown, he had the satisfaction to dis- ber L.) found in Perthshire and Bercover that all the crystals with one wickshire, proving that that animal axis arranged themselves under a cer- was formerly a native of Scotland.” tain series of primitive forms; and The first instance in which the fossil that those with two axes arranged remains of this animai were discoverthemselves under another series ; ed in Scotland occurred as far back while the remaining primitive forms as 1788. These remains were found were occupied by those crystals in the parish of Kinloch, near the whose doubly refracting forces were foot of the Grampians, embedded in in equilibrio by the combined action one of the marl-pits of the Loch of of three equal and rectangular axes. Marli, on the property of Mr FarTo this singular coincidence there is quharson of Invercauld, which had only one or two exceptions. Were- been partially drained for the sake of the marl. The second instance oce an account of the rocks of Sandside curred so lately as October 1818, on in Sutherland, and illustrated the the estate of Kimmerghame, in the description by sections and specimens. parish of Edrom, and near the head A paper on the luminosity of the sea of that district of Berwickshire called was also read by Mr John Murray, the Merse. The bones were likewise Lecturer on Chemistry. found in a marl-pit at the depth of seven feet below the surface, which was covered with peat-moss. There was GeoLOGICAL Society. an apparent dislocation in this skeleton, the result probably not of vio- The first communication which lence, but of the gradual and un- calls for notice was a paper, by W. equal subsiding of the soft matter in Phillips, Esq., on the Chalk Cliffs, opwhich it was embedded; but, upon posite Dover on the coast of France, the whole, the bones were in a high read at the meeting of the society state of preservation; the cranium held on the 6th of November, Mr particularly being in a much more P. found these cliffs to consist of deperfect condition than that of the spe- posits similar to those between Do. cimen from Perthshire. Both the fos- ver and Folkstone, except that the sil heads appeared to have belonged upper part of the bed with numerous to full-grown animals. The author Aints is not visible on the French states, that the fossil remains disco- coast. The dip of the strata is nearvered in Scotland appear to agree ly the same on both sides of the chanwith a beaver's head described and nel, but the thickness as well as the drawn by M. Cuvier in his “ Re- height of the cliffs is much less on the cherches sur les ossemens fossiles de French side. Mr P. thought they had quadrupèdes," vol. iv, sect. “De ron- once been continuous with the Eng. geurs fossiles.” The specimen de- lish beds, and formed part of what is scribed by the celebrated French na- now termed the chalk basin of Lon. turalist was found by M. Traullé, in a don; the then connecting mass having peat-moss in the valley of the Somme been since washed away by the acin Picardy.
tion of the sea. At this meeting al. At the same meeting Mr Bald read so, Mr P. read a paper on the modia paper on the Coal Formation in fications of the primitive crystal of Great Britain, illustrated by nume. sulphate of barytes. The angles of rous sections and specimens. the crystal, a right rhomboidal
Dec. 11.–The Secretary read a prism, were found by the reflecting communication from Mr Stewart, goniometer to measure 78° 18' and Lecturer on Botany, giving an ac- 101° 42. Mr P. observed eighteen count of his having found and exa- modifications, and described the semined many specimens of the rare condary planes produced by them. moss, bux baumia aphylla, and assign- Dec: 4.A paper from Dr Day, ing reasons for believing it to be a communicated by Sir James Macgreplant of longer duration than botanists gor, on the Geology of Ceylon, was have hitherto imagined. A paper was read. This island consists almost enalso read by Mr Stevenson, on the tirely of primitive rock, composed original formation of the land now chiefly of gneiss and dolomite, rising constituting the territory of the U. in some places to the height of 7000 nited Dutch Provinces.
feet abo the level of the sea. The Dec. 29.--Professor Jameson read mountains and plains are generally covered with debris, and the soil, ceeding formations ; 2. Old red sandwhich is poor, corresponds to the rocks stone ; 3. Mountain limestone; and from which it is formed. There are 4. Coal measures. The second for. hot springs in the neighbourhood of mation consists of-1. Calcario-mag. Trincomalee, the temperature of nesian conglomerate, and magnesian which varies from 1030 to 137o. Iron limestone ; 2. Newer red sandstone is the only metal found in the island, and red marl ; 3. Lias; and 4. Dowhich, however, is rich in gems; such lite. This paper also states the angles as, tourmaline, garnet, pyrope, cinna- of the inclination and direction of the mon-stone, zircon, hyacinth, spinelle, different strata. sapphire, &c. &c. No traces of vol- At the same meeting, a paper by canic action are anywhere visible. Thomas Kent, on the Rock of Gibral.
Dec. 18. -A communication was tar, was read. The rock is a mass of read from T. Robinson, Esq. of Mor. limestone, thegreatest height of which ley Park Iron Works, Derbyshire, on is about 1440, and its base about 2200 a tree found in these works. As the feet in its longest diameter. The miners were sinking a pit for the pur. small rock on which the Devil's Tower pose of obtaining iron-ore, they dis. is built appears to be a fragment decovered a tree, apparently oak, in an tached from it: the edge of the sumerect position, its bottom standing be. mit is in some places so sharp that a low the third measure of iron-stone; person cannot stand upon it. Part of its length was about six feet, its dia- the rock appears to have been much meter from ten to fourteen inches, broken and dislocated; and in the inand its substance dark coloured and tervals between the fragments, as mouldering ; its position, and the un- well as in a cavern in the side of the broken
appearance of the beds it tra- east cliff, bones of animals have been versed, seem to countenance the idea found incrusted with stalactitic car. that it grew there previous to the de. bonate of lime. The hills near St position of the beds surrounding it. Roque, reaching to a distance of se
Jan. 1. 1819.-Mr Buckland's pa. veral miles into Spain, contain large per,“ On the Geologica Structure of quantities of oyster, cockle, and other the South-western Coal District, and shells. The ancient city of Carteia was on the Relations of the Deposits by built of stone quarried from these hills. which it is partially covered," the read. Jan. 15.- À paper was read by S. ing of which had been commenced at Babington, Esq., "On the Geology of the former meeting, was now conclu- the country between Tellicherry and ded. The district referred to appears Madras.". The face of the country generally to consist of two principal in general below the Ghauts is markformations : the first reposes on the ed by low-rounded hills, composed of transition rocks, and inciudes the in- a porous substance, called by Buchadependent coal formation of Werner; nan laterite. The mountains denowhile the second consists of more re- minated Ghauts, &c. the author de. cent horizontal deposits, lying on the scribes as consisting of granite, gneiss, transverse edges of the first formation. mica, slate, &c. varieties of hornThe first formation consists of the fol. blende rock, sometimes containing lowing beds : 1. Limestone and im- garnet, and in one place cyanite. perfect slate, which the author consi. The Carnatic, or country east of the ders as the upper members of the Ghauts, is flat, and the soil to a consigreywacké series, and a link between derable depth consists of strata of the transition slate-rocks and suc- brown and bluish clay, interspersed
with beds of oyster, cockle, and other bay, Devon. This line of coast, be. shells.
ginning at its western point, consists Feb. 19.-A paper was read from of the following beds which dip eastthe Hon. Mr Strangways on the Ra- ward: 1. Rock marl, or red conglopids of Imatra on the Voxa river in merate : 2. Green sand : 3. Chalk, Carelia, and containing a notice of into which the green sand sometimes the bursting of the lake Loubando in- passes. The more remarked fossils to the Ladoga in 1818. The greater are, ichthyosaurus, nautili and ampart of the course of the Voxa may monites, pentacrini, trochi, casts of be considered rather as a chain of turbinated shells, pectens, gyphites, lakes than a river. Near Imatra it anomiae, and other bivalves, &c. is contracted into a narrow channel April 2.—The reading of Mr Henwithin rocky banks, about sixty feet nabis paper, begun at the previous in breadth, which continues for 500 meeting (March 19.) On the Plyyards. Through this channel the mouth Lime stone, was concluded. river rushes with great fury and This bed generally rests on clay slate, dreadful noise. The rock of this and rises about 100 feet above high wachannel is the usual red granite of ter mark. It runs nearly east and west Finland, which is easily disintegrated for several miles, and dips towards the by exposure to the weather. In 1818 south or south-west : its breadth is one of the lakes Loubando, which from a quarter to half a mile, Many discharged its waters into the Voxa, organic remains are found in it, chiefopened a passage into lake Ladoga ly madripores, tubipores, millepores, eastward, by bursting through the trochites, pentacrinites, collaties, &c. isthmus of Taipala, a circumstance An abstract of a letter from Dr that will probably alter its future Nugent, of Antigua, to the Presigeographical character.
dent, was read, accompanying some March 5.-An extract was read specimens of the Barbuda limestone, from a letter written by the Reverend and containing some remarks on the G. Young, Whitby, to S. Parkes, Esq. geology of that island and of Anticontaining an account of the disco. gua. Barbuda consists of a hard levery near that place of the fossil re- vel limestone, with scarcely any vemains of an animal, supposed to have getable mould upon it, which is supbeen the ichthyosaurus. These re. posed to be of the same formation mains were embedded in an alum rock. with that of Antigua. The more The skull was entire, measured two mountainous parts of the latter island feet ten inches in length and one foot consist of trap rocks, on which rests in breadth at the broadest part, and a series of stratified conglomerated tapered to a point like a bird's beak. rocks, consisting of a clayey basis, The jaw-bones were twisted, the containing minute crystals of felteeth broken and displaced, and the spar and spots of chlorite. On this remainder of the skeleton mutilated reposes an extensive limestone forand i...perfect. It is supposed that mation, the lower part of which conthe animal must have been fourteen tains a great number of silicified fos
sils of various kinds. These islands, At this meeting also a paper was and some others in the vicinity, are read from H. T. De La Beche, Esq. conceived to afford evidence of the On the Rocks and Fossils of the Coast existence of a recent formation, conextending from Brideport Harbour, temporaneous with, or perhaps even Dorset, to the eastern point of Tor: posterior to the Paris basin.