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year in the Scientific Journals, it may Mr Smithson Tennant. This porbe useful to collect and exhibit the tion was subjected to analysis by Dr results, in a few instances.
Marcet; its specific gravity deterOf the water of the boiling spring mined to be 1.16507; and 500 grains in the harbour of Milto, Dr Thom- found to yield the following saline son analysed a specimen about a year contents : and a half ago, and found its specific Common salt................ 85.00 gravity to be 1.0331. Its saline con- Muriate of magnesia.............. 10.08 stituents, in 500 grains of this water, Sulphate of soda........... 40.26 determined according to the method described in the “ Annals of
185.34 Philosophy,” xiv. 27. are as follow : Common salt....... ........ 20.924 From which it follows, that the waMuriate of lime,.....
3.505 ters of this lake contain a greater Sulphate of soda........... 0.684 quantity of salt than any other mi
25.113 those of the Dead Sea excepted. So that it contains about one half The specific gravity of the water of per cent. more of salt than sea-water the Dead Sea, as determined by dif. does.
ferent chemists, varies a little. KlaMr Cooper examined a specimen of proth found it 1.245; Gay-Lussac, mineral water from the coast of Sus- 1.2283 ; and Dr Marcet, 1.211. sex between Newhaven and Rotting. But this difference is nothing comdean. It flows from a bed of chalk, pared to the discordance which preand its temperature is uniformly 60° vails as to the chemical constituents as it issues from the earth. Its specic of the water itself, and which shows fic gravity is 1.076 ; so that it is con- how small progress has been made siderably heavier than the boiling in the art of analysing mineral waspring in the island of Milio. It is ters, and how little confidence can slightly acidulous, and has the taste be reposed, on such a subject, even of iron. Mr Cooper detected the in the most accurate of our experifollowing substances in it: oxide of menters. It is therefore of the ut. iron, alumina, muriatic acid, sul- most consequence that the succes. phuric acid, lime, carbonic acid, and sive steps of every analysis, and the soda.
method employed in calculating the We are indebted to Dr Marcet for respective proportions of each conan extensive set of experiments on stituent, should be carefully recordsea water, collected from different ed. Attention to this will always seas, and from different depths of render such experiments important; the same
sea. Among others we while those who merely set down the find an analysis of the water of the results of their experiments furnish Lake Ourmia, in Persia, situated at us with no means of detecting their no great distance from the region of errors, and may rest assured that, Mount Ararat. A small quantity hereafter, when the mode of analysis of the water from this lake was sent has become more perfect than at by the late Mr Browne, the traveller, present, their conclusions will be of (of whose murder by Persian ban- no value whatever. In confirmation ditti, the reader will find an interest. of these remarks, and to point out ing and affecting account in the Tra- more forcibly the necessity of what vels of Sir Robert Ker Porter,) to we recommend, we shall here give
the saline contents extracted from Sea, according to Marcet, Klap100 grains of water of the Dead roth, and Gay-Lussac.
Klaproth's salts were only dried at In this survey the accessible posi. the temperature of boiling water, tions are determined with a sufficient which accounts for the much greater degree of accuracy, from the resoweight of his salts; but how are we lution of triangles, of which all the to reconcile the great discordance angles were observed; but inaccesbetween Marcet and Gay-Lussac in sible places could not of course be the weights of common salt and so correctly determined, as but two muriate of magnesia?
angles could be taken. In the in
stance, therefore, of the more eleheight or THE HIMALAYA MOUN- vated peaks of the Himalaya, the TAINS.
distances were deduced from more
than one triangle, and the mean of Geometrical measurements, by the different results taken. Hence the persons engaged in geographical cases are not numerous where discresurveys at the foot of this stupend- pancies appeared amounting to more ous range, leave it no longer doubt. than 100 fathoms in distance, or 100 ful that the elevation of the moun- feet in height. Being satisfied, then, tains which divide India from Tartary that the distances might be relied on, surpasses considerably that of the Captain Webb proceeded to calcuCordilleras of the Andes, formerly es. late the heights of the several peaks teemed the highest points on the sur. observed by him in the snowy range. face of the globe. In the 12th vo- The largest set of observations was lume of the Asiatic Researches ap- made at Calinath, an elevated stapeared a dissertation by H. T. Cole. tion, of which the height geometri. brooke, Esq., in which he examines cally determined is 6417 feet above the information then existing (in the level of the sea, and barometri. 1814) and supports the general con- cally 6388 feet above the level of clusion already stated. Since that Calcutta. Four of these peaks, and time the inquiry has been farther among them the highest of the whole, pursued, chiefly by Captain Webb, are distinctly visible at Casipur, and employed on a survey of the pro. were then observed. This station is in vince of Kemaon, recently ceded to the plain of Rohilkhund, and about the British by the Nepalese. A list 650 feet above the level of the sea. of the elevated peaks of the Hima. Every observation was repeated with laya mountains measured by him has the telescope reversed; and a mean appeared in various publications, of the angles as read off on both sides and, as far as it goes, agrees with the of zero assumed. It was also ascer. ampler information contained in a tained that the telescope described memoir of his survey officially fur. true vertical angles, by bringing the nished by him.
intersection of the wires into contact
with a well-defined object, and its from it, a cluster of lofty eminences reflected image. Other precautions intervenes. Three of these were were also used to ensure accuracy. measured, and found to be from 19,099 The heights, too, were computed ac. to 21,150 feet; and two others nearcording to the formula given by Mr est to the pass, the highest of which Colebrooke, in the 12th volume of was 22,441 feet. The pass itself was the Asiatic Researches ; making an found to be 17,598 feet high. Beallowance of 1-18th of the intercepto ing on the frontiers of the British ed arc for terrestrial refraction. This dominions, Captain Webb received was the rate fixed on by Captain a visit from the Chinese governor of Webb, from the result of computa- the adjacent province; and having tions made by him, with different carried a series of levels geometrirates, from 1-10th to 1-20th, for the cally to the spot fixed on for the repurpose of determining and adopt-ception of the mandarin, found his ing that as the mean, under which place of encampment 14,434 feet the extreme difference of results high. To the south of the encampshould be found to be the least. ment is a peak 19,857 feet, succeed
The mountains measured by him ed by others of less elevation (one, were, first, a cluster of lofty peaks for example, 18,398 feet,) which situated between lat. 30° 407 and lead to a fifth group of lofty peaks 30° 50', and 10 on either side of measured in the course of the surlong. 70. Six peaks in that group vey, the most elevated of which is were found to be from 22,058 to 22,727 feet, the others declining from 23,164 feet high ; and three con- 22,238 to 20,923 feet. The loftiest tiguous ones from 19,106 to 21,611 point of this group was distinctly vifeet.
sible from Philibhit, as is the highest The next group is still of loftier of the third, and the most southerly elevation, and situated in and near of the second group. Their elevalat. 30° 20 and between long. 79° 37' tions, as determined by the mean reand 79° 55'. Four peaks of this group sult of several admeasurements, were rise from 22,313 to 25,669 feet. Two respectively 22,277, 22,635, and contiguous ones on the east are 22,313 feet. There can be no doubt 20,686 and 15,733 ; and a multitude that one of these is the mountain obof positions towards the west have served by Colonel R. H. Colebrooke, been ascertained to be from 10,653 from two stations, Philibhit and to 12,156 feet. Captain Webb here Jetbpur; the mean of whose obsertraced the Gauri to the spot where it vations, calculated on an allowance emerges from the snow, the eleva. of 1-11th of the intercepted arc for tion of which he determined at 11,543 terrestrial refraction, gave 22,768 feet.
feet. In a third group the loftiest point The loftiest summit measured by is 22,635 feet high, encompassed by Captain Webb (25,669 feet) was, in four other towering peaks from 17,994 like manner, observed from several to 21,439 feet. On the north-west places ; viz. from the remote station of this group is Lebong ghaut, which of Cassipur, nearly 86 geographical was crossed in June 1816, and the miles ; from Calinath, 47 geographie crest of which, in lat. 30° 20' and cal miles; and from Gangoli, 43 geolong. 80° 27', was found, by geome- graphical miles. trical measurement, to be 18,871 feet. It appears then, that the results of
Between this and another pass in- Captain Webb's laborious researches to Chinese Tartary situated W.S.W. correspond with the measurements
detailed by Mr Colebrooke in the the region of perpetual snow com12th volume of the Asiatic Re. menced, in South America, at the searches above referred to. The elevation of 4800 metres, or 15,747 elevated peaks exceed 20,000, and feet; and that, in Mexico, and in the loftiest even 25,000 feet above latitude 19° to 20°, the limit of perthe level of the sea. Further baro- manent congelation commenced at metrical measurements of the most 4600 metres, or 15,091 feet. The elevated accessible peaks are still same intelligent traveller assigns the however wanting *.
height of 2550 metres, or 8365 feet, In the Himalaya mountains, the to the line of perpetual snow in the limit of congelation is considerably latitude of 45o. Deluc also differs higher than in the Cordilleras of the from Professor Leslie.
He gives Andes in South America, or in the the height of the line of permanent Alps of Europe. In a communica- snow under the equator at 2434 tion to the Asiatic Society from French toises, or 15,565 English Captain Hodgson, who visited the feet, which was actually observed remotest accessible fountains of the to be the elevation of the curve at Ganges and Jumna rivers, it ap- the basaltic summit of Pinchincha, pears, that the glacier and wall of half a degree south of the equator; snow from beneath which the Ganges in the mean latitude, according to issues, was by him determined at inferences drawn from observations 12,914 feet above the level of the in France and Chili, from 1500 to 1600 sea. The limit of congelation, then, toises, or about 10,000 English feet; may be reckoned in round numbers, at or near the tropics, as at the Peak either at 13,000 feet above the sea, of Teneriffe, 2100 toises; and at or in the parallel of 31°, as inferred near the polar circles, nothing. We from Captain Hodgson's measure- need not, however, be astonished at ment; or at 13,500 feet in that of the discrepancies between theory 30°, as concluded by Captain Webb and observation, when we find that from his observations. The former no two observers are agreed about of these differs from Professor Les- almost any one fact. We may at lie's theoretical computation about the same time remark, that the mea. 1,750, and the latter about 2,000 surements bitherto made in India feet. According to him, the ex- are little better than mere approxi. tremes of the permanent curve of mations; and though the coinci. congelation are, under the equator, dence between the results obtained 15,207 feet, and at the poles 0; and, by Mr Colebrooke and Captain Webb the height in the middle latitude establishes, that certain peaks on the 45°, 7671 feet. The intermediate Himalaya range are the most cleva. degrees are likewise computed; ted points on the earth's surface, hence we have 12,853 feet for the we must wait for further observatropics, and 2419 feet for the polar tions and measurements before we circles.
can venture to speak decidedly as But Baron Humboldt found, by to their absolute height. observation, that, under the equator,
• It is to be regretted, that so few attemp:s have hitherto been made to ascertain correctly the heights of the most elevated points in the Caucasian chain. The beight of Elburus was estimated by Professor Pallas as equal to that of Mont Blanc, and by the Russian Astronomer Wish nefsky at 16,700 French feet, which is 2000 feet higher. This shows how Title reliance can be placed on any thing that has yet been achieved in this interesting department of science.
VIEW OF GEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERIES, AND OBSERVATIONS
OF TRAVELLERS DURING THE YEAR.
Travels in Africa. - Bowdich's Mission to Ashantee.- Travels in Persia.
Sir William Ouseley.-Moritz Von Kotzebue.--Lieutenant-Colonel Filzclarence's Journey over land
from India.--Mr Oxley's second expedition to the interior of New Holland.
CONSIDERABLE contributions have while, on all these occasions, the been this year made to the science Governor of Cape-Coast Castle had of Geography; and although we are been obliged to purchase the retreat not aware that any thing very im- of the invaders by the payment of portant has been discovered, we large sums of money. To prevent the have been furnished with more ex- recurrence of such disasters, the Gotended, and, in general, more accu. vernor had earnestly requested his rate information, on a variety of superiors at home to authorise a mispoints hitherto involved in obscurity, sion to the King of Ashantee; and and with details of the manners, cus
request being acceded to, some toms, and conditions of several tribes valuable presents, together with a of whom almost nothing was previ. draft of instructions, were forwarded ously known. On the subject of by the Spring ship of 1817; and on Africa, always one of prominent in the morning of the 22d of April, the terest, we have only to notice the mission, consisting of Mr James, its account given by Mr Bowdich of nominal head, Mr Bowdich, a young the Mission to Ashantee, which, writer, Mr Hutchison, also a writer, crude and ill digested as it is, never- Mr Tedlie, assistant surgeon, with a theless supplies some curious parti- proper number of bearers, Ashantee culars of this warlike and ferocious guides, and two native soldiers, set tribe, and of the court of his sable out from Cape Coast Castle. On the Majesty Sai Tooto Quamina. last day of April, the party reached
The origin and objects of this the banks of a stream called the Boo. mission were, if possible, to form a sempra, of which Mr Bowdich says, treaty of amity with the King of Nothing could be more beautiAshantee, and to prevent those in- ful than its scenery: the bank on the vasions of the country of the Fantees, south side was steep, and admitted our allies, which, in 1806, 1811, and but a narrow path; that on the north 1816, had spread general destruc- sloping; on which a small Fetish tion, and been accompanied with house, under the shade of a cachou unparalleled atrocity and bloodshed; tree, fixed the eye; whence it wan