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nent reliance ? Is it government ? Is this the kind of protection we receive in return for the rights we give up? Besides, the spirit of the times may alter, will alter. Our rulers will be come corrupt, our people careless. A single zealot may commence persecutor, and better men be his victims. It can never be too often repeated, that the time for fixing every essential right on a legal basis is while our rulers are honest, and ourselves united. From the con. clusion of this war we shall be going down hill. It will not then be necessary to resort every moment to the people for support. They will be forgotten, therefore, and their rights disregarded. They will forget themselves, but in the sole faculty of making money, and will never think of uniting to effect a due respect for their rights. The shackles, therefore, which shall not be knocked off at the conclusion of this war, will remain on us long, will be made heavier and heavier, till our rights shail revive or expire in a convulsion.
The particular customs and manners that may happen to be received in that state?
It is difficult to determine on the standard by which the manners of a nation may be tried, whether catholic, or particular. It is more difficult for a native to bring to that standard the
manners of his own nation, familiarized to him by habit. There must doubtless be an unhappy influence on the manners of our people produced by the existence of slavery among us. The whole commerce between master and slave is a perpetual exercise of the most boisterous passions, the most unremitting despotism on the one part, and degrading submissions on the other. Our children see this, and learn to im. itate it; for man is an imitative animal. This quality isthe germ of alleducation in him. From his cradle to his grave he is learning to do what he sees others do. If a parent could find no motive either in his philanthrophy or his self-love, for restraining the intemperance of passions towards his slave, it should always be a sufficient one that his child is present. But generally it is not sufficient. The parent storms, the child looks on, catches the lineaments of wrath, puts on the same airs in the circle of smaller slaves, gives a. loose to the worst of passions, and thus nursed, educated, and exercised in tyranny, cannot but bè stamped by it with odious peculiarities. The man must be a prodigy who can retain his manners and morals undepraved by such circumstances. And with what execration should the statesmen be loaded, who permitiingone halfthe citizens thus totrample on the rights of the other, transforins those into despots, and theseinto ene. mies, destroys the morals of the one part, and the amor patriæ of the other. For if a slave can have a country in this world, it must be any other in preference to that in which he is born to live and labor for another: in which he must lock up the faculties of his nature, contribute
minds of We must be contented to hope they will force
' as far as depends on his individual endeavours to the evanishment of the human race, or entail his own miserable condition on the endless generations proceeding from him. With the morals of the people, their industry also is destroy ed. For in a warm climate, no man will labour for himself who can make another labour for him. This is so true, that of the proprie? tors of slaves'a very small proportion indeed are ever seen to labour. And can the liberties of a nation be thought secure when we have removed their only firm basis, a conviction in the the gift of God? That they are not to be violated but with his wrath ? Indeed I tremble for my country when I refleet that God is just : that his justice cannot sleep for ever: that consi. dering mimbers, nature and natural means only, a revolution of the wheel of fortune, anexchange of situation is among possible events : that it may become probable by supernatural interference! The almighty has no attribute which can take side with us in such a contest....But it is impossible to be temperate and to pursue-this subject through the various considerations of policy, of morals, of history natural and civil,
their way into every one's mind. I thinka change already perceptible, since the origin of the present revolution. The spirit of the master is abating, that of the slave rising from the * dust, his condition mollifying, the way I hope
preparing, under the auspices of heaven, fotoa total emancipation, and that this is disposed, in the order of events, to be with the consent of the masters, rather than by their extirpation.
The present state of manufactures, commerce, interior and exterior trade?
We never had an interior trade of any impertance, Our exterior commerce has suffered very much from the beginning of the present contest. During this time we have manufactur. ed within our families the most necessary articles of clothing. Those of cotton will bear some comparrison with the same kinds of manu. facture in Europe; but those of wool, fiax, and hemp are very coarse, unsightly, and unpleasunt: and such is our attachment to agriculture, and such our preference for foreign manufactures, that be it wise or unwise, our people will certainly return as soon as they can, to the raising raw materials, and exchanging them for finer manufactures than they are able to execute themselves.
The political economists of Europe have established it as a principle that every state should endeavor to manufacture for itself: and this principle, like many others, we transfer to America, without calculating the difference of circumstance which should often produce a difference of result. In Europe the lands either are
cultivated, or locked up against the cultivator... - Manufaclure must therefore be resorted to of necessity not of choice, to support the surplus of their people. But we have an immensity of land courting the industry of the husbandman. Is it best then that all our citizens should be em
ployed in its improvement, or that one half should be called off from that to exercise manu. factures and handicraft arts for the other ? Those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of Göd, if ever he liad a chosen people, whosë breasts he has made his peculiar deposit for substantial and genuine virtue. It is the focus in which he keeps alive that sacred fire, which otherwise might escape from the face of the earth, Corruption of morals in the mass of cut; tivators is a phænomenon of which no age-nor nation has furnished an example. It is the mark set on those, who not looking up to heaven, to their own soil and industry, as does the hus. bandman, foriheir subsistence, depend for it on casualties and caprice of customers. Depend. ance begets sobservicnce and venality, suffo. cates the germ of virtue, and prepares fit tools for the designs of ambition. This, the natural progress and consequence of the arts, has somet times perhaps been retarded by accidental çir. cumstances: but, generally speaking, the pro, portion which the aggregate of the other class es of citizens bears in any state to that of its husbandmen, is the proportion of its unsound to its healthy parts, and is a good enough barometer whereby to measure its degree of corrup: tion. While we have land to labor then, let us never wish to see our citizens occupied at a work.bench, or twirling a distaff. Carpenters, masuns, smiths, are wanting in husbandry : but, for the general operations of manufacture, let work-shops remain in Europe. It is better to carry previsions and materials to work men there, than bring them to the provisions and