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Chronological List of Cases of Change of Sovereignty in which the Right
to Self-Determination Has Been Recognized
PERIOD OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
1791 Avignon and the Comtat Venaissin annexed to France after plebiscites
The Belgian Communes and Liège annexed to France after plebiscites.
Communes of the Rhenish Palatinate and Alsace annexed to France after plebiscites. 1798 The Republics of Mulhausen and Geneva annexed to France after votes of citizens.
PERIOD OF 1848–1870
1848 The Italian Plebiscites of 1848. Lombardy, Venetia, Parma, Modena, Piacenza, and
Reggio annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia after plebiscites. 1848 The Schleswig Question. Proposals by Prussia and the Germanic Confederation for
the division of Schleswig by a plebiscite in Northern Schleswig. 1856 Reorganization of the Danubian Principalities. The Treaty of Paris established a
European Commission to consult with Assemblies ad hoc in Moldavia and Wal
lachia. Signed April 27, 1856. 1859 The Italian National Assemblies of 1859. Tuscany, Modena, Parma, Piacenza, and
Romagna 1860 The Italian Plebiscites of 1860. Tuscany, Emilia (Parma, Modena, Romagna), Naples,
Sicily, the Marches, and Umbria annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia after plebiscites. Savoy and Nice annexed to France after plebiscites. The Treaty of Turin, signed
March 24, made the cession by Sardinia conditional on a consultation of the in
habitants. 1864 The Ionian Islands ceded by Great Britain to Greece after a vote of the Legislative
Assembly of the Islands, especially elected by qualified suffrage. The Protocol of London, signed August 1, and the Treaty of London, signed December 14, 1863, between Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia, stipulated for a vote
of the Legislative Assembly of the Islands. 1864 The Schleswig Question. Conferences of London for the settlement of the Danish
Question. 1866 Venetia annexed to Italy after a plebiscite. 1866 The Schleswig Question. The Treaty of Prague between Prussia and Austria, signed
August 23, 1866, made the transfer of Northern Schleswig conditional on a free vote of the population. Abrogated by the Treaty of Vienna between Prussia and
Austria, signed October 11, 1878. 1867 The Danish West Indies. The uncompleted treaty between the United States and
Denmark, signed October 24, for the purchase of the islands of St. Thomas and
consent of the population in the islands. The plebiscite was held in January, 1868. 1870 The City and Provinces of Rome united to Italy after a plebiscite.
PERIOD OF 1871-1914
1877 St. Bartholomew (W. I.) annexed to France after a plebiscite. The Treaty of Paris
between Sweden and France made the cession conditional on the consent of the
population. Signed August 10. 1883 Tacna and Arica. The Treaty of Ancon between Chile and Peru provided for a
plebiscite in Tacna and Arica (Peruvian provinces occupied by Chile) after ten
years. Signed October 20. 1905 The Separation of Norway from Sweden by a plebiscite in Norway.