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ART. 1. Gli Stati di Modena e di ARTICLE 1. The States of Modena Reggio faranno parte integrante dello and of Reggio shall form an integral Stato a cominciare dalla data della part of the State, starting from the presente legge.

date of the present law. ART. 2. Avranno immediato vi- Art. 2. The Constitution of the gore negli Stati medesimi lo Statuto Kingdom and our laws regarding the fondamentale del Regno e le leggi nos- national militia, political elections tre sulla Milizia nazionale, sulle Ele- and the public press shall have immezioni politiche, e sulla Stampa.

diate force in the said States. ART. 3. È data facoltà al Governo Art. 3. In cases of urgent necesdi provvedere in via d'urgenza con sity the Government is empowered to semplici decreti reali ad una provvi- provide by simple royal decree for a soria esecuzione delle operazioni elet- provisional execution of the electoral torali sulla base dell'analogia colla measures on a basis analogous with legge elettorale vigente.

the electoral laws at present in force ART. 4. La linea di dogana esi- Art. 4. The customs boundary stente tra il Ducato di Parma e quelli existing between the Duchy of Parma di Reggio e Modena, come pure quella and the Duchy of Reggio and Motra il Ducato di Guastalla ed il Ducato dena, as also that between the Duchy di Reggio e Modena verranno abolite. of Guastalla, and the Duchy of Reg.

Art. 5. La tariffa doganale sarda gio and Modena, shall be abolished. in un colle variazioni alla medesima Art. 5. The customs tariff of fatte fino alla data del presente verrà Sardinia, with the variations of the provvisoriamente posta in vigore nei same enacted up to the present time, Ducati di Guastalla, Reggio e Modena. shall be provisionally enforced in the

Duchies of Guastalla, of Reggio and of Modena.



Preliminaries of Peace, Signed at Villafranca. July 11, 1859 1


Entre Sa Majesté l'Empereur d'Au- Between His Majesty, the Emperor triche et Sa Majesté l'Empereur des of Austria, and His Majesty, the EmFrançais il a été convenu ce qui suit: peror of the French, the following

agreement has been concluded: Les deux Souverains favorisent la The two Sovereigns are in favor of création d'une Confédération Itali- the creation of an Italian Confedera

Cette Confédération sera sous tion. This Confederation shall be la présidence honoraire du Saint Père. under the honorary presidency of the

Pope. L'Empereur d'Autriche cède à l'Em- The Emperor of Austria cedes to pereur des Français ses droits sur la

the Emperor of the French his rights Lombardie, à l'exception des forte- over Lombardy, with the exception of resses de Mantoue et de Peschiera, de the fortresses of Mantua and Pesmanière que la frontière des posses- chiera, in such a way that the frontier sions Autrichiennes partirait du rayon of the Austrian possessions shall start extrême de la forteresse de Peschiera from the extreme of the fortress of et s'étendrait en ligne droite de long Peschiera and shall extend in a du Mincio jusqu'à Legrazie, de là à straight line along the Mincio to LeSzarzarola et Lugano au Po, d'où les grazie, from there to Szarzarola and frontières actuelles continueront à Lugano to Po, from which place the former les limites de l'Autriche. present frontiers shall continue to

form the boundaries of Austria. L'Empereur des Français remettra The Emperor of the French shall les territoires cédées au Roi de Sar- deliver the ceded territories to the daigne.

King of Sardinia. La Vénétie fera partie de la Con- Venetia shall form a part of the fédération Italienne, tout en restant Italian Confederation, while remainsous la Couronne de l'Empereur ing under the Crown of the Emperor d'Autriche.

of Austria. Le Grand Duc de Toscane et le Duc The Grand Duke of Tuscany and i British and Foreign

tate Papers, vol. 49, p. 93.

de Modène rentrent dans leurs Etats the Duke of Modena shall return to en donnant une amnistie générale. their States, granting a general am

nesty. Les deux Empereurs demanderont 1.-. The two Emperors shall request the au Saint Père d'introduire dans ses Holy Father to introduce indispensaEtats des réformes indispensables.

ble reforms into his States. Amnistie pleine et entière est ac- A full and complete amnesty is cordée de part et d'autre aux per- granted by both sides to those persons sonnes compromises à l'occasion des concerned in the recent events in the derniers événements dans les terri- territories of the belligerent parties. toires des partis belligérants.

Fait à Villafranca, le 11 juillet Done at Villafranca, July 11, 1859. 1859. FRANÇOIS-JOSEPH.


Statement by Lord John Russell of the Attitude of the British Government

Regarding the Preliminaries of Villafranca 1

Lord J. Russell to Earl Cowley.

Foreign Office, August 16, 1859. MY LORD,

Whatever may be the view which, when the time arrives for a decision, Her Majesty's Government may take of the question of a Congress or of a Conference, there is one point on which they have a most decided opinion.

The Treaty of Villafranca, as I have said, makes no provision for imposing a Government by force upon Tuscany or Modena, supposing the people of those Duchies to oppose the return of the Grand Duke of Tuscany and of the Duke of Modena.

A provision for the employment of French or Austrian forces to put down the clearly expressed will of the people in Central Italy, would, in the opinion of Her Majesty's Government, not be justifiable.

The people of Tuscany, for instance, have the right which belongs to the people of every independent State, to regulate their own internal government. To interfere by force with the exercise of that right would not be defensible on any principle of public law.

Neither the safety nor the paramount interests of Austria are menaced by the choice of a new Dynasty to reign over Tuscany. On the contrary, the restoration of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, or the Duke of Modena, by foreign

1 British Parliamentary Papers, Affairs of Italy (2609), p. 51.

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forces, would be a return to that system of foreign interference which for upwards of forty years has been the misfortune of Italy and the danger of Europe.

It may be added, that for the last ten years, the same system has been a cause of weakness and peril to Austria. It has afforded vantage-ground to her enemies, and has alienated her friends.

Great Britain yould, therefore, feel it to be her duty to protest against a supplement to the Treaty of Villafranca of that nature, if any such were in contemplation.

She would equally protest against the practical application of foreign force to carry into effect the vague Article of the Preliminaries of Villafranca.

But it inay be contended that when this Article was signed, the Emperor of Austria and the Emperor of the French contemplated the return of the Grand Duke of Tuscany and Duke of Modena, with the consent and approbation of the people of Tuscany and Modena. Taken in this sense Her Majesty's Government have no objection to make to the return of the Archdukes.

Count Walewski having stated to your Excellency, as reported in your despatch of the 3rd instant, that although the French Government could not admit the doctrine of non-intervention as a general rule of policy, they were prepared to adopt it in the present instance with regard to Italy; Her Majesty's Government derive confidence in maintaining the views expressed in this despatch, in the reflection that they are in accordance with the sentiments entertained by the Emperor of the French.

I request your Excellency to read this despatch to Count Walewski, and give him a copy of it.

I am, &c.

(Signed) J. RUSSELL. .

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Decree of the Tuscan Government Reestablishing the Electoral Law of 1848

for the Purpose of Holding a General Election of an Assembly of Representatives Competent to Pass a Legitimate Vote as to the Definitive Fate of Tuscany. July 15, 1859 1

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Considerando che tra i pareri dati Considering that, amongst the dalla Consulta al Governo avvi pur opinions formerly expressed to the quello che debbasi attivare la legge Government by the Council, there is eletorale del 3 marzo 1848 procedendo

one to the effect that the Electoral 1 Le Assemblee, vol. 5, p. 647. Translation from British Parliamentary Papers, Affairs of Italy, 1860, vol. 68 (2609), p. 13.

alla formazione immediata delle liste Law of the 9th of May, 1848, ought elettorali;

to be recalled into vigour, with a view to the immediate drawing up of the

Electoral Lists; Considerando che tale parere ha per Considering that the object with iscopo di provvedere il paese di una which this opinion has been given is Assemblea di rappresentanti, la quale- that of providing the country with an possa emettere un voto legittimo sulla Assembly of Representatives which sorte definitiva della Toscana;

may be competent to pass a legitimate vote as to the definitive fate of Tus

cany; Considerando che le dichiarazioni

Considering that the declarations fatte da S. M. l'Imperatore Napoleone made by His Majesty the Emperor III e quelle emesse nel Parlamento Napoleon III, as well as those proinglese dai ministri della Regina, assi- nounced in the English Parliament by curano che si terrà conto dei voti the Ministers of the Queen, give the espressi nei modi legittimi dagl'itali- assurance that due weight will be atani;

tached to the desires expressed in a

legitimate form by the Italians; Considerando che a questo solo Considering that the Government provvedimento non si arresta il Gov- has not confined itself to the measure erno, il quale ha invitato e invierà in question alone, but has sent, or will rappresentanti alle Corti di Europa send, Representatives to the Courts of per far valere i bisogni e i diritti della Europe, in order to set forth the reToscana;

quirements and advocate the rights of

Tuscany; Considerando che tutto ciò reste- Considering that even these measrebbe inutile se non fosse religiosa- ures would be without effect unless mente conservato l'ordine pubblico, public order were religiously prepoichè qualunque siasi perturbamento served, as any sort of disturbance scemerebbe l'importanza del voto da would detract from the authoritative emettersi, e ci toglierebbe l'assistenza, character of the vote to be prosia per parte del Re Vittorio Eman- nounced, and would deprive us, on the uele, il quale non mancherà di fare one hand, of the support afforded to quanto potrà in favor nostro, sia per us by King Victor Emanuel, who will parte degli altri potentati che non pos- not fail to do his utmost to assist us; sono voler disgiungere l'assestamento and, on the other hand, of that of the dell'Italia dalla pace europea;

other potentates, who can not desire to disconnect the settlement of Italy from the question of the peace of Europe;

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