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Christ stands immeasurably in advance of the moral attainments of the world. (Remark b.)

And hence perhaps it is that Solomon calls the fear of the Lord the beginning of wisdom. (Remark g.)

The lateral force of human action that is the influence of contemporaries, is great. (Rule, and Remark a.)

Meanwhile we do not believe in any infallible specific, in any sudden and unusual remedy. (Rule.)

But yesterday the word of Cæsar might have stood against the world. (Remark l.)

Sometimes doubts and apprehensions will naunt the mind in its searchings for truth. (Rule.)

But on the other hand do not suppose that poverty is altogether a waste and howling wilderness. (Rule, and Remark c.)

There is undoubtedly very often more happiness in the hut than in the palace. (Rule, and Remark g.)

Nature has indeed given us a soil which yields bounteously to the hand of industry. But what are lands, &c. (Remark h 5.)

Society must of course receive beauty into its character and feeling. (Rule, and Remark a.)

Let us contemplate then this connection, which binds the prosperity of others to our own. (Remark h 3.)

Still a great and fruitful idea dimly pervades the eccentric speculations of Fourier. (Rule, and Remark b.)

We should look on character acquired here as the condition of happiness hereafter. (Remark c, and last of f.)

At present innumerable prejudices obstruct a complete extraction of the mental and moral wealth latent in society. (Rule, and Remark a.)

Did I not see other and holier influences than the sword working out the regeneration of our race, I should indeed despair. (Remarks c, h 5.)

Again perfection requires that each quality should be without debasing alloy. Lastly perfection requires that all the graces be expanded to an unlimited degree. (Rule, and Remark a.)

De Foe soon however relinquished every thing else for literature and politics; for which indeed his temper and talents adapted him much better than for business. (Remarks h 1, 5.)

Now how does capital punishment operate? Why it cuts off the offender from all the chance of refo nation. (Remarks h 2 and b; Rule, and Remark a.)


Phrases at the End of Sentences or Clauses. § I. When a phrase beginning with a preposition, an adverb, or a conjunction, relates to or modifies a preceding portion of the sentence, a comma is unnecessary, if the parts are closely connected in sense.

§ II. But the point must be inserted when its omission would occasion ambiguity, or when the phrase begins with a particle obstructing the connection which subsists between the different portions of the sentence.


§ I. 1. For that agency he applied without a recommendatiou. 2. Cultivate your intellectual powers by habits of study and reflection 3. The idea is very happily applied under one of its forms.

ý II.

1. He applied for that agency, without a recommendation
2. Cultivate your intellectual powers, especially by habits of study,
8. The idea is very happily applied, at least under one of its forins.



a. In the first three examples, the phrases beginning with the prepositions “without,” "by,” “under,” are closely connected with both portion

of the sentence in which they severally occur, and therefore should not be preceded by a commu.

b. If, in the first example of the second class, the comma were omitted before the preposition “without,” the sentence might be wrongly understood to mean, that a person applied for an agency, without its having any recommendation in its favor. Of the next example, if written without the comma before the adverb “especially," the meaning might be, that, by habits of study and reflection, you should cultivate particularly your intellectual powers, that is, in preference to others; but this is not the sense. In both of these sentences, the insertion of the comma, as above, leads obviously to the true signification. In the last example, the sense is brought out more clearly by inserting a comma before the modifying words “ at

least," because they belong rather to the phrase than to the whole clause, and obstruct the connection between “applied” and “under one of its forms."

c. When the use of a word qualifying the phrase interrupts but slightly the connection between two parts of a sentence, the comma is better omitted. Thus, though susceptible of being pointed, the following sentences, where the final phrases are severally modified by the words either, even, may be written without the comma: “A good man will be happy either in this world or the next.” — “ The knowledge of nature cannot be exhausted even by the wisest.”

d. But, if a final phrase conveys an additional thought, or is preceded by another phrase, with which it does not readily unite, the comma should be inserted; as, “ A strong idea of religion has generally prevailed, even among the most uncultivated savages.” “The ode was frequently sung at his request, either in the church or at some occasional meeting of the choir."

e. The rule is applicable to a sentence ending with two phrases, each beginning with a particle, which may be taken either separately or as a compound phrase; the last or both referring to some portion of what precedes.

f. A phrase, at the end of a clause or sentence, of an antithetical character, is preceded by a comma; as, “Man's true destination is not perfection, but the unceasing perfecting of his nature.”. - See Rule V., p. 45.

g. No point is required before a final phrase beginning with but, in the sense of except; as, “None are poor but the mean in mind.”

h. When a phrase begins with a verb in the infinitive mood, and its preposition signifies in order to, it should not be preceded by a comma; as, “ We do not pray to God to instruct him.” Unless where the omission of the point would too closely unite the latter portion of the clause with the phrase; as, “Our minds must go out into the infinite and immortal regions, to find sufficiency and satisfaction for the present hour.”

i. If the words in order are expressed before the infinitive, the phrase is usually preceded by a comma; as, “We should be virtuous and devout, in order to refine and elevate our nature.”

j. Final phrases, referring to time, measure, or distance, whether they begin with a preposition or are elliptical, should not be preceded by any point; as, “ Byron was born on Jan. 22, 1788, and died April 19, 1824.” - “ The mason built the wall a hundred feet high.“Some men can easily walk four miles an hour."

k. But when the last phrase consists of a date, and the preceding one ends with a noun, it is better to distinguish the phrases by a comma, unless they are connected by means of a preposition; as, “ The mills were destroyed by fire, Sept. 28, 1854.” — “Peace was concluded between England and France in February, 1763.”


State why, in conformity with Rule XII. (p. 78), commas are used in some of

these sentences, and omitted in others :-
He was a man of extraordinary powers, both of mind and body.
The fertile earth is fragrant after soft showers.
Take heed not to place thyself in the power of temptation.
View the path you are entering on, with an enlightened mind.
The grandeur of Rome has vanished like a spectre in the night.
Poisons are sweet in the moral world, as truly as in the natural.
Do thy best to pluck this crawling serpent from my breast.
Poverty of mind is often concealed under the garb of splendor.
Repentance is not a single act, but a habit of virtue.
Truth is not hidden from us by an impenetrable veil.
All great things are so, only by the assemblage of small things.
Call off the thoughts when running upon disagreeable objects.
Keep an inventory of your friends, rather than of your goods.

- Mention why, in accordance with the above Remarks, commas are inserted of

omitted in the following sentences :

Thou art a soldier even to Cato's wishes.
I knew the facts of the case even when I wrote to you.
Judge not either capriciously or by a factitious standard.
He was a Columbus in a brave heart, if not in achievement.
Virtue is not the creature of will, but necessary and immutable.
Our best works are fractions, not complete and rounded unities.
Nothing remained but to throw himself on the mercy of Heaven.
Let me find a charter in your voice to assist my simpleness.
He left the room to see whether all was safe.
Cultivate the art of reading, in order to read well.
Patrick Kelly left Ireland seventeen years ago.
You will be sure to find me in the school at nine o'clock, A.M.

in Scotland, 1723, and died 1790.
The lyre was invented 1004 B.C.; and paper in China, 105 B.C.

ith was


In agreeinent with the Rule and the Remarks (pp. 78-80), let commas be inserted

or omitted in the following sentences :

A year is much in human life particularly to the very young and very old. (Rule, Ø 11.)

Follow the perfections of your enemies rather than the errors of your friends. (Rule, $ II.; and Remark f.)

The love of praise should be preserved under proper subordination to the principle of duty. (Rule, \ I.)

The soul becomes great by the habitual contemplation of great objects. (Rule, \ 1.)

Do not employ your wit either to insult or to offend your asso. ciates. (Remark c.)

I often come to this quiet place to breathe the airs that ruffle thy face. (First of Remark h.)

A true philosopher is careful to preserve an evenness of mind both in prosperity and adversity. (Rule, § 11.)

How superior is the man of forbearance and gentleness to every other man in the collisions of society! (Rule, $ 11.)

Christianity represents physical evil as the direct appointment of God's love. (Rule, 1.)

The active mind of man seldom or never rests satisfied with its present condition how prosperous soever. (Rule, 11.)

The saint owes much of the grace and elegance of his spirit to the influences of sorrow in some form. (Rule, I.)

A great mind is formed by a few great ideas not by an infinity of loose details. (Rule, both sections; and Remarks e, f.)

The first indications of genius disclose themselves at a very early period. (Rule, $ 1.)

The knowledge of any one truth acts as an introducer and interpreter between us and all its kindred truths. (Rule, § 1.)

We cannot bid farewell to so large a portion of human history without deep and earnest thought. (Rule, § 11.)

Herbert always attracted friends and strangers by the elegance and benignity of his manners. (Rule, ý 1.)

Law should not be the rich man's luxury but the poor man's remedy. (Rule, į II.; and Remark f.)

There are Christians who defer to some perpetual and concurrent authority either in a living person or in a body of persons. (Rule, § II.; and Remark d.)

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