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All our mental perceptions suggest their opposites, – the finite the infinite; the seen the unseen; time eternity; creation a God.

A pictured landscape recalls a familiar scene and a portrait a familiar countenance. (Remark c.)

Talent is full of thoughts; genius of thought. One has definite acquisitions; the other indefinite power.

Addison taught the intellect and fancy and Richardson the passions, to move at the command of virtue. (Remark b or c.)

Nature had no obstacles that he did not surmount; space no opposition that he did not spurn.

Among the ancient critics, Longinus possessed most delicacy Aristotle most correctness, of judgment. (Remark b.)

To mourn without measure is folly; not to mourn at all insensibility. - Foresight is simple; retrospect multiform.

The young are slaves to povelty the old to custom the middleaged to both the dead to neither. (Remark d.)

Custom respects things which are done by the majority; habit those which are done by individuals.

A man's true prosperity often begins when he is said to be ruined and his ruin when he is said to be prospering. (Remark c.)

Genius is the intuitive perception of what is; moral sentiment the feeling of what ought to be.

Chaucer most frequently describes things as they are Spenser as we wish them to be Shakspeare as they would be and Milton as they ought to be. (Remark d.)

Delicacy leans more to feeling; correctness more to reason and judgment. The former is the gift of nature; the latter more the product of culture and art.

Rashness is the error of youth; and timid caution of age. — Hurry is the mark of a weak mind; despatch of a strong one. (Rule, and Remark e.)

All nature is but art, unknown to thee;
All chance direction which thou canst not see;
All discord harmony not understood;

All partial evil universal good. The wise man is happy when he gains his own approbation and the foo? when he recommends himself to the applause of those about him. (Remark c.)

Fear urges us to action; terror to flight. — The idle want steadiness of purpose; the indolent power of exertion. Children have anderstandings; men intellect.


Clauses consisting of Short Quotations or Remarks. A short quotation, or any expression that resembles a quotation, is separated by a comma from the clause which precedes it.


1. Dr. Thomas Brown truly says, “The benevolent spirit is as universal in its

efforts as the miseries which are capable of being relieved." 2. One of the first lessons of a judicious education is, Learn to think and to

discriminate. 8. It may be laid down as a sacred maxim, that every man is wretched in

proportion to his vices.



a. By a short quotation is meant a single sentence, containing the remark of another writer. By an expression resembling a quotation is indicated a remark, of some degree of importance, to which attention is called in the introductory clause. Such a remark is not wfrequently preceded by the conjunction " that,” as in the third example; and, in these cases, the comma is usually inserted before the particle.

b. Some writers annex a dash [-] to the comma; but this is annecessary, except before emphatic or long passages. Jf, however, quotations or remarks extend to two or more sentences, and are formally or specially introduced, a colon is preferable.

c. When an indirect quotation or a remark is preceded by a very brief clause, the comma is not required; as, “Andrew says he loves me.” — “ I doubt not that mind is immortal.” — “ It is impossible that we should make Walter fully understand his ignorance."

d. But, if the remark or quotation consists of phrases which require to be punctuated, a comma should precede the conjunction, even when the introductory part of the sentence is quite short; as, “ Ossian says, that sorrow, like a cloud on the sun, shaded the soul of Clessamour." A comma should also be inserted after the conjunction, if an inverted or an adverbial phrase begins the remark; as, “ It is certain, that, in the declension of taste and science, language will degenerate.” The reason for the punctuation in such instances is, that the omission of the comma would bring the word “that” into

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too close a contact with that part of the sentence with which it has the least affinity. For the sentence is obviously divisible into two portions, less connected than others which require to be pointed; the first ending, in the former of these examples, with the verb " says," and, in the latter, with the adjective “ certain.”

e. The comma may be omitted before that, when the clause on which the conjunction depends does not precede the remark, but is thrown in between its parts; as, “ In the ancient world, it is well known that the name of poet was the same as that of prophet.” This omission takes place because a comma is put after the first portion of the sentence, and because the repetition of the point would tend to give a false view of the construction, and thereby obscure the sense.

f. But when, in similar sentences, the conjunction is omitted, tho comma should be substituted, agreeably to the principle adopted in parenthetical expressions; as, “ In the ancient world, it is well known, the name of poet was the same as that of prophet.”. Rule VIII.

9. A clause which begins with what, when, where, if, or how, indicating an indirect question or remark, is not usually separated from its antecedent clause; as, “ Will no one tell me what she sings? “ Revelation clearly informs us how we may obtain happiness.”

See page 64,


Say why, according to Rule XVIII., the following sentences are punctuated :

Patrick Henry commenced by saying,'“ It is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope.”

The great and decisive test of genius is, that it calls forth power in the souls of others.

I am not now to discuss the question, whether the souls of men are naturally equal.

The very correct remark has been made, that“ it is a great loss to lose an affiction."

I reply, I do and must regard heaven as a world of interconrse and sympathy.

His grand excellence was this, that he was a true man. — - There is much in the proverb, “ Without pains, no gains."

Such seems to be the disposition of man, whatever makes a dis. tinction produces rivalry.

It is a law of man's nature, that he should endeavor to act before. hand the part to which he is destined in a higher state of being.

How do the preceding Remarks (pp. 108–9) apply to the inse tion or the omission

of commas in the sentences that follow ? St. John says that God is love. — Swift asserts that no man ever wished himself younger.

Every one knows James is a very prolific writer. - I trust you feel the importance of the subject.

It cannot be questioned, that we are, as yet, only in the rudiments of the great science of education.

Wirt writes, that, as a statesman, Alexander Hamilton was distinguished for the great extent of his views.

Ere another day pass, I hope that you will find yourself surrounded by your wife and children.

By the sweat of our brow, I say, we have to earn the little which we possess.

We all know how a man of mighty genius can impart himself to other minds.


Insert commas or not between the clauses of the following sentences, in accord

ance with the eighteenth Rule and the Remarks :Seneca tells us “ There is a settled friendship, nay, a near relation and similitude, between God and good men.” (Rule.)

In the great science of society, it must be confessed that we have much to learn. (Remark e.)

They know not what they say who cry out “Let us build tabernacles of rest.” (Rule.)

Thou knowest that virtue can never be despoiled of its deathless crown. (Remark c.)

It may be laid down as an unfailing and universal axiom that "all pride is abject and mean.” (Rule.)

We know it is wrong. - I tell you that I have not your book. - : He said she bought it. (Remark c.)

The true ennoblement of our nature consists in the feeling that our existence stretches beyond the bounds of this globe. (Rule.)

It is well known what strange work there has been in the world. ander the name and pretence of reformation. (Remark g.)

Thou shalt take up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say “How hath the



" (Rule.) In the din and bustle of business, it may be the voice of conscience and duty speaks unheard. (Remark f.)

I say unto all Watch. - It is a true saying that we are never too old to be taught. (Rule.)

Coleridge said he had the habit of seeking for the “ good and beautiful” in all his eyes beheld. (Remark c.)

There is no foundation for the popular doctrine that a state may Rourish by arts and crimes. (Rule.)

Some dream that they can silence, when they will,

The storm of passion, and say “Peace, be still.” (Rem. c, and Rule.) It has long been a subject of inquiry whether there existed in nature a universal language. (Rule.)

Keep it in view that the great object of study is to fit the mind to be an instrument of usefulness in life. (Rule.)

It is not enough that we have great qualities: we must also have the management of them. (Remark c.)

A celebrated modern writer says “ Take care of the minutes, and the hours will take care of themselves.” (Rule.)

We affirm that, without some portion of enthusiasm, no person ever became a true poet or painter. (Remark d, second sentence.)

It was said of Socrates that he brought philosophy down from beaven to dwell among men. (Rule.)

I may say that, of all the men we meet with, nine parts of ten are what they are, good or evil, useful or not, by their education. (Remark d, second sentence.)

Tell me when was it that you felt yourself most strongly inclined to go astray ? — Tell me when it was that you felt yourself most strongly inclined to go astray. (Rule, and Remark g.)

It is one among the pious and valuable maxims which are ascribed to Francis de Sales “ A judicious silence is always better than truth spoken without charity.” (Rule.)

In delineating the character of Dr. Bowditch, it deserves to be mentioned that he was eminently a self-taught and self-made man. (Remark e.)

Let me ask you are your resolutions as firm as when you first set out in the spiritual lise ? — Let me ask you if your resolutions are as firm, &c. (Rule, and Remark g.)

The poet Gray, one of the most intellectual and fastidious of men, says “ Happy they who can create a rose-tree, or erect a honeysuckle!” (Rule.)

Thou knowest that principle, grounded in the eternal laws of mind and emanating from the unchangeable essence of God, cannot perish. (Rule, and first of Remark d.)

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