Waterborne Pathogens: Review for the Drinking Water Industry
Infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria, viruses and protozoa, are the most common and widespread health risk associated with drinking water. Most waterborne pathogens are introduced into drinking water supplies by human or animal faeces (enteric pathogens) but they can also exist naturally in water environments as indigenous aquatic micro-organisms. Controlling the risks related to these pathogens is a permanent challenge for the water industry. In addition to the constantly evolving range of pathogens to consider, assessing and managing such risks requires the integration of information issued by a wide range of disciplines. The necessary knowledge is however still sketchy and incomplete for most pathogens, and research efforts are necessary to fill the remaining gaps of knowledge.
The purpose of this study is to provide an updated, comprehensive review of current knowledge on a selection of pathogens of interest for the drinking water industry, and to identify the remaining gaps of knowledge and thus the necessary research to be conducted. Emphasis has been laid on the information needed to assess and manage the risks related to each of these pathogens in drinking water production and distribution.
The pathogens considered in this review were selected on the basis of:
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Nontuberculosis mycobacteria NTM
Acanthamoeba adenoviruses Aeromonas analysis animal Appl associated average avium bacteria BDF BDF BDF bioﬁlms Campylobacter cause cell cell culture chlorine Clin clinical coagulation concentration contamination Cryptosporidium Cryptosporidium parvum culture cyanobacterial Cyclospora cysts described detection determine developed disease disinfection distribution Dose drinking water drinkingwater effects enteric enteroviruses Environ environmental environmental water Epidemiology Escherichia coli et al evaluated filtration genus Giardia Health Helicobacter pylori hepatitis High human identiﬁcation inactivation infection intestinalis isolated Italy Legionella Legionella pneumophila levels methods Microbiol molecular mycobacteria needs Occurrence oocysts organisms outbreak ozone Persistence pilot potential presence Publishing rapid real-time Recently removal reported reservoirs resistant response Review risk rotavirus routes Salmonella sedimentation sensitive sewage Shigella signiﬁcance species speciﬁc strains studies surface survival temperature transmission treatment viable virus viruses water samples water supplies water treatment Waterborne Waterborne Pathogens Yersinia