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But that blind bard did him immortal make
I would here ask, by the way, whether the metaphorical words "verses dipt in dew of Castalie" were not insensibly suggested to the mind of the poet by the previous mention of the Lethean lake? We see the influence of this doctrine upon the language of Milton in the following verse,
• Wild above rule, or art, enormous bliss:
here the poet uses enormous for great, but the epithet itself was suggested by the precedent words. Phædra says in the 585th v. · καὶ μὴν σαφῶς γε τὴν κακῶν προμνηστρίαν, τὴν δεσπότου προδοῦσαν ἐξαυδᾶ λέχος.
I greatly doubt whether this metaphorical use of the word was not suggested to the poet by the nuptial ideas (if I may be allowed the expression) which still occupied his mind, and insensibly operated upon his language, after having previously put into the mouth of the Chorus the allusion to the marriage of Hercules and Iole, which is followed by the allusion to the fate of Semele, τὰν νυμφευσαμέναν, with
which the chaunt concludes.
The Chorus says in the 765th v.
· χαλεπᾷ δ ̓ ὑπέραντλος οὖσα
did not the allusion to the pump of a vessel arise from the previous mention of the vessel, which had conveyed their queen into the harbour of Munychia ?
"This is the house that Jack built; - this is the malt that lay in the house that Jack built; this is the rat," &c. &c. &c. ad infinitum.
In the remarks on The Fiery and Watery Ordeal as mentioned in the Classical Writers,' we meet with some curious collections; and indeed, as we have before generally intimated, ample marks of reading are given throughout the volume. If the digestion were equal to the appetite of the collector, he would deserve to be ranked at the very head of his class.
In one of the illustrations of Tacitus, we have a quotation from 'the elegant Savary's' Letters on Greece; which, according to Mr. Barker, contains a lively description of the rising sun.' Will our readers believe that this liveliness' of the 'elegant' Frenchman ends with a doubt, nay more than a doubt, of the immortality of the soul? Yet this (from mere heedlessness, assuredly, since every proof of better feeling is afforded throughout the volume,) is passed without remark, and indeed included in the general eulogy above mentioned. We observe, indeed, (but this is another matter,) too great a tendency in many passages, especially of the Commentary on Tacitus, to dwell on
certain subjects which had better be left in obscurity, or, at most, briefly touched. We shall now make a selection from that Commentary, which again reflects credit on the editor's attainments and course of study. The passage relates to the popular mode of expressing approbation or dissent in the German assemblies :
Si displicuit sententia, fremitu aspernantur; sin placuit, frameas concutiunt: honoratissimum assensus genus est, armis laudare. Cap. xi.
"Hoc armorum sono Civilis orationem approbatam vidimus supra H. iv. 15. [Magno cum assensu auditus, barbaro ritu, et patriis exeerationibus, universos adigit]," Brotier: again in H. v. c. xvii. of the same Civilis, Ubi sono armorum tripudiisque (ita illis mos) approbata sunt dicta. The frams were undoubtedly struck against their shields in a sort of transport and dance, as Tacitus in the passage cited from the Histories, book 5. c. xvii. mentions tripudia. Mallet in his Northern Antiquities, Vol. i. p. 203. positively says that the Scandinavians employed their shields "to terrify the enemy by clashing their arms against them." The following passage of Milton, Para dise Lost, book i. v. 663. is a complete comment upon the words of Tacitus:
"He spake, and, to confirm his words, outflew
Millions of flaming swords, drawn from the thighs
"Hinc ad Aristoph. Nub. p. 165. Tüv julμãn xar2 vóλiov, notant critici, ἐνόπλιον εἶδος ῥυθμοῦ, πρὸς ὅν ὠρχοῦντο σείοντες τὰ ὅπλα: immo Minerva ipsa, ubi exiliit e Jovis cerebro, utrumque, quod hic Curetes, fecisse apud Lucian. dicitur Dial. Jov, et Vulcan, πuğģixíše nai anv άorida Tivácou, Pyrrichium saltat et clypeum quatit: gladiorum autem ad clypeos adlisu id fieri solitum, ut vel ex Apollonio liquet loco ante adducto, de armata illa saltatione, seu ruppix Argonautarum ad instar illius a Curetibus, nato Jove, instituto; ac ubi addit L. ii. v. 1136. Kal σánea idéeσow TEXTUTOV, et clypeos gladiis concutiebant, ubi critici, ὠρχοῦντο τοῖς ξίφεσι τὰς ἀσπίδας κόπτοντες, non ut ibi legitur κομποῦντες, sal tabant gladiis clypeos quatientes," E. Spanhemii Observationes in Hymnum in Jovem Ultrajecti. 1697. p. 23. Vol. ii. Again in his Observationes in Hymnum in Delum, p. 422. "doπida Túter άxwxy σε ἀσπίδα τύψεν άκωκῇ Aouparos: haud mirum de Marte hoc dici, ab eo clypeum hasta cuspide, quo strepitum inde ingentem ac terrorem simul cieret, percussum: quam in rem, et qui hinc illustratur, præclarus est apud Ammian. focus L. 15. c. viii. Militares omnes horrendo fragore scuto genibus illidentes, quod est prosperitatis indicium plenum, cum CONTRA cum HASTIS CLYPEI FERIUNTUR (ut a Marte hoc apud Callimach. loco) IRÆ documentum est et doloris: et vero alibi apud eundem historicum legas, et quod ab eruditissimis Ammiani enarratoribus
Lindenbrogio et Valesio paucis adnotari vel expendi meruerat, postremum hoc in plausu militari ac ut plenum prosperitatis indicium (Juliano nempe Augusto a militibus declarato iisque pro tribunali fausta quæque et grata pollicito) itidem factum, L. zo. c. v. Hac fiducia spe majoris animatus inferior miles, dignitatum jam diu expers ac præmiorum, HASTIS FERIENDO CLYPEOS sonitu assurgens ingenti, uno propemodum ore dictis FAVEBAT et factis: adde quod solita sint alioquin, et de quibus jam ante, Gradivi patris in si-' mulacris ejus ac nummis antiquis insignia, hasta nempe et clypeus: sacræ etiam forent vulgo eidem Marti veterum id genus campestres, seu ludicræ hastarum ad clypeos æreos adlisiones: unde de iis Claudian. 6. Cons. Honor. v. 624. &c.
in quibus proinde ejusdem Poetæ verbis, primo Martis, dein adlisis clypeis, et mucronis acutum murmur, opportuna extat hujus apud Callimachi loci interpretatio: ut mittam insuper notos Saliorum, Martis apud Romanos sacerdotum, similes id genus, ac in nummis etiam antiquis expressos cum scutis itidem, seu ancilibus et levibus hastis, in campo nempe Martio circumcursitationes ac strepitus." Alexander in his Geniales Dies, L. i. c. xxvi. p. 102. says of these Salian priests, "Cum tripudiis ad tibiam, solennique saltatu cœlestia ancylia ejusmodi ferentes, culti ornatique prodibant, ipsique gladiolis illa percutientes cum gressu et gradu composito, pulsu pedum ad sonum vocis modulato, per capitolium et forum, perque urbem incedebant."'
We feel justified, also, in the commendatory quotation of a portion of those pages of the work which are devoted to biblical criticism. The words ἐπιτέλλειν and ἀνατέλλειν are under examination :
In the following passage of St. Luke, avarohn, notwithstanding the opinion of several commentators, who translate it by Branch, one of the titles given by the prophets to Christ, very clearly means to allude to our Saviour as the Sun of Righteousness, from the words, which immediately follow, ἐν οἷς ἐπεσκέψατο ἡμᾶς ̓ΑΝΑΤΟΛΗ ἐξ ὕψους• ΕΠΙΦΑΝΑΙ ΤΟΙΣ ἘΝ ΣΚΟΤΕΙ ΚΑΙ ΣΚΙΑ ΘΑΝΑΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΗΜΕ. ΝΟΙΣ, ΤΟΥ ΚΑΤΕΥΘΥΝΑΙ ΤΟΥΣ ΠΟΔΑΣ ΗΜΩΝ ΕΙΣ ΟΔΟΝ ΕΙΡHNH2 c. I. v. 78, 79.; for the metaphor of the Sun is continued, as we see, throughout the next verse, but, if we translate it by the other word Branch, we introduce a confusion of metaphors, and destroy the propriety of the expressions in the subsequent verse: it appears to me to be a direct allusion to the passage of Malachi, in which our Saviour is called the Sun of Righteousness; and, perhaps, St. Paul, Hebr. vii. 14. had the same passage of Malachi in his view, when he said, ἐξ Ἰούδα ̓ΑΝΑΤΕΤΑΛΚΕΝ ὁ Κύριος ἡμῶν
We wish to part in as good humour as we can with Mr. Barker, whose zeal in the cause of literature, when years have added discretion to it, we hope will intitle him to very different mention; and we shall therefore select an odd, and perhaps absurd, but in some degree amusing passage from his illustrations of the word zaμalve, as a conclusion of this article.
The following curious fact was communicated to me, by a very sensible, intelligent, and learned friend: "The calling of the sheep, and their knowing the shepherd's voice might be illustrated by an almost domestic instance familiarly known in the great sheep-breeding counties of this kingdom; in Gloucestershire, I can speak to it, as a custom, for the shepherd to call his sheep, and precede them, to fodder, or water, or change the pasture: the words they use in those countries are, Cup How, Cup How,' from Come Ho and at the great county meeting of Gloucestershire, at Bristol, about the month of August, if I recollect right, the gentlemen of the county march in procession, two and two, from the hall to the church, and on returning, with a pageant of Bishop Blaise, (who invented worsted stockings,) weavers, wool-combers, and other artizans of the clothmanufactory preceding, a man habited as a shepherd with a long cloak, broad-brimmed, brown hat, shepherd's crook, and a swinging great leather bottle hanging to it, walks first, every now and then, turning round, as to call on his sheep, and crying in a singular and deep tone Cup How, Cup How,' varying his voice, as supposed more or less anxious to get his flock on; and on their wheeling off, on entering the church, or hall-door, he affects to call them off, and continues, with some little variations, the same sort of cry, or call.'
Art. 13. The Modern Dunciad, a Satire; with Notes, Biographical
instances be obliged to practise still greater severity. When the satirist professedly selects the bad poets of the age as objects on which he may play off his artillery, he inflicts more wounds and deaths than we do; and what is to be expected but that these poets will be driven with disgrace from the field, and at last chained to the satirist's car to make sport for the Philistines! If it be said that this is cruel sport, it may be asked, Should not those be punished who obtrude trash for dainties, and give us hog-wash for champagne ? Pope, in his day, was not inclined to "mince the matter" with these miserable stainers of paper:
"Out with it, Dunciad, let the secret pass,
Steady to this text, the satirist before us employs his quill; and, in order to serve the interests of good taste and sound morals, he is not sparing in his censures of those who in his judgment have heinously offended against both. Like some of Pope's pieces, the satire is conducted in the form of a dialogue between the Poet and his Friend; in which the cautious remonstrances of the latter are introduced to abate the glowing vehemence and indignation of the former. The friend reminds the poet of the vengeance which he may incur but he is boldly answered,
"Let it fallOne smile from virtue makes amends for all.'
The bard spares neither poet nor courtier; and, in the office of a satirist, he speaks with the boldness of Juvenal:
And shall the muse, freeborn, to none a slave;
*The author of this Dunciad appears to have read our catalogue. notices of vile poetasters.