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Absenteeism, urban, in England I 618. | Association, as sovereign remedy in
Abstentionism, political, of the Eng- the economic sphere, Christian So-

lish middle class I 53, 85, 622; of the cialists I 67; in the political sphere,
élite of American society II 70, 78, limited power and conditions of
600; abstention from voting in the efficiency II 620, ensured by the
United States 362. See Better ele- new method of grouping the electors

639; association according to the
Adams (Ch. Francis) II 443, 444, 419. Contrat Social, Rousseau's doctrines
Adams (John) II 4, 7, 13, 14.

examined and rectified 674-681; see
Adams (John Quincy) II 40, 45, 51 Union instead of unity. - Origins
note, 76.

of political associations in England
Adams (Samuel) II 5, 32.

I 117 seq. Character and rôle of the
Administration, local, see Self-gov- old extra-constitutional organiza-

tions 132. Associations of the Caucus
Americans, temperament II 310, 360, in England 329-501, see Caucus, Or-

385; intelligence and character 327, ganization of the English parties. —
583; optimism 437, 579; mercantile First American political organiza-
and conservative spirit 569, 577, 592 ; tions II 3 seq., present associations
speculative tendencies 327, 579; gen- of the parties, see Party organization
erosity 578; short views 579; ideal- in the United States, Caucus.
ism 581; patriotism ib.; moral isola- Atomism, social, under the old Eng-
tion of the individual 588; influence lish régime I 17, 18, after the ad-
of the Caucus on the American mind vent of industrialism 46-49; de-
and character 567, 569.

nounced by “Young England ” 61,
Ancien régime, in England 16 seq.; its by Carlyle 64, by the Christian So-
break-up 50 seq.

cialists 67. Association on a uni-
Apathy, political, favourable to the versal basis leads back to social

"philosophers and theorists” I 86. atomism II 621. Democracy is far
See Abstentionism, Better element, from "reducing society to atoms”
Middle class, Public spirit.

Aristocracy, English, its political rôle Australian Ballot, ensures secrecy of

under the old régime I 6, 20, 135; the vote II 346, 349, 502, introduces
attacked by the newly risen middle official voting-papers, and the regu-
class 13. See Social classes.

lation of candidatures 501; far-
Aristotle, obsolete division of forms reaching aims of the authors of the
of government II 643.

reform 500, results 502, diminution
Assessments” levied on office-hold- of the liberty of candidatures ib.,

ers II 143, 157, 351, 425; effects of and of the independence of the elec-
the system 148, 149; intervention of tors' vote, 503, legal recognition of
Grant and of Hayes 145, 489, of the the parties 507.
federal law of 1883 on the civil ser- Availability, sole criterion of candi-
vice 146, of the laws of the States 351; dates for the American Presidency
intention of the authors of the Aus- II 87 274, as well as for the lower
tralian Ballot 500, it is defeated 502. offices 241, 560.

Bagehot I 607, 614, II 561, 722.

225, arouses susceptibilities and
Ballot in England, the conquest of I jealousies 290. The Birmingham

102; entails an electoral organiza- Conservatives copy the Caucus 266.
tion 159, 172; is nullified by the can- Blaine, candidate for the Presidency
vass 458, 463; does not put an end II 447, 448.
to corruption 469. See Australian “Bolting,” in the primaries II 219,

239, at the elections 354; bolt of the
Barbecues, political picnics, II 335. Republicans in 1884, “divine right
Beaconsfield, see Disraeli.

of bolting " 448; bolt of the Gold
Bentham, philosophy of I 33–38. His Democrats in 1896, 452.

principle of interest compared with Boodle aldermen in the United States
that of individual responsibility on II 179.
the theory of the power of social in- Boom, of presidential candidates II
timidation II 752-754.

253, 268.
Benton, in favour of Jackson on the Boss. History: origin of the term II

“demos krateo principle” II 45; 191; evolution of the function 190;
attacks the convention system 86, city boss 192; State boss, his position
90, 91; criticises the organization as regards the executive and in the
of parties for a single issue 105; on Senate 193; faint attempt at bossism
the mistakes of Tocqueville 438 in the federal government 195; tool
note; against the “general ticket" of plutocracy 195, 594; evolution of

the boss as wholesale dealer in po-
Better element, in England I 619; in litical influence 195, 576; he reduces

the United States, its abstention is politics to a business 197; bossism
the main factor in the domination accentuates the moral decomposi-
of the Machine II 433; causes of this tion of the parties 197, 203. - Origin
abdication 433–438, 470, 626; signs and career of the boss 401; psychol-
of improvement 600. Problem of ogy of 403; his popularity 406; his
democracy complicated by the atti- occult and irresponsible power 408,
tude of the better element 732. See 417; his moral and material profits
Middle class.

408; feudal relations with his lieu-
Betting, about elections, in England I tenants 373, 410; intrigues and re-

477, in the United States II 338. volts of the vassals 411; limitations
Bi-partisan system in appointment to of the great power of the boss 412,
offices II 508.

592; realization of the system of
Birmingham, centre of reform agita- “ enlightened despotism " 417; re-

tion I 127, of opposition to the rep- volts of public opinion inevitable
resentation of minorities 161, 163, 418, 439, "despotism tempered by
of advanced Radicals 164, of munici- assassination " 418, see Machine; the
pal reforms 165; special social con- boss as dispenser of patronage 424.
ditions 166; inauguration of the Boutmy (E.) II 585.
Caucus system 161; organization Bowles (Sam.) II 583.
and career of the Liberal Associa- “ Boys” in the party Machine II 372.
tion 161-171; relentless struggle Bradford (Gamaliel) II 538.
with the Conservatives 169; results Bradford (the town of), struggle of
of the introduction of politics into its Caucus with Forster I 195–201,
municipal affairs 169, 171, 487, 491; 228-230.
propaganda of the “Birmingham Bribery and corruption, in England
plan" in the country 171; confer- under the old régime I 20, 136, 468,
ence for founding a federation of 483; after the Reform Bill 469; share
Liberal associations 174. Absorbing of the Caucus in ib.; Corrupt Prac-
political influence of Birmingham tices Act of 1883, 472, paralyzed to

485 seq.

some extent by the interposition of
the Associations ib., as regards the
limitation of election expenditure
474, and the suppression of corrupt
practices 476; collective“ treating"
438, 478, 589; other modes of dis-
guised corruption 482; at municipal
elections 481, 492. - In the United
States, in the primaries II 219, 224,
in the conventions 235, at the na-
tional convention 255; in the elec-
tions 343–350, 431, 568; laws against
347, 507, see Australian Ballot 500,
502; election expenditure; corrup-

tion of the electoral boards 348.
Bright (John), on parliamentary re-

form I 91, 101, 580; opposes the
minority clause 110-112; leads the
opposition to the Corn Laws 131 ;
approves of the independent Liberal
organization of Manchester 218;
parts from the Gladstonian Liberals
293; denounces the intolerance of
the clubs and associations of the
party ib.; his political temperament

112; his eloquence 389.
Brougham (Lord) and the political

education of the masses 184 notes.
Bryce (James) I 43 note, II 239, 412

notes; on the “fatalism of the mul-

titude" 567, 631.
Buchanan (President of the United

States) II 83, 91, 108, 109, 143, 582.
Buncombe II 313.
Burke I 121, II 652, 716, 736 note.
Burr (Aaron), great electoral wire-

puller and his school II 42, 126,

Burt (Thomas) I 586 note.

under the old régime I 19-20, after
the Reform Bill 148, 151; under the

· Birmingham plan" 194; tyran-
nical pretensions of the Caucus 194-
203; present methods of choosing
candidates 337, 442-451, 475, 506,
524, 572; the good candidate
442; importance of the Caucus in-
vestiture 448, 603; poor chances of
independent candidates 449, 460,
487; puffing the “ adopted candi-
date" before the electoral period
451, 479, after the approach of the
election 453, by means of the can-
vass 454, of the stump 464, of politi-
cal advertising 467, of bribery 468;
candidatures at municipal elections,
under the old régime 483, under the
Caucus 331,

methods of choosing candidates in
the United States in the first years
II 7; by the legislative Caucuses
10, by the congressional Caucus 13;
by conventions of delegates, see
Conventions; in the slave-holding
South 118. Disappearance of inde-
pendent candidatures and monopoly
of the party Organization 69, 147;
"availability” becomes the first
qualification of a candidate for the
Presidency 87; manœuvres of the
national conventions to the detri-
ment of Clay 71, 90, of Van Buren
85, of Seward 113.

Present system :
choice of the candidates directly by
the primaries 207, 223; by their
delegates to the conventions 226;
depends on the primaries in any
event 223; character of the candi-
dates chosen 237 ; causes which com-
bine to keep away superior men
239; qualifications of an "avail-
able" candidate 241; American
candidate compared with English
240-243. Presidential candidates
250, see Dark horse,” “Favour-
ites,” “Favourite sons"; intrigues
and “ deals” 254. Contributions
of candidates to the party funds
147, 351, 425. The candidates of
the Machine 384–389; its absolute
power over the candidatures 390.

Cabinet I 205 note; cabinet system,

see Parliament.
Caesarism, its prospects in the United

States II 593.
Cairns (Lord) I 111.
Calhoun, denounces the political in-

difference of American Society II
70; protests against the principle
of rotation in office 82; criticises

the convention system 88.
Cameron and Lincoln II 114.
Candidates. Choice of, in Parliament

Attempt at emancipation at the
New York municipal election of
1897, 467. Recommendation of can-
didates by private associations and
civic leagues 475. Attempt to de-
stroy the influence of the Machine
by means of the Australian Ballot
500, the system of regulation intro-
duced by it 501, blow dealt hy it at
independent candidatures 502, 506.
Plans of direct nomination of the
party candidates 5:30, “ free pomi-
nations" 532, by primaries and re-
formed conventions 533. Plan of
nomination of candidates in pre-
liminary polls 614, 692, resting on
the system of " leagues" 094, and
combined with the preferential vote

Canvass, electoral, under the old Eng-

lish régime I 153, 589; after the crea-
tion of registration associations 155;
under the present régime 451-461;
governs the whole electoral situa-
tion 460; effect on public manners
462; channel of electoral corrup-
tion, 463, 477 ; share of women in
462, 532, 533, 604. - In the United
States II 310; part taken by the
candidate 341; pressure by employ-
ers of labour 342. Electoral regis-
tration canvass in England I 375,
454, 474; share of women politicians

in 510, 555.
Carlyle, against the new society sprung

from Benthamism and industrialism
I 64; his ideal of despotism 65, II

"Carpet-bagger” I 448,590, II 119, 123,
Caucus. Origin of the term I 120,

182, II 3. History of the English
Caucus: introduced at Birmingham
I 161, propagated in other places 171,
183; part played by the Caucus as-
sociations in the anti-Turkish agita-
tion 173, 192; creation of a federation
of Liberal associations 174, inaugu-
ration by Gladstone 178. Struggle
against the old system of organiza-
tion and against the old Liberalism
184; inadequacy of leadership in
the Caucus 193; sectarian and in-

tolerant spirit 194, 244. Pretensions
of the Caucus in regard to the
choice of candidates 18, 203; the
case of Forster at Bradford 195.
Controversy on the subject of the
Caucus 182, 201, II 648. Victory of
the Caucus at the elections of 1880
and its consequences I 204. Pressure
of the Caucus on the government,
on Parliament, and on public opinion
208–217. Retreat of the counter-
currents represented by the other
Liberal organizations 217-225, old
method and new method 221, 223.
The Caucus insists upon the subor.
dination of the M.P.'s 227; re-
newed conflict with Forster 228,
with Joseph Cowen at Newcastle
231. The Caucus eclipses classic
Radicalism 240, moderate Liberal-
ism 242. Crisis brought on by Irish
Home Rule 289; the Caucus deserts
Chamberlain 291; excludes the dis-
sentient Liberals from the party 292,
308; wages war on political indepen-
dence 203; issues strengthened from
the crisis 295; transfers its head-
quarters to London 298; close rela-
tions with the official leaders 300,
diminish its popular character and
the independence of its action 302;
warp the respective rôles of the
parliamentary leaders and of public
opinion 303–307, tend to immobilize
the party 306, enforce a blind con-
formism 307, exasperate party in-
tolerance ib., definitive expulsion
of the dissentients 308; provokes
the hostility of advanced Radicalism
310, 513, of the "labour party” 312,
of the "new Liberalism" 314; tries
to stop division by expedients of
organization 310; offers the diver.
gent fractions the Newcastle pro-
gramme 316; tries to maintain unity
in the party by the agitation against
the House of Lords 319; leads it
finally to disaster 320. - Machinery
of the Caucus and its working 329;
local organization, the associations
321–341, concentration of power,
oligarchical tendencies 337; social
composition 344-347; intellectual
standard and temperament 348-352 ;
effacement of the deliberative char-
acter 351; inner motor: sentimental
devotion to the party 353, assidu-
ously cultivated by the Caucus ib.;
gratifications of amour-propre 35+;
material profit 357; discipline 359;
organization in the counties 362–
370 (see Counties). The action of
the Caucus 371-441: electoral regis-
tration 375-382; intellectual prop-
aganda 382 - 409, meetings 383,
lectures 399, “missionaries" 405,
“political literature” 406; propa-
ganda combined with the pleasures
of sociability 420, 435-441; rôle in
electoral corruption 206, 469-482;
introduction of politics into local
elections at Birmingham 169, 177,
and elsewhere 483, 481-493. Rela-
tions of the associations with the
M.P.'s 493–501. - Central organiza-
tion of the Liberal party 502; its
machinery 502 seq., 512; pecuniary
resources 508, 616; management
of the local associations 505; share
in the choice of candidates 506;
management of the party, annual
meetings of the delegates 509; rôle
of the “official leaders" of the
party 511; action of the central
organization on public opinion
514-521; its real influence 522. Con.
servative central organization 523–
529 (see Conservative organization,
National Union of Conservative
Associations). Auxiliary and rival
organizations 530-579 (see Clubs,
Women, I.L.P.). – General view on
the role of the Caucus 580, from the
standpoint of the democratization
of English political society 580, of
the elevation of the public spirit of
the masses 584, 595, of the methods
employed 588, of the character of
the leadership 590, of the represen-
tation of public opinion 396, of the
working of the party system ib.,
of the working of parliamentary
government 605; resistance of the
living forces of society 612; de-

cline of those forces 618. - In the
United States. Origins II 3; private
caucuses of leaders doing duty for
party Organization 7; public cau-
cuses 9; the legislative Caucus in
the States creates a framework of
regular organization 10, it declines
and disappears 31-37; mixed caucus
35; mixed convention ib.; congres-
sional Caucus 13, introduces the
dogma of regular candidatures 17;
nullifies the constitutional function
of the Electoral College ib.; sources
of its authority ib.; the general
ticket system 19; struggle against
it 22; violent campaign against the
congressional Caucus 28; fiasco of
its meeting in 1824, 30; great debate
in the Senate 31; fall of the Caucus
and verdict on it 33. Local organi-
zation created by Van Buren and
the methods of New York general-
ized in the Union 41-45,49. "To
the victor the spoils" 50. Estab-
lishment of the convention system
39–79, see Conventions of delegates;
the party Organization monopolized
by the politicians, office-holders,
and the office-seekers 67; divorce
of society from politics 70; the
national conventions run by poli-
ticians with a view to the spoils 71,
84; evolution of the system 80; the
chief magistracy passes to men of
an inferior type 90; the power of
the party Organization increased by
the growing horde of professional
politicians 94, by the ductile mass of
immigrants ib., and by the fear in-
spired by the slavery problem 96;
efforts of the Organization to make
away with this problem and prevent
the recasting of parties 98-104, 108–
110; monopoly of political organiza-
tion assumed by the regular parties
and prejudice against single issue
parties 104; final failure of the
Organization 107, 110; its oppor-
tunism leads to the Civil War 110;
the system of party Organization
during the Civil War 112; invades
the South after the war 115 ; takes

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