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perament; and the mind may, in like manner, possess an Class IV.

III. Intel over-weening confidence and courage; be characteristically lectual dull and inactive; or be ever goaded on by restlessness principle. and eager desire ; it may be quick in apprehension and taste, but weak in memory; strong in judgement, but slow in imagination ; or feeble in judgement, but rapid in imagination: its feelings or passions may be sluggish, or all alive; or some passion may be peculiarly energetic, while the rest remain at the temperate point. When the corporeal deviations from the standard of

deviations high health are but slight, they are scarcely entitled to the from per

Promo they ho fect soundname of diseases,—but when severe or extreme, they be

ness of body come subjects of serious attention. It is the same with slight, the different states of the mind with which I have just 5 contrasted them. While several, or even all the mental eases; but faculties are slightly weak or sluggish, or inaccordant with the action of the rest, they are scarcely subjects of me- extreme.

The same dical treatment-for otherwise half the world would be ines daily consigned to a strait waistcoat: but when the same ties of the

mind, slight changes become striking and strongly marked, they are aberrations real DISEASES OF THE INTELLECT; and, in the ensuing scarcely

noticed, order, the genera will be found taken from the peculiar but when faculties of the mind that chance to be thus affected strongly

marked, The mind and the body bear also, in many cases, a re- real disciprocal influence on each other; which is sometimes eases.

The mind general, and sometimes limited to particular faculties or

and body functions. It is hence that fever or cephalitis produces reciprocally

influence delirium ; and vapours or low spirits dyspepsy.

each other. The mind, therefore, like the body, becomes an inte- Hence the

mind an inresting field of study to the pathologist, and opens to his view an additional and melancholy train of diseases. piece of It is these which will constitute the subject of the first tih order of the class we have now entered upon, and which logist. are entitled to a deep and collected attention.

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ERROR, PERVERSION, OR DEBILITY OF ONE OR MORE OF

THE MENTAL FACULTIES.

the ordinal

Class IV. The word PHRENICA is Greek from the Greek noun apav,

Order I. “ the mind” or “ intellect”. The diseases comprised in Phrenica. Affecting the order, are so closely associated with each other that, the intellect. however the ordinal names may differ in different sysOrigin of

tems of nosology, they are, for the most part, grouped term. in some form or other under a correspondent division. Comprises And hence the present order will be found to run nearly diseases

parallel with the Deliria of Sauvages, the Mentales of

Linnéus, the Paranoiæ of Vogel, the Vesaniæ of Culce len, and still more with those of Crichton, and the Aliéunited in almost all nation mentale of Pinel : although the generic divisions plans of

are widely different from all of them, and are attempted

clos

associated :

and I

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nosology.

REVERY.

to be rendered something clearer and more exact. The Class IV.

Order I. order comprehends the six following:

Phrenica.

Diseases
I. ECPHRONIA.
INSANITY.

affecting II. EMPATHEMA.

UNGOVERNABLE PASSION. the intellect. III. ALUSIA.

ILLUSION.
IV. APHELXIA.
V. PARONIRIA.

SLEEP-DISTURBANCE.
VI. MORIA.

FATUITY. Each of these will be found to include various distinct General species of disorder proceeding from a morbid condition of one or more of the mental faculties or feelings, or an irrespondence of them to others; sometimes originating in a diseased state of the body, and sometimes producing such a state, as has already been explained in the preceding proem.

character.

GENUS I.

ECPHRONIA.

Jusanity. Craziness.

DISEASED PERCEPTION, WITH LITTLE DERANGEMENT OF

THE JUDGEMENT, OCCASIONALLY SHIFTING INTO DIS-
EASED JUDGEMENT WITH LITTLE DERANGEMENT OF
THE PERCEPTION; DISTURBING THE MIND GENERALLY;
DIMINISHED SENSIBILITY; IRREGULAR REMISSIONS.

Gen. I.

the generic

term.

Species differently arranged by different writers. Arrangement of Cullen inconsistent with himself,

The generic term ECPHRONIA, in the Greek writers nogóvn or én@posúvn, is derived from župgwv “ extra mentem” -literally “out of one's mind," as fu@pwv, is “mentis compos” or “ in one's mind.” It is here used, as among the Greeks, generically alone, in the ordinary sense of insanity; and is designed to include the two following species: 1. ECPHRONIA MELANCHOLIA. MELANCHOLY. - MANIA.

MADNESS. Each of these species has been regarded by many nosologists as forming a genus of itself, for which there seems to be no just reason. Dr. Cullen has thus arranged them in his synopsis, but has given them a different arrangement, and a very subordinate place in his Practice of Physic, so that in the two works, he is, in this respect, altogether at variance with himself. In both, his order is entitled vesaniæ, which, in the first, includes fatuity, mania, melancholy and sleep-disturbance (oneirodynia), as distinct genera : but, in the last, takes for its genera delirium, fatuity, and oneirodynia. He con

Parr self

templates delirium, moreover, as of two kinds, one com- _Gen. I. bined with fever, and one without; the latter, he tells us

.. Ecphronia. is what we name insanity; and under this latter kind Craziness. alone, the apyrectic delirium or insanity, running synonymously with the present genus ecphronia, he proceeds to treat of melancholy and mania as species or subdivisions of it: throwing back the other kind of delirium to the class of fevers, as unconnected with the subject before him. So that, properly speaking, Dr. Cullen's order of vesaniæ should run parallel with the present order phrenica; the genera of which should be delirium and fatuitas; while mania and melancholy should be the species of delirium or the first genus.

Crichton, Parr, Young, Pinel, and most of the Ger- Arrangeman writers, contemplate these diseases under the same

ment of

various sort of specific subdivision. Parr, indeed, in his article other wriMANIA, asserts that both constitute nothing more than ters.

That of VARIETIES of one common species : yet, with an incon- Par sistency which, amongst much that is excellent, is too inconfrequent to be met with in his Dictionary, he changes his gru opinion in the article nosology, makes vesania the genus, and arranges melancholia, mania, and even oneirodynia, as separate species under it. The distinguishing characters, as the two species are Melancholy

toooo and mania contemplated by the generality of nosologists, are clear. À In melancholy the alienation is restrained to a few objects mically disor trains of ideas alone; in madness it is general. And

ud from each it hence follows that gloom, gaiety, and mischievousness other by

the general may equally exist under both species; according as these propensities are limited to a single purpose, or are uncon- modern pa

thologists. fined and extend to every thing. Occasionally, however,

Melancholy among ancient writers we find melancholy insanity limited differently to insanity accompanied with gloom or despondency, explained by

some ancient without any attention to the universality or partiality of writers; the disease : for an undue secretion of melancholia, which whose exis only a Greek term for black bile or choler, was sup- plar

has entered posed to be a common cause of mental dejection, and, in to popular where it became habitual, to prodace a low or gloomy language : temperament; to which the term melancholic has con

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